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MatangI, RajasI, 'the fierce;' and Rakta-dantI, 'red or bloody toothed'

DEVI BHAGAVATA PURANA, A Shiva Purana, which is by some placed among the eighteen Puranas instead of the iSri Bhagavata, which is devoted to Vishnu. This is devoted to the worship of the Saktis.

DEVI MAHATMYA 'The greatness of Devi.' A poem of 700 verses, which celebrates the triumphs of Devi over various Asuras. It is the text-book of the worshippers of Devi, and is read daily in her temples. It is an episode of the Markan<feya Purana, and is also called Chanrfipa/ha.

DHANA-DA 'Giver of wealth.' Kuvera, the god of riches.

DHANAN-JAYA 'Conqueror of riches.' A title of Arjuna and of several others.

DHANANJAYA VIJAYA 'Victories of Dhananjaya' (Arjuna). A drama in one act on the exploits of Arjuna when in the service of the Raja Vista.

DHANA-PATL 'Lord of wealth.' Kuvera .

DHANEtfWARA 'Lord of wealth,' It., Kuvera.

DHANUR-VEDA The science of archery, the military art .

DHANWANTARL 1. Name of a Vedic deity to whom offerings at twilight were made in the north-east quarter. 2. The physician of the gods, who was produced at the churning of the ocean. He was a teacher of medical science, and the Ayur-veda is attributed to him. In another birth he was son of Dirghatamas, and his "nature was exempt from human infirmities, and in every existence he had been master of universal knowledge." He is called also Sudha-pani, 'carrying nectar in his hands,' and Amrita, 'the immortal.' Other physicians seem to have had the name applied to them, as Bhela, Divo-dasa, and Palakapya. 3. A celebrated physician, who was one of "the nine gems" of the court of Vikrama. See Nava-ratna.

DHARAVL The earth. The wife of Parasu-rama.

DHARMA, DHARMA-RAJA 'Justice.' A name of Yama, the judge of the dead.

DHARMA An ancient sage, sometimes classed among the Prajapatis. He married thirteen (or ten) of the daughters of 'Daksha, and had a numerous progeny; but all his children "are manifestly allegorical, being personifications of intelligences and virtues and religious rites, and being therefore appropriately

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wedded to the probablo authors of the Hindu code of religion and morals, or the equally allegorical representation of that code, Dharma, moral and religious duty."—Wilson.

DHARMA-PUTRA 'Son of Dharma.' A name of Yudhish/hira.

DHARMARAiVYA A sacred grove. 1. A forest in Madhyadesa into which Dharma retired. 2. A city mentioned in the Ramayana as founded by Amurta-rajas, son of Kara.

DHARMA-RAJA 1. Yama, king of the dead 2. A title of Yudhi-sWhira, who was mythically a son of Yama .

DHARMA-SASTRA A law-book or code of laws. This term includes the whole body of Hindu law, but it is more especially applicable to the laws of Manu, Yajnawalkya, and other inspired sages who first recorded the Smriti or "recollections" of what they had received from a divine source. These works are generally in three parts:—(1.) Achara, rules of conduct and practice; (2.) Vyavahara, judicature; (3.) Prayaschitta, penance.

The inspired lawgivers are spoken of as being eighteen in number, but the names of forty-two old authorities are mentioned. Manu and Yajnawalkya stand apart by themselves at the head of these writers. After them the eighteen other inspired sages are recognised as the great authorities on law, and the works ascribed to them are still extant, either wholly or partially, or in an abridged form:—(1.) Atri; (2.) Vishnu; (3.) Harita; (4.)Usanas; (5.) Angiras; (6.) Yama; (7.) Apastamba; (8.) Samvarta; (9.) Katyayana; (10.) BnTiaspati; (11.) Parasara; (12.) Vyasa; (13, 14.) <Sankha and Likhita, whose joint treatise is frequently quoted; (15.) Daksha; (16.) Gotama; (17.) <Satatapa; (18.) Vasish/ha. But there are others who are more frequently cited than many of these, as Narada, Bhrigu, Marichi, Kasyapa, Viswamitra, and Baudhayana. Other names that are met with are Pulastya, Gargya, Paiflrinasi, Sumantu, Lokakshi, Kuthumi, and Dhaumya. The writings of some of these lawgivers have appeared in different forms, and are referred to with the descriptive epithets of Vriddha, 'old;' Brihat, 'great;' and Laghu, 'light or small.'

A general collection of the Smn'tis or Dharma-sastras has been printed in Calcutta under the title of Dharma-sastra-sangraha, by Jlvananda.

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DHARMA-SAVARM The eleventh Manu. See Manu.

DHARMA-StJTRAS. The Samayacharika Sutras are so called because they had among them maxims of a legal nature.

DHARMA-VYADHA 'The pious huntsman.' This man is represented in the Mahabharata as living by selling the flesh of boars and buffaloes, and yet as being learned in the Vedas and in all the knowledge of a Brahman. This is accounted for by his having been a Brahman in a former birth, and cursed to this vile occupation for having wounded a Brahman when hunting.

DHATi?/. 'Maker, creator.' In the later hymns of the i?t'g-veda, Dhatri is a deity of no very defined powers and functions, but he is described as operating in the production of life and the preservation of health. He promotes generation, brings about matrimony, presides over domestic life, cures diseases, heals broken bones, &c. He is said to "have formed the sun, moon, sky, earth, air, and heaven as before." He appears also as one of the Adityas, and this character he still retains. In the later mythology he is identified with Prajapati or Brahma the creator; and in this sense of "maker " the term is used as an epithet of Vishnu and Krishna. Sometimes he is a son of Brahma.

DHAUMYA 1. The younger brother of Devala and family priest of the Panrfavas. There are several others of the same name. 2. Author of a work on law.

DHENUKA A demon killed by Bala-rama. Krishna and Bala-rama, as boys, picked some fruit in a grove belonging to Dhenuka, when he took the form of an ass, and running to the spot began to kick Bala-rama. The young hero seized him by the heels, whirled him round till he was dead, and cast his carcase on to the top of a palm-tree. Several of his companions who ran to his assistance were treated in the same way, so that " the trees were laden with dead asses."

DH/2/SHTA-DYUMNA Brother of DraupadI, and commander-in-chief of the Panrfava armies. He killed, somewhat unfairly in combat, Drona, who had beheaded his father, and he in his turn was killed by Drona's son, Aswatthaman, who stamped him to death with his feet as he lay asleep.

DHi?/SHTA-KETU. 1. A son of Dhrishta-dyumna. 2. A son of Sisu-pala, king of Chedi, and an ally of the Panda-DHRITA-RASHTRA—DHUNDHU. 91

vas. 3. A king of the Kekayas, also an ally of the Pa?ufavas. 4. Son of Satyadhriti. 5. Son of Nriga.

DH^/TA-RASHTRA 1. The eldest son of Vichitra-virya or Vyasa, and brother of VHndu. His mother was Ambika. He married Gandhari, and by her had a hundred sons, the eldest of whom was Dur-yodhana. Dhrita-rashfra was blind, and Vandu. was affected with a disease supposed, from his name, "the pale," to be a leprous affection. The two brothers in turn renounced the throne, and the great war recorded in the Mahabharata was fought between their sons, one party being called Kauravas, from an ancestor, Kuru, and the other Panrfavas, from their father Panrfu. Dhrita-rashfra and his wife were burned in a forest fire. (See Maha-bharata.) 2. An enormous serpent of many heads and immense strength.

DHRUVA The polar star. According to the Vishnu Purana, the sons of Manu Swayam-bhuva were Priya-vrata and Uttanapada. The latter had two wives; the favourite, Suruchi, was proud and haughty; the second, Sumti or Sunrita, was humble and gentle. Suruchi had a son named Uttama, and Suniti gave birth to Dhruva. While quite a child Dhruva was contemptuously treated by Suruchi, and she told him that her own son Uttama would alone succeed to the throne. 'Dhruva and his mother submitted, and he declared that he wished for no other honours than such as his own actions should acquire. He was a Kshatriya, but he joined a society of Bislus, and becoming a i?ishi himself, he went through a rigid course of austerities, notwithstanding the efforts of Indra to distract him. At the end he obtained the favour of Vishnu, who raised him to the skies as the pole-star. He has the patronymic Auttiinapadi, and he is called Grahadhara, 'the stay or pivot of the planets.'

Dhcma-variva 'Smoke coloured.' A king of the serpents. A legend in the Hari-vansa relates that Yadu, the founder of the Yiidava family, went for a trip of pleasure on the sea, where he was carried off by Dhuma-varna to the capital of the serpents. Dhuma-varna married his five daughters to him, and from them sprang seven distinct families of people.

DHUNDHU. An Asura who harassed the sage Uttanka in his devotions. The demon hid himself beneath a sea of sand,

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but was dug out and killed by King Kuvalayaawa and his 21,000 sons, who were undeterred by the flames which checked their progress, and were all killed but three. This legend probably originated from a volcano or some similar phenomenon. From this exploit Kuvalayaswa got the name of Dhundhumara, 'slayer of Dhundhu.'

DHUNDHU-MARA See Dhundhu and Kuvalayaswa.

DHUR-JA7T. 'Having heavy matted locks.' A name of Rudra or Siva.

DHURTA-NARTAKA 'The rogue actors' A farce in two parts by Sama Raja Dlkshita. "The chief object of this piece is the ridicule of the Saiva ascetics."

DHURTA-SAMAGAMA 'Assemblage of rogues.' A comedy by Sekhara or Jyotir Iswara. "It is somewhat indelicate, but not devoid of humour." It has been translated into French by Schoebel .

DIG-AMBARA 'Clothed with space.' A naked mendicant. A title of Siva.

DIG-GAJAS. The elephants who protect the eight points of the compass:—(1.) Airavata; (2.) Punrfarika; (3.) Vamana; (4.) Kumuda; (5.) Anjana; (6.) Pushpa-danta; (7.) Sarva-bliauma; (8.) Su-pratIka.

DIG-VIJAYA 'Conquest of the regions (of the world).' 1. A part of the Mahabharata which commemorates the conquests effected by the four younger Pan<&iva princes, and in virtue of which Yudhi-sh/hira maintained his claim to universal sovereignty. 2. A work by <Sankaracharya in support of the Vedanta philosophy, generally distinguished as iSankara Dig-vijaya._

DIK-PALA 'Supporters of the regions.' The supporters of the eight points of the compass. See Dig-gaja.

DILIPA Son of Ansumat and father of Bhaglratha. He was of the Solar race and ancestor of Rama . On one occasion he failed to pay due respect to Surabhi, the 'cow of fortune,' and she passed a curse upon him that he should have no offspring until he and his wife Su-dakshina had carefully tended Surabhi's daughter NandinL They obediently waited on this calf NandinI, and Dilipa once offered his own life to save hers from the lion of Siva In due time the curse was removed, and a son, Raghu, was born to them. This story is

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