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MAHA-BHASHYA A commentary by Patanjali on the Grammar of Panini, in answer to the criticisms of Katyayana. A fine photo-lithographed edition has been produced, under the superintendence of Professor Goldstiicker, at the expense of the Indian Government. The work has received a long notice in Weber's Indische Studien, vol. xiii, and has been the subject of much discussion in the Indian Antiquary. Other editions have appeared in India.

MAHA-BHOJA See Bhoja.

MAHA-DEVA I The great god' A name of Siva. One of the Rudras.

MAHA-DEVl. t The great goddess.' A name of Devi, the wife of Siva. See Devi.

MAHA-KALA 'Great Time.' 1. A name of Siva in his destructive character. (See Siva.) 2. One of the twelve great Lingas. (See Linga.) 3. In the caves of Elephanta this form of Siva is represented with eight arms. In one hand he holds a human figure; in another, a sword or sacrificial axe; in a third, a basin of blood; in a fourth, the sacrificial bell; with two he is drawing behind him the veil which extinguishes' the sun ; and two are broken off. 4. Chief of the Ganas or attendants on Siva.

Maha-kavyas. 'Great poems.' Six are classified under this title:-—(1.) Raghu-vansa; (2) Kumara-sambhava; (3.) Megha-duta; (4.) Kiratarjuniya; (5.) Sisupala-badha; (6.) Naishadha-charitra.

MAHA-MAYA See Maya.

MAHA-NArAKA 'The great drama.' The Hanumannafaka (q.v.).

MAHA-PADMA NANDA The last of the Nanda dynasty. See Chandra-gupta.

MAHA-PRALAYA A total dissolution of the universe at the end of a kalpa, when the seven lokas and their inhabitants, men, saints, gods, and Brahma himself, are annihilated. Called also Jahanaka, Kshiti, and Sanhara.

MAHA-PURAiVAS. 'The great Puranas.' The Vishnu and the Bhagavata, the two great Puranas of the Vaishnavas.

MAHA-PURUSHA 'The great or supreme male;' the supreme spirit . A name of Vishnu.

MAHARAJIKAS. A Gana or class of inferior deities, 236 or 220 in number.

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MAHAR. See Vyahriti.

MAHARASHTRA The land of the Mahrattas .
MAHAR-LOKA See Loka.

MAHARSHIS (Maha-rishis). 'Great i?ishis.' The great i?ishis or Prajapatis. See Mshi .

MAHA-SENA 'The great captain.' A name of Kartikeya, god of war.

MAHAT. The great intellect produced at the creation. See Vishnu Purana, i. 29.

M AH ATM Y A 'Magnanimity.' A legend of a shrine or other holy place.

MAHA-VlRA CHARITA 'The exploits of the great hero (Rama).' A drama by Bhava-bhuti, translated into English by Pickford. There are several editions of the text . "The situations and sentiments of this drama are of a stirring and martial description, and the language is adapted with singular felicity to the subject from which it springs."—Wilson.

MAHA-YOGL 'The great ascetic.' A name of Siva.

MAHA-YUGA A great Yuga or age, consisting of 4,320,000 years. See Yuga.

MAHENDRA A name of Indra. One of the seven mountain ranges of India; the hills which run from Gondwana to Orissa and the Northern Circars. See Kula-parvatas.

MAHESWARA A name of Siva.

MAHESWARA PURAiVA See Purana.

MAHISHA, MAHISHASURA 1. The great Asura or demon killed by Skanda in the Maha-bharata. (See Krauncha.) 2. Also a demon killed by Chandi or Durga.

MAHISHMATI, MAHISHMATl. The capital of Kiirtavirya, king of the Talajanghas, who had a thousand arms. It has been identified by Colonel Tod with the village of Chuli Maheswar, which, according to him, is still called "the village of the thousand-armed."

MAHODAYA A name of the city of Kanauj.

MAHORAGA (Maha + uraga). 'Great serpent.' The serpent iScsha, or any other great serpent.

MAINAKA A mountain stated in the Mahabharata to be north of Kailasa; so called as being the son of Himavat and Menaka. When, as the poets sing, Indra clipped the wings of the mountains, this is said to have been the only one which escaped. MAITREYA—MALINA-MUKHA. 195

This mountain, according to some, stands in Central India, and, according to others, near the extremity of the Peninsula.

MAITREYA A i?ishi, son of Kusarava, and disciple of Parisara. He is one of the interlocutors in the Vishnu and Bhagavata Puranas.

MAITREYL Wife of the Rishi Yajnawalkya, who was indoctrinated by her husband in the mysteries of religion and philosophy.

MAITRI, MAITRAYAiVL An Upanishad of the Black Yajur-veda. It has been edited and translated by Professor Cowell for the Bibliotheca Indica.

MAKANDL A city on the Ganges, the capital of Southern Panchala.

MAKARA A huge sea animal, which has been taken to be the crocodile, the shark, the dolphin, &C., but is probably a fabulous animal . It represents the sign Capricornus in the Hindu zodiac, and is depicted with the head and forelegs of an antelope and the body and tail of a fish. It is the vehicle of Varuna, the god of the ocean, and its figure is borne on the banner of Kama-deva, god of love. It is also called Kan/aka, Asita-danshfra, 'black teeth,' and Jala-rupa, 'water form.'

MAKARAS. The five m's. See Tantra.

MAKHAVAT. A name of Indra.

MALATI-MADHAVA (MalatI and Madhava). A drama by Bhava-bhuti, translated by Wilson. "This drama," says the translator, "offers nothing to offend the most fastidious delicacy, and may be compared in this respect advantageously with many of the dramas of modern Europe which treat of the passion (of love) that constitutes its subject."

MALAVA The country of Malwa.

MALAVIKAGNIMITRA (Malavika and Agnimitra). A drama ascribed to Kali-dasa, and although inferior to his other productions, it is probably his work. The text, with a translation, has been published by Tullberg. There is a German translation by Weber, an English one by Tawney, and a French one by Foucaux. The text has been printed at Bombay and Calcutta.

MALAYA The country of Malabar proper; the mountains bordering Malabar. See Kula-parvatas.

MALINA-MUKHA 'Black faced.' Rakshasas and other demons, represented as having black faces.

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MALINl. 'Surrounded with a garland (mala)' of Champa trees . A name of the city of Champa.

MALLIKARJUNA A name of Siva. One of the twelve great Lingas. See Linga.

MALLINATHA A poet, and author of commentaries of great repute on several of the great poems, as the Raghu-vansa, Megha-diita, Sisupiila-badha, &c.

MANASA 'The intellectual.' A name of the supreme being. Thus defined in the Mahabharata : "The primeval god, without beginning or dissolution, indivisible, undecaying, and immortal, who is known and called by great Rishis Manasa."

MANASA, MANASA-SAROVARA The lake Manasa in the HimFJayas. In the Vayu Purana it is stated that when the ocean fell from heaven upon Mount Meru, it ran four times round the mountain, then it divided into four rivers which ran down the mountain and formed four great lakes, Arunoda on the east, Sitoda on the west, Maha-bhadra on the north, and Manasa on the south . According to the mythological account, the river Ganges flows out of it, but in reality no river issues from this lake, though the river Satlcj flows from another and larger lake called Ravana-hrada, which lies close to the west of Manasa.

MANASA, MANASA-DEVL Sister of the serpent king iSesha, and wife of the sage Jarat-karu. She is also called Jagadgauri, Nitya (eternal), and PadmavatL She had special power in counteracting the venom of serpents, and was hence called Visha-hara.

Manasa-putras. 'Mind (born) sons.' The seven or ten mind-born sons of Brahma. See Prajapati.

MANAS-TALA The lion on which Devi rides.

MANAVA DHARMA-SASTRA The code of Manu. See Manu Sanhita.

MANAVA KALPA-SUTRA Manu's work on Vaidik rites. Part of it has been published in facsimile by Goldstiicker.

MANAVA PURAVA See Purana.

MANAVl. The wife of Manu. Also called ManayL

MANDA-KARAT. A sage who dwelt in the Danrfaka forest, and is said in the Ramayana to have formed a lake which was known by his name. His austerities alarmed the gods, and Indra sent five Apsarases to beguile him from his penance of "standing in a pool and feeding on nothing but air for 10,000 MA Ndakini—mandha TRI.

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years." They succeeded, and became his wives, and inhabited a house concealed in the lake, which, from them, was called Pam chapsaras.

MANDAKINL The heavenly Ganges. The Ganges. An arm of the Ganges which flows through Kedara-natha. A river near the mountain Chitra-ku/a (q.v.) in Bundelkhand. It was near the abode of Rama and Sita, and is mentioned both in the Ramayana and Mahabharata. It would seem to be the modern Pisuni.

MAiVZXAX<A 'h circle, orb' A circuit or territorial division, as Chola-manrfala, i.e., Coromandel . According to one arrangement, the Sanhita of the i?ig-veda is divided into ten Manrfalas.

MAiraALA-NitfTYA A circular dance. The dance of the Gopls round Krishna and Radha.

MANDA-PALA A childless saint, who, according to the Mahabharata, after long perseverance in devotion and asceticism, died and went to the abode of Yama. His desires being still unsatisfied, he inquired the cause, and was told that all his devotions had failed because he had no son, no Indra (put, 'hell,' Dora, 'drawer '), to save him from hell. He then assumed the form of a species of bird called Sarngika, and by a female of that species, who was called Jarita, he had four sons.

MANDARA The great mountain which the gods used for the churning of the ocean. It is supposed to be the mountain so named in Bhagalpur, which is held sacred. See Kurmaavatara, under Avatara.

MANDAVl . Daughter of Kusa-dhwaja, cousin of Sita, and wife of llama's brother Bharata.

MANDEHAS. A class of terrific Rakshasas, who were hostile to the sun and endeavoured to devour him.

MANDHATi?/. A king, son of Yuvanaswa, of the race of Ikshwaku, and author of a hymn in the J?ig-veda. The Harivansa and some of the Puranas make Mandhatri to have been born in a natural way from his mother Gauri, but the Vishnu and Bhagavata Puranas tell an extraordinary story about his birth, which is probably based upon a forced derivation of his name. Yuvanaswa had no son, which grieved him much. Some holy sages near whom he lived instituted a religious rite to procure progeny for him. One night they placed a consecrated vessel of water upon an altar as part of their ceremony,

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