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naka, Jamad-agni, but more especially used for the latter and Parasu-rama.

BlIARTi?/-HARL A celebrated poet and grammarian, who is said to have been the brother of Vikramaditya. He wrote threeiSatakas or Centuries of verses, called—(1.) iSYmgara-sataka, on amatory matters; (2.) Niti-sataka, on polity and ethics; (3.) Vairagya-sataka, on religious austerity. These maxims are said to have been written when he had taken to a religious life after a licentious youth. He was also author of a grammatical work of high repute called Vakya-padiya, and the poem called BhaWikavya is by some attributed to him. The moral verses were translated into French so long ago as 1670. A note at the end of that translation says, "Trad, par le Brahmine Padmanaba en flamand et du flamand en francais par Th . La Grue-" The text with a Latin translation was printed by Schiefner and Weber. There is a translation in German by Bohlen and Schlitz, in French by Fauche, and of the erotic verses by Regnaud; in English by Professor Tawney in the Indian Antiquary.

BHASHA-PARICHCHHEDA An exposition of the Nyaya philosophy. There are several editions.

BHASKARACHARYA (Bhaskara + Achiirya.) A celebrated mathematician and astronomer, who was born early in the eleventh century A.d. He was author of the Bija-ganita on arithmetic, the LllavatI on algebra, and the Siddhanta iSiromani on astronomy. It has been claimed for Bhaskara that he "was fully acquainted with the principle of the Differential Calculus." This claim Dr. Spottiswoode considers to be overstated, but he observes of Bhaskara: "It must be admitted that the penetration shown by Bhaskara in his analysis is in the highest degree remarkable; that the formula which he establishes, and his method of establishing it, bear more than a mere resemblance— they bear a strong analogy—to the corresponding process in modern astronomy; and that the majority of scientific persons will learn with surprise the existence of such a method in the writings of so distant a period and so distant a region."—Jour. R. A. S., 1859.

BHA7TACHARYA See Kumarila Bhatfa.

BHA7TI-KAVYA A poem on the actions of Rama by Bhafti. It is of a very artificial character, and is designed to illustrate the laws of grammar and the figures of poetry and

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rhetoric. The text has been printed with a commentary, and part has been translated into German by Schutz.

BHAUMA Son of Bhumi (the earth). A metronymic of the Daitya Naraka.

BHAUTYA The fourteenth Manu. See Manu.

BHAVA 1. A Vedic deity often mentioned in connection with Sarva the destroyer. 2. A name of Rudra or Siva, or of a manifestation of that god. See Rudra.

BHAVA-BHUTL A celebrated dramatist, the author of three of the best extant Sanskrit dramas, the Mahavira Charita, Uttara Rama Charita, and MalatI Madhava. He was also known as iSrl-kan/ha, or 'throat of eloquence.' He was a Brahman, and was a native either of Beder or Berar, but UjjayinI or its neighbourhood would seem, from his vivid descriptions of the scenery, to have been the place of his residence. The eighth century is the period at which he flourished. His three plays have been translated by Wilson in blank verse, who says of Malatl Madhava, "The author is fond of an unreasonable display of learning, and occasionally substitutes the phraseology of logic or metaphysics for the language of poetry and nature. At the same time the beauties predominate over the defects, and the language of the drama is in general of extraordinary beauty and power."

BHAVISHYA PURAiVA. "This Purana, as its name implies, should be a book of prophecies foretelling what will be." The copies discovered contain about 7000 stanzas. The work is far from agreeing with the declared character of a Purana, and is principally a manual of rites and ceremonies. Its deity is Siva. There is another work, containing also about 7000 verses, called the Bhavishyottara Purana, a name which would imply that "it was a continuation or supplement of the former," and its contents are of a similar character.—Wilson.


BHAWANL One of the names of the wife of Siva. See DevL

BHELA An ancient sage who wrote upon medicine.

BHIKSHU. A mendicant . The Brahman in the fourth and last stage of his religious life. See Brahman.

Any mendicant, especially, in its Pali form, Bhikkhu, a Buddhist mendicant



BHlMA, BHlMA-SENA 'Tho terrible' The second of the five PUndu princes, and mythically son of Vayu, 'the god of the wind.' He was a man of vast size, and had great strength. He was wrathful in temper, and given to abuse, a brave warrior, but a fierce and cruel foe, coarse in taste and manners, and a great feeder, so that he was called Vrikodara, 'wolf's belly.' Half of the food of the family was allotted to him, and the other half sufficed for his four brothers and their mother. The weapon he generally used was a club, which suited his gigantic strength, and he had been trained in the use of it by Drona and Balarama. His great strength excited the envy of his cousin Thus yodhana, who poisoned him and threw his body into the Ganges; but it sank to the realm of the serpents, where it was restored to health and vigour, and Bhima returned to Hastinapura. At the passage of arms at Hastinapura, he and Duryodhana engaged each other with clubs; but the mimic combat soon turned into a fierce personal conflict, which Drona had to put an end to by force. It was at this same meeting that he reviled Karna, and heaped contempt upon him, increasing and converting into bitter hatred the. enmity which Karna had previously entertained against the Panrfavas. When he and his brothers were in exile, and an attempt was made, at the instigation of Dur-yodhana, to burn them in their house, it was he who barricaded the house of Purochana, the director of the plot, and burnt him as he had intended to burn them. Soon after this he met the Asura HMmba, whom he killed, and then married his sister Hirfimba. He also slew another Asura named Vaka, whom he seized by the legs and tore asunder; afterwards he killed his brother, Kirmira, and other Asuras. This brought the Asuras to submission, and they engaged to refrain from molesting mankind. After the Vandn princes were established at Indraprastha, Bhima fought in single combat with Jarasandha, king of Magadha, who had refused to recognise their supremacy. As 'son of the wind,' Bhima was brother of Hanuman, and was able to fly with great speed. By this power of flight, and with the help of Hanuman, he made his way to Kuvera's heaven, high up in the Himalayas. When Jayadratha failed in his attempt to carry off DraupadI, he was pursued by Arjuna and Bhima. The latter overtook him, dragged him by the hair from his chariot to the ground, and kicked him till he became senseBHIMA.

less. At Arjuna's remonstrance Bhiraa refrained from killing him; but he cut off all his hair except five locks, and compelled him to acknowledge publicly that he was the slave of the Panrfavas. Bhima refused to listen to his brother's plea for Jayadratha's release, but at Draupadi's intercession he let him go free. In the second exile of the PaWavas, they went to the Raja of Vira/a, whose service they entered Bhima, holding a ladle in one hand and a sword in the other, undertook the duties of cook; but he soon exhibited his prowess by fighting with and killing a famous wrestler named Jimuta. Draupadi had entered into the service of the queen as a waiting-maid, and attracted the admiration of the king's brother-in-law, Kichaka. When she rejected his advances, he insulted and brutally assaulted her. Her husbands did not seem disposed to avenge her, so she appealed to Bhima, as she was wont when she sought revenge. Draupadi made an assignation with Kichaka, which Bhima kept, and after a sharp struggle with the disappointed gallant, he broke his bones to atoms, and made his body into a large ball of flesh, so that no one could tell how he had been killed or who had killed him. Draupadi was judged to have had a share in his death, and was condemned to be burnt alive; but Bhima drew his hair over his face, so that no one could recognise him, and, tearing up a large tree for a club, he rushed to the rescue. He was taken for a mighty Gandharva, the crowd fled, and Draupadi was released Kichaka had been the general of the forces of Vira/a and the mainstay of the king. After his death, Superman, king of Trigartta, aided and abetted by the Kauravas and others, determined to attack Vira/a. The Raja of Virafa was defeated and made prisoner, but Bhima pursued Superman and overcame him, rescued the prisoner, and made the conqueror captive. In the great battle between the Kauravas and Panda, vas, Bhima took a very prominent part . On the first day he fought against Bhishma; on the second he slew the two sons of the Raja of Magadha, and after them their father, killing him and his elephant at a single blow. In the night between the fourteenth and fifteenth day of the battle, Bhima fought with Drona until the rising of the sun; but that redoubted warrior fell by the hand of Dhnshfa-dyumna, who continued the combat till noonday. On the seventeenth day he killed Duh-sasana, and drank his blood, as he had long before vowed to do, in

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retaliation of the insults Duh-sasana had offered to Draupadi. On the eighteenth and last day of the battle Dur-yodhana fled and hid himself in a lake. When he was discovered, he would not come out until he had received a promise that he should not have to fight with more than one man at a time. Even then ho delayed until he was irritated by the abuse and the taunts of the Panrfavas. Bhima and Dur-yodhana fought as usual with clubs. The battle was long and furious; the parties were equally matched, and Bhima was getting the worst of it, when he struck an unfair blow which smashed Dur-yodhana's thigh, and brought him to the ground. Thus he fulfilled his vow and avenged Draupadi. In his fury Bhima kicked his prostrate foe on the head, and acted so brutally that his brother Yudhish/hira struck him in the face with his fist, and directed Arjuna to take him away. Bala-rama was greatly incensed at the foul play to which Bhima had resorted, and would have attacked the Panrfavas had ho not been mollified by Krishna. He declared that Bhima should thenceforward be called Jihma-yodhin, 'the unfair fighter.' After the conclusion of the war, the old king, Dhrita-rashfra, asked that Bhima might be brought to him. Krishna, who knew the blind old man's sorrow for his son, whom Bhima had killed, and suspecting his intention, placed before him an iron statue, which Dhrita-rashfra crushed in his embrace. Dhnta-rashfra never forgave Bhima, and he returned the ill feeling with insults, which ended in the old king's retiring into the forest. Bhima's last public feat was the slaughter of the horse in the sacrifice which followed Yudhi-sh/hira's accession to the throne. Apart from his mythological attributes, the character of Bhima is natural and distinct . A man of burly form, prodigious strength, and great animal courage, with coarse tastes, a gluttonous appetite, and an irascible temper; jovial and jocular when in good humour, but abusive, truculent, and brutal when his passions were roused. His repartees were forcible though coarse, and he held his own even against Krishna when the latter made personal remarks upon him. See Maha-bharata.

By his Asura wife Hii/imba he had a son named Ghafotkacha; and by his wife Balandhara, princess of Kasi, he also had a son named Sarvatraga or Sarvaga. Other appellations of Bhima are Bhima-sena, Bahu-salin, 'the large armed,' Jarasandha-jit, 'vanquisher of Jarisandha.'

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