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As in the former part of this Work it has 529been neceffary to be fomewhat particular in the mode of tranflating the Greek word

YXH, Spirit; fo perhaps I ought not to conclude these Obfervations, without remarking, that it seems to have a moft peculiar kind of meaning annexed to it by the LXX, not only in the paffage alluded to, but also in other parts of Scripture.

Even fuch an one as plainly leads us to infer, that they clearly intended to distinguish it from the Soul, properly fo called; and fuch as leaves room to fuppofe, that they conceived Man to be compounded of three natures,a Spirit, a Soul,-and a Body.

Confiftently with this idea we find, after 530. wards, a remarkable expreffion of the apoftle St. Paul, in his First Epistle to the Theffalonians, ch. v. ver. 23. which Dr. Macknight (whofe very learned work fell into my hands

See Vol. I. p. 190.-and in the quarto edit. p. 122.

fince the greater part of this book was printed) has tranflated thus: And

may your whole perfon, the fpirit, and the foul, and the body, be preferved unblameable! obferving most accurately, at the fame time, that this paffage has a great conformity to the opinion of the Pythagoreans, and Platonifts, who divided the thinking part of man into spirit and foul, in confequence of a notion derived from the most ancient tradition.

But I muft add, that there is ftill another most remarkable use of the word by the LXX, which points out a far more extraordinary and accurate diftinction, than merely the division mentioned by the ancient philofophers.

For although ugh certainly means, in its ufual fense, fpirit, of fome fort or other, and life; yet the LXX, in fome instances, use it with reference to what is in a ftate of deprivation of life.

With regard to the firft, and more ufual meaning, we find it written in the Law:

Leviticus, ch. xvii. ver. 11, 12, 14.

11. Ἡ γὰρ ψυχὴ πάσης σαρκὸς αἷμα


αὐτῷ ἐσιν, καὶ ἐγὼ δέδωκα αὐτὸ ὑμῖν ἐπὶ τῇ θυσιαςηρίς ἐξιλάσκεσθαι περὶ τῶν ψυχῶν ὑμῶν· τὸ γὰρ αἷμα αὐτὸ ἀντὶ τῆς ψυχῆς ἐξιλάσεται,

11. For the Spirit [or life] of all flesh is its blood, and I have given IT unto you upon the altar to make propitiation for your fpirits [or lives]. For THAT blood maketh propitiation in the head of the firit [or life].

12. Διὰ τᾶτο ἔρηκα τοῖς ὑιοῖς Ισραήλ. 531. Πᾶσα ψυχη ἐξ ὑμῶν ἐ φάγεται αἷμα, καὶ ὁ προσήλυλος ὁ προσκείμενος ἐν ὑμῖν ἐ φά γεται αἷμα.

12. For this reafon I have faid to the fons of Ifrael, Not one living being of you shall eat blood; not even any profelyte that dwelleth among ft you fall eat blood.

14. Ἡ γὰρ ψυχὴ πάσης σαρκὸς αἷμα αὐτῇ ἐσιν. Καὶ ἅπα τοῖς ὑιοῖς Ισραήλ· Αἷμα πάσης σαρκὸς ἐ φάγεσθε, ὅτι ἡ ψυχὴ πάσης σαρκὸς αἷμα αὐτῇ ἐςιν· πᾶς ὁ ἐστ θων αὐτὸ, ἐξολεθρευθήσε]αι,

14. For


14. For the fpirit [or life] of all flesh is its blood. And I have faid to the fons of Ifrael, Ye shall not eat the blood of any flesh; because the Spirit [or life] of all flesh is its blood. Every one, whosoever eateth it, shall be utterly deftroyed, [and cut off.]

And in Deuteronomy, ch. xii, ver. 23, 24,

23. Πρόσεχε ἰσχυρῶς τὸ μὴ φαγεν αἷμα· τὸ γὰρ αἷμα αὐτῇ ψυχή· ἐ βρω θήσεται ψυχὴ μετὰ τῶν κρεῶν·

24. ἐ φάγεσθε αὐτὸ, ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ἐχεῖτε αὐτὸ ὡς ἴδωρ.

23. Be most exceedingly careful not to eat blood; because the blood is its fpirit [or life]. Spirit [or life] fhall not be eaten with the fleshy parts.

24. Ye shall not eat it; ye shall pour it out upon the earth as water.

And again, in the Book of Numbers, we read concerning the divifion of the living cattle, and of the perfons which were taken prifoners and fpared in war.


Numbers, ch. xxxi. ver. 28.

Καὶ ἀφελείτε τὸ τέλος Κυρίῳ παρὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων τῶν πολεμισῶν τῶν ἐκπορευομένων εἰς τὴν παράταξιν, μίαν ψυχὴν ἀπὸ πεν]ακοσίων, ἀπὸ τῶν ανθρώπων, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν κ]ηνῶν, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν βοων, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν προβάτων, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ὄνων.

Where our tranflation, in the defcription, even makes use of the word foul; though both the Alexandrian and Vatican Manufcripts have the word ur. Perhaps it would be a more clofe tranflation from the Seventy, to render the word ux, here, fpirit, or living being. But the other is confiftent enough with common fenfe, becaufe either way the word certainly indicates life; and it may perhaps therefore be allowed to ftand, as in our verfion.

And levy a tribute unto the Lord, of the men of war which went out to battle; ONE SOUL [or one living being of five hundred, both of the perfons, and of the beeves, and of the afes, and of the sheep.


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