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severely afflicted and driven to practise austerities. Others desiring heavenly bliss offered sacrifices. Thus men declined through unrighteousness.

In the Kali Yuga righteousness remained to the extent of one-fourth only. Practices enjoined by the Vedas, works of righteousness, and rites of sacrifice ceased. Calamities, diseases, fatigue, faults, such as anger, &C., distresses, hunger, and fear prevailed. As the ages revolve righteousness declines, and the people also decline. When they decay their motives grow weak, and the general decline frustrates their aims.—Muir, i. 144.

In the Krita Yuga the duration of life was four thousand years, in the Treta three thousand, in the Dwapara two thousand In the Kali Yuga there is no fixed measure. Other passages of the Maha-bharata indicate "that the Krtta Yuga was regarded as an age in which Brahmans alone existed, and that Kshatriyas only began to be born in the Treta."

YtTGAN-DHARA A city in the Panjab. A people dwelling there and in the vicinity.

YUVANASWA A king of the Solar race, father of Mandhatr*. A legend represents this son as being conceived by and born of his father.

YUVA-RAJA 'Young king.' The heir-apparent to a throne.

YUYUDHANA A name of Siityaki.

YUYUTSU. A son of Dhnta-rashfra by a Vai.?ya handmaid. On the eve of the great battle he left the side of the Kauravas and joined the Panrfavas. When Yudhi-sh/hira retired from the world he established Yuyutsu in the kingdom of Indraprastha.

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