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of the doctrines expounded in the Bhagavad-gita."—Cockburn Thomson.

Colebrooke's Essays are the great authorities on Hindu philosophy. Ballantyne has translated many of the original aphorisms, and he, Cockburn Thomson, Hall, Banerjea, and others have written on the subject.

DARUKA Krishna's charioteer, and his attendant in his last days.

DA.SA-KUMARA-CHARITA 'Tales of the ten princes,' by Sri D&ndL It is one of the few Sanskrit works written in prose, but its style is so studied and elaborate that it is classed as a Kavya or poem. The tales are stories of common life, and display a low condition of morals and a corrupt state of society. The text has been printed with a long analytical introduction by H. H Wilson, and again in Bombay by Buhler. There is an abridged translation by Jacobs, also a translation in French by Fauche, and a longer analysis in vol . iv. of Wilson's works.

DA<SANANA 'Ten faced.' A name of Ravana.

DA.SA-RATHA A prince of the Solar race, son of Aja, a descendant of Ikshwiiku, and king of Ayodhya. He had three wives, but being childless, he performed the sacrifice of a horse, and, according to the Ramayana, the chief queen, Kausalya, remained in close contact with the slaughtered horse for a night, and the other two queens beside her. Four sons were then born to him from his three wives. Kausalyii bore Rama, Kaikeyl gave birth to Bharata, and Su-mitra bore Lakshmana and iSatru-ghna. Rama partook of half the nature of Vishnu, Bharata of a quarter, and the other two shared the remaining fourth. The Ramayana, in explanation of this manifestation of Vishnu, says that he had promised the gods to become incarnate as man for the destruction of Ravana. He chose Dasa-ratha for his human parent; and when that king was performing a second sacrifice to obtain progeny, he came to him out of the fire as a glorious being, and gave him a vessel full of nectar to administer to his wives. Dasa-ratha gave half of it to Kausalya, and a fourth each to Sumatra and KaikeyL They all in consequence became pregnant, and their offspring partook of the divine nature according to the portion of the nectar each had drunk. There were several others of the name. See Rama-chandra.

DASARHA, DASARHA Prince of the Dasarhas, a title of Krishna. The Dasarhas were a tribe of Yadavas.

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DASA-RDTAKA An early treatise on dramatic composition. It has been published by Hall in the Bibliotheca Indica.

DASAS. 'Slaves.' Tribes and people of India who opposed the progress of the intrusive Aryans.

DASRAS. 'Beautiful.' The elder of the two Aswins, or in the dual (Dasrau), the two Aswins.

DASYUS. In the Vedas they are evil beings, enemies of the gods and men. They are represented as being of a dark colour, and probably were the natives of India who contended with the immigrant Aryans. It has, however, been maintained that they were hermits and ascetics of Aryan race. In later times they are barbarians, robbers, outcasts, who, according to some authorities, descended from Viswamitra.

DATTAKA-CHANDRIKA A treatise on the law of adoption by Devana Bhafta. Translated by Sutherland.

DATTAKA-MlMANSA A treatise on the law of adoption by Nanda Panrfita. Translated by Sutherland.

DATTAKA-SIROMAAT. A digest of the principal treatises on the law of adoption. Printed at Calcutta.

DATTATREYA Son of Atri and Anasuya. A Brahman saint in whom a portion of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, or more particularly Vishnu, was incarnate. He had three sons, Soma, Datta, and Dur-vasas, to whom also a portion of the divine essence was transmitted. He was the patron of Karta-virya, and gave him a thousand arms.

DAYA-BHAGA 'Law of inheritance.' This title belongs especially to the treatise of Jimuta Vahana, current in Bengal. Translated by Colebrooke.

DAYA-KRAMA-SANGRAHA A treatise on the law of inheritance as current in Bengal, by Sri Krishna Tarkalankara. Translated by Wynch.

DAYA-TATWA A treatise on the law of inheritance as current in Bengal, by Raghunandana Bha/ficharya.

DEVA (Nom. Devas = Deus, from the root Div, to shine.) God. A deity. The gods are spoken of as thirty-three in number, eleven for each of the three worlds.

DEVAKA Father of DevakI and brother of Ugrasena.

DEVAKl . Wife of Vasu-deva, mother of Krishna and cousin of Kansa. She is sometimes called an incarnation of

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Aditi, and is said to have been born again as Pmm, the wife of King Su-tapas.

DEVALA A Vedic i?ishi, to whom some hymns are attributed. There are several men of this name; one was author of a code of law, another was an astronomer, and one the grandfather of Panini.

DEVALA Music, personified as a female.

DEVA-LOKA The world of the gods, i.e., Swarga, Indra's heaven.

DEVA-MATitf. < Mother of the gods.' An appellation of Aditi (q.v.).

DEVA-BATA 1. A royal i?ishi of the Solar race, who dwelt among the Videhas, and had charge of Siva's bow, which descended to Janaka and was broken by Rama. 2. A name given to iSunaA-sephas.

DEVABSHIS. (Deva-nshis.) i?ishis or saints of the celestial class, who dwell in the regions of the gods, such as Niirada. Sages who have attained perfection upon earth and have been exalted as demigods to heaven.

DEVATA A divine being or god. The name Devatas includes the gods in general, or, as most frequently used, the whole body of inferior gods.

DEVATADHYAYA-BRAHMA.VA The fifth Brahma^a of the Sama-veda. The text has been edited by Burnell.

DEVAYANI Daughter of iSukra, priest of the Daityas. She fell in love with her father's pupil Kacha, son of Brihaspati, but he rejected her advances. She cursed him, and in return he cursed her, that she, a Brahman's daughter, should marry a Kshatriya. DevayanI was companion to Sarmish/ha, daughter of the king of the Daityas. One day they went to bathe, and the god Vayu changed their clothes. When they were dressed, they began to quarrel about the change, and DevayanI spoke "with a scowl so bitter that Sarmish/ha slapped her face, and pushed her into a dry well." She was rescued by King Yayati, who took her home to her father. <Sukra, at his daughter's vehement persuasion, demanded satisfaction from Sarmish/ha's father, the Daitya king. He conceded Devayani's demand, that upon her marriage Sarmish/ha should be given to her for a servant. DevayanI married King Yayati, a Kshatriya, and Sarniish/ha became her servant . Subsequently Yayati became

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enamoured of Sarmish/ha, and she bore him a son, the discovery of which so enraged Devayanl that she parted from her husband, and went home to her father, having borne two sons, Yadu and Turvasa or Turvasu. Her father, Sukra, cursed Yayati with the infirmity of old age, but afterwards offered to transfer it to any one of Yayati's sons who would submit to receive it. Yadu, the eldest, and progenitor of the Yadavaa, refused, and so did all the other sons, with the exception of Sarmish/ha's youngest son, Puru. Those who refused were cursed by their father, that their posterity should never possess dominion; but Puru, who bore his father's curse for a thousand years, succeeded his father as monarch, and was the ancestor of the Fan<rfavas and Kauravas.

DEVA-YONL 'Of divine birth.' A general name for the inferior gods, the Adityas, Vasus, Viswadevas, and others.

DEVI. 'The goddess,' or Maha-devI, 'the great goddess,' wife of the god Siva, and daughter of Himavat, i.e., the Himalaya mountains. She is mentioned in the Mahabharata under a variety of names, and with several of her peculiar characteristics, but she owes her great distinction to the Puriinas and later works. As the Sakti or female energy of .&va she has two characters, one mild, the other fierce; and it is under the latter that she is especially worshipped. She has a great variety of names, referable to her various forms, attributes, and actions, but these names are not always used accurately and distinctively. In her milder form she is Uma, 'light,' and a type of beauty; Gauri, 'the yellow or brilliant;' Parvati, 'the mountaineer ;' and Haimavati, from her parentage; Jagan-mata, 'the mother of the world;' and Bhavani. In her terrible form she is Durga, 'the inaccessible ;' Kali and Syama, 'the black;' Chanel and Chanrfika, 'the fierce ;' and Bhairavi, 'the terrible.' It is in this character that bloody sacrifices are offered to her, that the barbarities of the Durgii-puja and Charak-puja are perpetrated in her honour, and that the indecent orgies of the Tantrikas are held to propitiate her favours and celebrate her powers. She has ten arms, and in most of her hands there are weapons. As Durga she is a beautiful yellow woman, riding on a tiger in a fierce and menacing attitude. As Kali or Kalika, 'the black,' "she is represented with a black skin, a hideous and terrible countenance, dripping with blood, encircled with snakes, hung round with skulls and human heads, and in all respects resem

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Wing a fury rather than a goddess." As Vindhya-vasini, 'the dweller in the Vindhyas,' she is worshipped at a place of that name where the Vindhyas approach the Ganges, near Mirzapur, and it is said that there the blood before her image is never allowed to get dry. As Maha-maya she is the great illusion.

The Chanrfi-mahatmya, which celebrates the victories of this goddess over the Asuras, speaks of her under the following names:—1. Durga, when she received the messengers of the Asuras. 2. Dasa - bhuja. 'Ten-armed,' when she destroyed part of their army. 3. Sinha-vahinL 'Riding on a lion,' when she fought with the Asura general Rakta-vija. 4. Mahisha-mardini. 'Destroyer of Mahisha,' an Asura in the form of a buffalo. 5. Jagad-dhitn. 'Fosterer of the world,' when she again defeated the Asura army. 6. Kali. 'The black.' She killed Rakta-vija. 7. Mukta-kesi. 'With dishevelled hair.' Again defeats the Asuras. 8. Tara. 'Star.' She killed <Sumbha. 9. Chhinna-mastaka. 'Decapitated,' the headless form in which she killed Nisumbha. 10. Jagadgauri. 'World's fair one,' as lauded by the gods for her triumphs. The names which Devi obtains from her husband are:—Babhravi (Babhru), BhagavatI, Isiini, Iswari, Kiilanjari, KapalinI, Kausiki, Kirati, Maheswari, Mrirfa, MnV/ani, RudranI, <Sarvani, Siva, Tryambaki. From her origin she is called Adria and Giri-ja, 'mountain-born ;' Ku-ja, 'earth-born ;' Daksha-ja, 'sprung from Daksha.' She is Kanya, 'the virgin ;' Kanya-kumarI, 'the youthful virgin;' and Ambikii, 'the mother;' A vara, 'the youngest;' Anantii and Nitya, 'the everlasting ;' Arya, 'the revered ;' Vijaya, 'victorious ;' ifrddhi, 'the rich ;' SatI, 'virtuous ;' Dakshina, 'right-handed ;' Pinga, 'tawny, dark ;' KarburI, 'spotted ;' Bhramari, 'the bee ;' Ko/ari, 'the naked;' Karna-inoti, 'pearl-eared;' Padma-lunchhana, 'distinguished by a lotus ;' Sarva - mangaLi, 'always auspicious ;' ^'akam - bhari, 'nourisher of herbs ;' Siva - dfiti, 'diva's messenger;' Sinha-rathI, 'riding on a lion.' As addicted to austerities she is Aparea and Katyayani. As Bhuta-miyaki she is chief or leader of the goblins, and as Gana-nayaki, the leader of the Ganas. She is Kamakshi, 'wanton-eyed;' 'and Kamakhyii, 'called bjr the name of Rama, desire.' Other names, most of them applicable to her terrible forms, are Bhadrakali, Bhima-devi, ChamuH<Zii, Maha-kiili, Mahiimari, Mahasuri,

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