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THE

PENNY CYCLOPÆDIA

OF

THE SOCIETY

FOR THE

DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE.

VOLUME XVIII.

PERU PRIMATES.

.

LONDON:

CHARLES KNIGHT AND Co., 22, LUDGATE STREET.

MDCCCXL.

1

1

Price Seven Shillings and Sixpence, bound in cloth.

R4 2100.66

COMMITTEE
Chairman - The Right Hon. LORD BROUGHAJI, F.R.S., Member of the National Institute of France.

Vice-Chair nan-JOHN WOOD Esg.

Treasurer-WILLIAM TOOKE, Esq., F.R.S.
William Allen, Esq., P.R, and R. A.S
I L. Goldsmid, Er. F.R. and R.A.S.

R. 1. Murchison, Exq.. F.R.S. F.G.S.
Chas. Aos 11, Esq.
Francis Henry Goldsmia, Eng

The Right Hon. Lord Ngent
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The Riglit llen. Splicars Parnell, Rt, AI P.
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Richard Quad Exq.
George Hurruevs, ALD).
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P. M. Roget, MD. Sec. R.S.FR.A.S.
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Etwarii Romily, Esq., A.JI.
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Thos. Hodgkin, M.D.

Sir Martin Archerher. PRA, F.R.
R. 1). Craig, Esq.
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The Rivht Hou. Eari cep
J. F. Davis, Ewq., F.R.S.
Henry B. Ker, Esq.

Sir George T. Staunton, Bart., V.!'.
H. T. Dela Beche, Esq., F.R.S.
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The Right Hon. Lord Denman.
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A. T. Ti.onion, MD. L.L.S.
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Thomas Vartion, E-).
The Right Rev. the Bishop of Durham, D.D. Thomas Henry Linter, Luq.

J.us. Walbror, Esq., F.RS, I'r. Ing., "isl.::
Sir Henry Ellis, Prin. Lily. Brit. M18.
James Loch, E.G., M.P., F.G.S.

H. Ilaymo.1th, E.q.
T F. Ellis, Esq., A.M., F.R.A.S.
Gerye Long, Exq., A.N.

Thos. Webster, Esq., A.M.
John Elliotson, M.D., K.R.S.
H. Dalen, Eng. A.M.

J. Whishaw, F«q.. A.J., Fl.4
George Evans, Esq., M.P.
A. T. Malkin. 17. A.M.

Tl.e Hon. ohn Ilrottesley, A., 1" A
Thomas Falconer, Esq.
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J. A. Yates, C., M.P.

LOCAL COMMITTEES, Alton, Staffordshire-Rev. J. P. Jones,

Denonport and Stonehouse - John Cole, Exq. Newtoern, Jionenmeryshire-W. l'ugh . Angiesen-Rev. E. Williams,

John Norinan, Esq.

Nursery Richard Bacon, Esq.
Rev. W. Johnson.
Lt. Col. C. Hamilton Smith, F.R.S.

Wm. Foster. Fin.
Mr. Miller.

Dublin-T. Drummond, Esq. R.E., F.RAS. Orsett, Exser-Cret, N 1).
Barnstanle.-- Bencrast, Esq.
Edinburta sir C. Beil, F.R.S.L. aad E.

Orford-Ch. Daunen, M D.P 11. SIrofilerna
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J. S, Traill, MD.

Rev. Baden Ponei, sav. Pur.
Belfast -- M. ). Drummond.
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Rev. John Jordan, B.A.
Ereter-J. Torreil, Esq.

Pesh, Inny *** C'S...honyt
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John Moltond, Ewq Coarer.)

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W. Il'illiams, Exq., Aberpergwm.

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G. Klientwick, Esq.
J. Reynolls, Esq., Treasurer.
Alexander McGrigor, Esq.

Dr. Traili.
J. B. Estlin, Esq., F.L.S., Secretary.

James Couper, E-q.

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A. J. D. D'Orsey, Esq.

A. W. Davi*, BL.D).
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Quernsey-F.C. Lukis, Esq.

Ripon-Rev. H.P.Hamilton, M. A...H.,6.%. llull--J. C. Parker, Esq.

Rev. P. Erant, M.A.
crombridge-Rer. Professur Henslow, M.A.,
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Humphreys Jones, E.4.
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leues--J. W. Woollear, Esq.

Ryde, I. of light-Sir Rd. Simeon, BL. Rey. Jolin Laurige, M.A.

Henry Browne. Esq.

Si'ishury - Rev. J. Bartitt. Hier, Prof. Sedgwick, M.A.G.RS &6.8.

Lirprpoolor, ds.-W. W. Currie, Esq. 'k. Shamhet). H. Abrahavis, E.4. l'anterbury-John Brent, E:41., Alderman.

J. Jnileneux, E-9., Treasurer.

Sheptor Jallet-G. F. Bur'o'e'*. E.. William Plaslers, Fsq.

Res. Wm. Shepherd, L.I.D.

Shrewsbury-R. A. Slaney, F-A., DL.P. Canton-Wm. Jardine, Eng.. President. Maidenhead-R, Goolden, Esq., F.I.S.

South Petherton-John Nicholetis, E.y. Robert Inglis, Ex., Treasurer, Maidstone ---Clement T. Smytli, Esq.

St. Asaph-Rev. George Strong. Rev. C. Bridgman,

John Case. Ewq.

Stockport-H, Marsiari, F., Treasurer Rev. C. Gutzlaff, Secretaries. Manchester Loc. 48.-G. W. Wood, Esq..

Henry Corpock, Exq. Secretary. J. R. Morrison, Esq.,

M.P., (A.

Sydnry, Ner S. Wales -- W.M. Maoning, E. (ardigan-Rer. J. Blackwell, M.A.

Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bt., Treasurer. Taristock - Rev. W. Esans ('arlisle-Thomas Harnes, M.D., F.R.S.E.

Sir George Philips, Bart., M.P.

John Rundle, Esq., M.P. Carnarron-R. A. l'oole, Esq.

Benj. Gott, Esq.

Trutu-Henry sewell Slokes, E«q.
William Roberts, E.-4.
Mash-Rev. George Waddington, M.A.

Tun'ndge IV r.le-Yeats, ALD)
Chester-Henry Ports, Esq.

Alertheit Tydri-Sir J. J. Guest. Bart., M.P. l'l'oreler -- Robert Biuston, Exq.
Chichester - John Forbes, A.D., F.R.S.
Minchinhampton John G. Ball, Esq.

Virginia - Professor Tucker.
C.C. Dendy, Esq.
Monmouth-J. H. Mozgridye, Esq.

Worcester-Chas, Hastings, N.V.
Cockermouth-Rev. J. Whitridge.
Neath --John Rowland, Esq.

C. H. Hebb, Exg.
Corfu- John Crawford, Esq.
Newcastle--Rev. W. Turner.

Wrexham Thomas Edrworth, F..
Piato Petrides
T. Sopwith, F-4. F.G.S.

Major William L.lovi.
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T. Cooke, Jun.. Esq.

Dawson Torner, Esq. Derby - Joseph Strutt, Esq.

R. G. Kirkpatrick, Esq.

York--Rev. J. Kenrick, L.A. rdwara Strutt, Esq., M.P. Neu port Pagnell- J. Miliar, E.g.

John Phillips, Esq., F.R. 8, F.0.$. THOMAS COATES, Esq., Secretary, No. 59, Lincoln's Ino Fields.

London : Printed by WILLIAM Clows and Sons, Stanford Strece,

THE PENNY CYCLOPÆDIA

OF

THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF

USEFUL KNOWLEDGE.

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PER

PER PERU is a country in South America, situated between cannot land or these shores, as they are exposed to a very 3° 30' and 21° 28' S. lat., and between 65o and 81° 20' W. heavy swell from the Pacific, forming a dangerous surf, long. On the west it is washed by the Pacific; and on the which can only be passed in favourable weather by boats. south and south-east it borders on Bolivia. The boundary. Landing in most pla:es can only be effected by balsas. In all line between these states, at the most southern point of this extent of coast, fresh water can only be got at three places, Peru, is formed by the small river Loa (21° 28' S. lat.): it the rivers Loa and Pisagua, and at Arica. The water of the follows the course of this river for several miles, when it river Loa is extremely bad. The water of the Rio Pisagua turns eastward till it reaches the western edge of the Andes. is good, but the river is dry nine months in the year, and It follows this edge northward to the mountain-pass of the water obtained from the wells is bad. At Árica the Gualillas (17° 50' S. lat.), whence it runs northward across water is excellent. The only harbour is that of Iquique, the plain of the lake of Titicaca to the southern extremity which is formed by a low island, the largest that occurs of that lake. It traverses the lake in a northern direction, along this coast. Between it and the town is good anchorage which it preserves till it reaches the eastern chain of the in eleven fathoms. The harbour of Arica, which lies at the Bolivian Andes

, near 15o S. lat. It follows this chain for northern extremity of this coast-line, is also formed by a low some distance, and then runs along the lateral range which island, called Huans, on the northern side of which there branches off in an east-north-easi direction between the is good anchorage. A mole runs out into the sea, which river Tuche, an affluent of the Beni, and some rivers which enables boats to lie quietly while loading or discharging. are supposed to fall into the Purus. From the mouth of From Arica (18° 28' S. lat.) to Point Carreta (14° 10'), a ibe river Tuche, the boundaby-line between Peru and Bo- distance of more than 460 miles, the coast lies east-southlivia runs along the Rio Beni to its junction with the Gua- east and west-north-west. Where the cliffs come close to poré

, by which the river Madera is formed. At this point the sea, they rise from 50 to 300 feet above it, and the waves coramences the boundary-line between Peru and Brazil. ) in some places break with great violence along the shore. This line follows the Madera river to go 30' S. lat.: it Even the sandy beach is frequently interrupted by low prostretches westward along this parallel to the river Yavari

, jecting cliffs, but the soundings are in general regular. The the course of which river, up to its junction with the Ama- projecting points are usually ioo short and too far from one zonas, forms the remainder of the boundary between Peru another to form safe anchorages and to break the swell of and Brazil . The Amazonas is the boundary between Peru the sea.

Towards Point Carreta a few inlets occur, which and Ecuador

, from its junction with the Yavari to the town form good harbours, though even here the landing in boats of S. Juan de Brancamoros, south of which place the river is generally difficult and sometimes impracticable. Fresh Chinchupe falls into the Amazonas. The Chinchupe sepa

water is much more abundant, and may be got in several fales both countries as far as its source, from which the places. The first harbour which occurs, after leaving Arica, dividing line passes over the Andes to the Rio Tumbez, is that of Islay, the port of Arequipa. Cove Mollendo forwhich falls into the Gulf of Guayaquil, in 3° 30' S. lat. the length of this country from south to north, along at present it only admits boats

, or very small coasting ves

sels. Port Islay is formed by a few straggling islands greatly. South of 170 S. lat. it hardly exceeds 30 miles

, which lie off Point Islay, and is capable of containing twenty whilst near 10°S. lat. it is more than 650 miles wide. Its 300, according to a rough estimate, considerably exceeds landing extremely

difficult, and at the full of the moon it is exceptio square miles, being about two and a half times the sometimes impracticable for several days. Point Lomas,

Concert and Harbours.—The coast-line is about 1500 miles but it has good anchorage in from five to fifieen fathoms, intensiteit in an extent of heco miles this coast forms ones and tolerabie landing as some 'distance farthere west torette three straight lines, which meet at obtuse angles, and are not are est and the mind north, the central line runs nearly-south- | them is sterile

and uninhabited." Farther west is the Bay north-west. The most northern and most projecting por- Cape Carreta, and is protected towards the sea by two islands, north we north. west, and the trorthern line rany north- of Independencia, which lies between Cape Quemada and tion of the coast is broken by bays and by headlands. Santa Rosa and Santa , of which the latter rises to a extends from the mouth of the river Loa (21° 28' S. lat.) to the harbour of Arica (19° 28' S. lat.), a distance of 210 chorage in all parts of this spacious bay, the bottom being

to north-west, and is about 3} miles broad. There is an. miles. The whole of this line consists of rocky cliffs, quite regular in about 20 fathoms. It may be entered from rarely low, and occasionally several hundred feet high. In the south by the Strait of Serrate, between the island of a tew spots a savdy beach lies between the cliffs and the Santa Rosa and Cape Quemada, which is three-quarters of a mamland, and in no case more than two. They also form tremity, which is called Dardo, and is five miles across besa The projecting points seldom extend a mile from the mile wide, or by the wide opening at the north-western exdistances of 10, 15, or 20 miles, they afford no shelter to surrounding this bay is very thinly inhabited, it is rarely right angles with the coast, and as they occur only at tween the island of Vieja and Cape Carreta. As the country reisels. A few small rocks lie off the coast, but they are low and too small to protect vessels which anchor between

visited by vessels. them and the shores. The soundings are irregular. Boats stead of Lambayeque (6° 46' S. lat.), a distance of about

The coast from Cape Carreta (14° 10' S. lat.) to the road

VOL. XVIII.-B

P. C., No. 1103.

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