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classed with borderers and foreigners and nations not Hindu." —Wilson.
BARHISHADS. A class of Pitris, who, when alive, kept up the household flame, and presented offerings with fire. Some authorities identify them with the months. Their dwelling is Vaibhraja-loka. See Pitris.
BAUDHAYANA A writer on Dharma-sastra or law. He was also the author of a Sutra work.
BHADRA Wife of Utathya (q.v.).
BHADRACHARU. A son of Krishna and RukminL
BHADRA-KALL Name of a goddess. In modern times it applies to Durga.
BHADRAiSWA 1. A region lying to the east of Meru. 2. A celebrated horse, son of UchchaiA-sravas.
BHAGA A deity mentioned in the Vedas, but of very indistinct personality and powers. He is supposed to bestow wealth and to preside over marriage, and he is classed among the Adityas and Viswedevas .
BHAGA-NETRA-GHNA (or -HAN). 'Destroyer of the eyes of Bhaga.' An appellation of Siva.
BHAGAVAD-GITA 'The song of the Divine One.' A celebrated episode of the Mahabharata, in the form of a metrical dialogue, in which the divine Krishna is the chief speaker, and expounds to Arjuna his philosophical doctrines. The author of the work is unknown, but he " was probably a Brahman, and nominally a Vaishnava, but really a philosopher and thinker, whose mind was cast in a broad mould." This poem has been interpolated in the Maha-bharata, for it is of much later date than the body of that epic; it is later also than the six Darsanas or philosophical schools, for it has received inspiration from them all, especially from the Sankhya, Yoga, and Vedanta. The second or third century A.D. has been proposed as the probable time of its appearance. Krishna, as a god, is a manifestation of Vishnu; but in this song, and in other places, he is held to be the supreme being. As man, he was related to both the Panrfavas and the Kauravas, and in the great war between these two families he refused to take up arms on either side. But he consented to act as the Panrfava Arjuna's charioteer. When the opposing hosts were drawn up in array against each other, Arjuna, touched with compunction for the approaching slaughter
of kindred and friends, appeals to Krishna for guidance. This gives the occasion for the philosophical teaching. "The poem is divided into three sections, each containing six chapters, the philosophical teaching in each being somewhat distinct," but "undoubtedly the main design of the poem, the sentiments expressed in which have exerted a powerful influence throughout India for the last 1600 years, is to inculcate the doctrine of Bhakti (faith), and to exalt the duties of caste above all other obligations, including those of friendship and kindred." So Arjuna is told to do his duty as a soldier without heeding the slaughter of friends. "In the second division of the poem the Pantheistic doctrines of the Vedanta are more directly inculcated than in the other sections. Krishna here, in the plainest language, claims adoration as one with the great universal spirit pervading and constituting the universe." The language of this poem is exceedingly beautiful, and its tone and sentiment of a very lofty character, so that they have a striking effect even in the prose translation. It was one of the earliest Sanskrit works translated into English by Wilkins; but a much more perfect translation, with an excellent introduction, has since been published by Mr. J. Cockburn Thompson, from which much of the above has been borrowed There are several other translations in French, German, &c.
BHAGAVATA PURANA The Purina "in which ample details of duty are described, and which opens with (an extract from) the Gayatri; that in which the death of the Asura Vritra is told, and in which the mortals and immortals of the Saraswata Kalpa, with the events that then happened to them in the world,. are related, that is celebrated as the Bhagavata, and consists of 18,000 verses." Such is the Hindu description of this work, "The Bhagavata," says Wilson, "is a work of great celebrity in India, and exercises a more direct and powerful influence upon the opinions and feelings of the people than perhaps any other of the Puranas. It is placed fifth in all the lists, but the Padma ranks it as the eighteenth, as the extracted substance of all the rest. According to the usual specification, it consists of 18,000 slokas, distributed amongst 332 chapters, divided into twelve skandhas or books. It is named Bhagavata from its being dedicated to the glorification of Bhagavata or Vishnu." The most popular and characteristic part of this
Purana is the tenth book, which narrates in detail the history of Krishna, and has been translated into perhaps all the vernacular languages of India. Colebrooke concurs in the opinion of many learned Hindus that this Purana is the composition of the grammarian Vopadeva, who lived about six or seven centuries ago at the court of Hemadri, Raja of Deva-giri (Deogurh or Daulatabad), and Wilson sees no reason for calling in question the tradition which assigns the work to this writer. This Purana has been translated into French by Burnouf, and has been published with the text in three volumes folio, and in other forms.
BHAGIRATHl. The Ganges. The name is derived from Bhaglratha, a descendant of Sagara, whose austerities induced Siva to allow the sacred river to descend to the earth for the purpose of bathing the ashes of Sagara's sons, who had been consumed by the wrath of the sage Kapila. Bhaglratha named the river Sagara, and after leading it over the earth to the sea, he conducted it to Patala, where the ashes of his ancestors were laved with its waters and purified.
BHAIRAVA (mas.), BHAIRAVl (fem.). 'The terrible.' Names of Siva and his wife DevL The Bhairavas are eight inferior forms or manifestations of Siva, all of them of a terrible character:—(1.) Asitanga, black limbed; (2.) Sanhara, destruction; (3.) Ruru, a dog; (4.) Kala, black; (5.) Krodha, anger; (6.) Tamra-churfa, red crested; (7.) Chandra-churfa, moon crested; (8.) Mahii, great. Other names are met with as variants: Kapiila, Rudra, Bhishana, Un-matta, Ku-pati, &c. In these forms Siva often rides upon a dog, wherefore he is called Swaswa, 'whose horse is a dog.'
BHAMATl. A gloss on Sankara's commentary upon the Brahma Sutras by Vachaspati Misra. It is in course of publication in the Bibliotheca Indka.
BHANUMATI. Daughter of Bhanu, a Yadava chief, who was abducted from her home in Dwaraka, during the absence of her father, by the demon Nikumbha.
BHARADWAJA A Bishi to whom many Vedic hymns are attributed. He was the son of Bnliaspati and father of Drona, the preceptor of the Panrfavas. The Taittirlya Brahmana says that "he lived through three lives" (probably meaning a life of great length), and that "he became immortal and ascended to
tho heavenly world, to union with the sun." In the Mahabharata he is represented as living at Hardwar; in the Ramayana he received Rama and Sita in his hermitage at Prayaga, which was then and afterwards much celebrated. According to some of the Puranas and the Hari-vansa, he became by gift or adoption the son of King Bharata, and an absurd story is told about his birth to account for his name: His mother, the wife of Utathya, was pregnant by her husband and by Brihaspati. Dlrgha-tamas, the son by her husband, kicked his half-brother out of the womb before his time, when Brihaspati said to his mother, 'Bhara-dwa-jam,' 'Cherish this child of two fathers.'
BHARADWAJA 1. Drona. 2. Any descendant of Bharadwaja or follower of his teaching. 3. Name of a grammarian and author of Sutras.
BHARATA I. A hero and king from whom the warlike people called Bharatas, frequently mentioned in the i?ig-veda, were descended. The name is mixed up with that of Viswamitra. Bharata's sons were called Viswamitras and Viswamitra's sons were called Bharatas.
2. An ancient king of the first Manwantara. He was devoted to Vishnu, and abdicated his throne that he might continue constant in meditation upon him. While at his hermitage, he went to bathe in the river, and there saw a doe big with young frightened by a lion. Her fawn, which was brought forth suddenly, fell into the water, and the sage rescued it . He brought the animal up, and becoming excessively fond of it, his abstraction was interrupted. "In the course of time he died, watched by the deer with tears in its eyes, like a son mourning for his father; and he himself, as he expired, cast his eyes upon the deer and thought of nothing else, being wholly occupied with one idea." For this misapplied devotion he was born again as a deer with the faculty of recollecting his former life. In this form he lived an austere retired life, and having atoned for his former error, was born again as a Brahman. But his person was ungainly, and he looked like a crazy idiot . He discharged servile offices, and was a palankin bearer; but he had true wisdom, and discoursed deeply upon philosophy and the power of Vishnu. Finally he obtained exemption from future birth. This legend is "a sectarial graft upon a Pauranik stem."
3. Son of Dasaratha by his wife Kaikeyi, and half-brother of Rama-chandra. He was educated by his mother's father, Aswa-pati, king of Kekaya, and married Man«Zavi, the cousin of Siti His mother, through maternal fondness, brought about the exile of Rama, and endeavoured to secure her own son's succession to the throne, but Bharata refused to supplant his elder brother. On the death of his father Bharata performed the funeral rites, and went after Rama with a complete army to bring him back to Ayodhya and place him on the throne. He found Rama at Chitra-ku7a, and there was a generous contention between them as to which should reign. Rama refused to return until the period of his exile was completed, and Bharata declined to be king; but he returned to Ayodhya as Rama's representative, and setting up a pair of Rama's shoes as a mark of his authority, Bharata ruled the country in his brother's name. "He destroyed thirty millions of terrible gandharvas " and made himself master of their country.
4. A prince of the Puru branch of the Lunar race. Bharata was son of Dushyanta and Sakuntala. Ninth in descent from him came Kuru, and fourteenth from Kuru came Santanu. This king had a son named Vichitra-vlrya, who died childless, leaving two widows Krishna Dwaipayana was natural brother to Vichitra-virya. Under the law he raised up seed to his brother from the widows, whose sons were Dhrita-rashfra and Panrfu, between whose descendants, the Kauravas and PaWavas, the great war of the Mahabharata was fought. Through their descent from Bharata, these princes, but more especially the Panrfavas, were called Bharatas.
5. A sage who is the reputed inventor of dramatic entertainments.
6. A name borne by several others of less note than the above.
BHARATA A descendant of Bharata, especially one of the Pindu princes.
BHARATA-VARSHA India, as having been the kingdom of Bharata. It is divided into nine Khanrfas or parts: Indradwipa, Kaserumat, Tamra-varna, Gabhastimat, Naga-dwipa, Saumya, Gandharva, Varuna.
BHARATL A name of SaraswatL
BHARGAVA A descendant of Bhrigu, as Chyavana, Sau