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7. Rama or Rama-chandra. 'Tho moon-like or gentle Rama,' the hero of the Ramayana. He was the son of Da*aratha, king of Ayodhya, of the Solar race, and was born in the Treta-yuga, or second age, for the purpose of destroying the demon Ravana.
8. Krishna. 'The black or dark coloured.' This is the most popular of all the later deities, and has obtained such preeminence, that his votaries look upon him not simply as an incarnation, but as a perfect manifestation of Vishnu. When Krishna is thus exalted to the full godhead, his elder brother, Bala-rama takes his place as the eighth Avatara. See Krishna and Bala-rama.
9. Buddha. The great success of Buddha as a religious teacher seems to have induced the Brahmans to adopt him as their own, rather than to recognise him as an adversary. So Vishnu is said to have appeared as Buddha to encourage demons and wicked men to despise the Vedas, reject caste, and deny the existence of the gods, and thus to effect their own destruction.
10. Kalkl or Kalkin. 'The white horse,' This incarnation of Vishnu is to appear at the end of the Kali or Iron Age, seated on a white horse, with a drawn sword blazing like a comet, for the final destruction of the wicked, the renovation of creation, and the restoration of purity.
The above are the usually recognised Avataras, but the number is sometimes extended, and the Bhagavata Purana, which is the most fervid of all the Puranas in its glorification of Vishnu, enumerates twenty-two incarnations:—(1.) Purusha, the male, the progenitor; (2.) Varaha, the boar; (3.) Narada, the great sage; (4.) Nara and Narayana (q.v.); (5.) Kapila, the great sage; (6.) Dattatreya, a sage; (7.) Yajna, sacrifice; (8.) i?ishabha, a righteous king, father of Bharata; (9.) Prithu, a king; (10.) Matsya, the fish; (n.) Kurma, the tortoise; (12 and 13.) Dhanwantari, the physician of the gods; (14.) Nara-sinha, the man-lion; (15.) Vamana, the dwarf; (16.) Parasu-rama; (17.) Veda-Vyasa; (18.) Rama; (19.) Bala-rama; (20.) Krishna; (21.) Buddha; (22.) KalkL But after this it adds—"The incarnations of Vishnu are innumerable, like the rivulets flowing from an inexhaustible lake . i?ishis, Manus, gods, sons of Manus, Prajapatis, are all portions of him."
AVATARAiVA An abode of the Rakshasas.
AYODHYA The modern Oude. The capital of Ikshwaku,
the founder of the Solar race, and afterwards the capital of Rama. It is one of the seven sacred cities. The exact site has not been discovered.
AYUR-VEDA 'The Veda of life.' A work on medicine, attributed to Dhanwantari, and sometimes regarded as a supplement to the Atharva-veda.
AYUS. The first-born son of Pururavas and UrvasI, and the father of Nahusha, Kshattra-vriddha, Rambha, Raji, and Anenas.
BABHRtJVAHANA Son of Arjuna by his wife Chitrangada. He was adopted as the son of his maternal grandfather, and reigned at Manipura as his successor. He dwelt there in a palace of great splendour, surrounded with wealth and signs of power. When Arjuna went to Manipura with the horse intended for the Aswa-medha, there was a quarrel between Arjuna and King Babhru-vahana, and the latter killed his father with an arrow. Repenting of his deed, he determined to kill himself, but he obtained from his step-mother, the Naga princess Ulupl, a gem which restored Arjuna to life. He returned with his father to Hastinapura. The description of this combat has been translated from the Mahabharata by Troyer in his Bdja Tarangini, tome i. p. 578.
BADARAYAiVA A name of Veda Vyasa, especially used for him as the reputed author of the Vedanta philosophy. He was the author of the Brahma Sutras, published in the Bibliotheca Indica.
BADARI, BADARIKASRAMA A place sacred to Vishnu, near the Ganges in the Himalayas, particularly in Vishnu's dual form of Nara-Narayana. Thus, in the Maha-bharata, Siva, addressing Arjuna, says, "Thou wast Nara in a former body, and, with Narayana for thy companion, didst perform dreadful austerity at Badari for many myriads of years." It is now known as Badari-natha, though this is properly a title of Vishnu as lord of Badari.
BA.DAVA 'A mare, the submarine fire.' In mythology it is a flame with the head of a horse, called also Haya-siras, 'horse-head.' See Aurva.
BAHlKAS. People of the Panjab, so called in Panini and the Maha-bharata. They are spoken of as being impure and out of the law.
BAHU, BAHUKA A king of the Solar race, who was van
quished and driven out of his country by the tribes of Haihayas and Talajanghas. He was father of Sagara.
BAHUKA The name of Nala when he was transformed into a dwarf.
BAHULAS. The Krittikas or Pleiades.
BAHVi?/CHA A priest or theologian of the i2ig-veda.
BALA-BHADRA See Bala-rama.
BALA-GOPALA The boy Krishna.
BALA-RAMA (Bala-bhadra and Bala-deva are other forms of this name.) The elder brother of Knshna, When Krishna is regarded as a full manifestation of Vishnu, Bala-rama is recognised as the seventh Avatara or incarnation in his place. According to this view, which is the favourite one of the Vaishnavas, Krishna is a full divinity and Bala-rama an incarnation ; but the story of their birth, as told in the Mahabharata, places them more upon an equality. It says that Vishnu took two hairs, a white and a black one, and that these became BalaRama and Krishna, the children of DevakL Bala-rama was of fair complexion, Krishna was very dark. As soon as Bala-rama was born, he was carried away to Gokula to preserve his life from the tyrant Kansa, and he was there nurtured by Nanda as a child of Rohim. He and Krishna grew up together, and he took part in many of Krishna's boyish freaks and adventures. His earliest exploit was the killing of the great Asura Dhenuka, who had the form of an ass. This demon attacked him, but Bala-rama seized his assailant, whirled him round by his legs till he was dead, and cast his carcase into a tree. Another Asura attempted to carry off Bala-rama on his shoulders, but the boy beat out the demon's brains with his fists. When Krishna went to Mathuri, Bala-rama accompanied him, and manfully supported him till Kansa was killed. Once, when Bala-rama was intoxicated, he called upon the Yamuna river to come to him, that he might bathe; but his command not being heeded, he plunged his ploughshare into the river, and dragged the waters whithersoever he went, until they were obliged to assume a human form and beseech his forgiveness. This action gained for him the title Yamunii-bhid and Kalindi-karsha?ia, breaker or dragger of the Yamuna. He killed Rukmin in a gambling brawl. When Samba, son of Krishna, was detained as a prisoner at Hastinapur by Dur-yodhana, Bala-rama demanded his release, and, being
refused, he thrust his ploughshare under the ramparts of the city, and drew them towards him, thus compelling the Kama- was to give up their prisoner. Lastly, he killed the great ape Dwivida, who had stolen his weapons and derided him.
Such are some of the chief incidents of the life of Bala-rama, as related in the Puranas, and as popular among the votaries of Krishna. In the Maha-bharata he has more of a human character. He taught both Dur-yodhana and Bhima the use of the mace. Though inclining to the side of the Panrfavas, he refused to take an active part either with them or the Kauravas. He witnessed the combat between Dur-yodhana and Bhima, and beheld the foul blow struck by the latter, which made him so indignant that he seized his weapons, and was with difficulty restrained by Krishna from falling upon the PaWavas. He died just before Krishna, as he sat under a banyan tree in the outskirts of Dwaraka.
Another view is held as to the origin of Bala-rama. According to this he was an incarnation of the great serpent iSesha, and when he died the serpent is said to have issued from his mouth.
The "wine-loving" Bala-rama (Madhu-priya or Priya-madhu) was as much addicted to wine as his brother Krishna was devoted to the fair sex. He was also irascible in temper, and sometimes quarrelled even with Krishna: the Puranas represent them as having a serious difference about the Syamantaka jewel . He had but one wife, Revati, daughter of King Raivata, and was faithful to her. By her he had two sons, Nisa/ha and Ulmuka. He is represented as of fair complexion, and, as Nilavastra,'clad in a dark-blue vest.' His especial weapons are a club (khflaka or saunanda), the ploughshare (hala), and the pestle (musala), from which he is called Phala and Hala, also Haliiyudha, 'plough-armed ;' Hala-bhrit, 'plough-bearer;' Langali and Sankarshana, 'ploughman;' and MusalI, 'pestle-holder.' As he has a palm for a banner, he is called Tala-dhwaja. Other of his appellations are Oupta-chara, 'who goes secretly;' Kampala and Samvartaka.
BALA-RAMAYAiVA A drama by Raja-iekhara. It has been printed.
BALEYA A descendant of Bali, a Daitya. BALHL A northern country, Balkh. Said in the Mahabharata to be famous for its horses, as Balkh is to the present time.
BALHIKAS, BAHLlKAS. "Always associated with the people of the north, west, and ultra-Indian provinces, and usually considered to represent the Bactrians or people of Balkh."—Wilson.
BALL A good and virtuous Daitya king. He was son of Virochana, son of Prahlada, son of Hiranya-kasipu. His wife was VindhyavalL Through his devotion and penance he defeated Indra, humbled the gods, and extended his authority over the three worlds. The gods appealed to Vishnu for protection, and he became manifest in his Dwarf Avatara for the purpose of restraining Bali. This dwarf craved from Bali the boon of three steps of ground, and, having obtained it, he stepped over heaven and earth in two strides; but then, out of respect to Bali's kindness and his grandson Prahlada's virtues, he stopped short, and left to him Patala, the infernal regions. Bali is also called Maha-bali, and his capital was Maha-bali-pura. The germ of the legend of the three steps is found in the i?ig-veda, where Vishnu is represented as taking three steps over earth, heaven, and the lower regions, typifying perhaps the rising, culmination, and setting of the sun.
BALI, BALIN. The monkey king of Kishkindhya, who was slain by Rama, and whose kingdom was given to his brother Su-griva, the friend and ally of Rama. He was supposed to be the son of Indra, and to have been born from the hair (bala) of his mother, whence his name. His wife's name was Tara, and his sons, Angada and Tara.
BAiVA. A Daitya, eldest son of Bali, who had a thousand arms. He was a friend of Siva and enemy of Vishnu. His daughter Usha fell in love with Aniruddha, the grandson of Krishna, and had him conveyed to her by magic art. Krishna, Bala-rama, and Pradyumna went to the rescue, and were resisted by Bana, who was assisted by Siva and Skanda, god of war. Siva was overpowered by Krishna; Skanda was wounded; and the many arms of Bana were cut off by the missile weapons of Krishna. Siva then interceded for the life of Bana, and Krishna granted it. He is called also Vairochi.
BANGA Bengal, but not in the modern application. In ancient times Banga meant the districts north of the Bhaglrathi —Jessore, Krishnagar, &c . See Anu.
BARBARAS. Name of a people . "The analogy to 'barbarians' is not in sound only, but in all the authorities these are