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and Round dealing: Lat. apertam et minime fucatam in negotiis

gerendis rationem. p. 4[1] Essais 11. 18. Montaigne in this passage is supposed to allude to

Lysander's saying recorded by Plutarch: "For he sayd, that children should be deceiued with the play of Kayles, and men with othes of men” (North's Plut. p. 480, ed. 1995); on which Plutarch remarks, “for he that deceiveth his enemy, and breaketh his oth to him: sheweth plainly that he feareth him, but that he careth not for God." [7] Lie: Lat. mendax. [13] Luke xviii. 8.

ESSAY 2 p. 5 [3] Tales: Lat. fabulosis quibusdam terriculamentis. [4-7] In

the ed. of 1612 this passage stood thus: “Certainely the feare of death in contemplation of the cause of it, and the issue of it, is religious: but the feare of it, for it selfe, is weake." [7] weake : Lat. infirma et inanis. [8] sometimes: added in 1625. [19] In ed. of 1612, “And to speake as a Philosopher or naturall man." [21] There is a passage in Seneca's Epistles (111. 3, § 14), which may have suggested this: “Tolle istam pompam sub qua lates et stultos irritas: mors es

quem nuper servus meus, quem ancilla contempsit." p. 6[1] Blackes, and Obsequies: Lat. atrata funera. “Blackes,” in the sense of mourning, occurs in Shakspere, Winter's Tale, 1, 2;

“But were they false As o're-dy'd Blacks, as Wind, as Waters." [5] it Mates, and : added in 1625. [6] terrible: added in 1625. [7] Attendants: in the ed. of 1612 'followers.' [9] slights it: 'esteemes it not' (1612). [10] After 'Honour aspireth to it,' the edition of 1612 has, “deliuery from Ignominy chuseth it,” and this appears also in the Latin, metus ignominiæ eligit. (11) reade: 'see' (1612). Tac. Hist. II. 49.

the Emperour: added in 1625. (14, 15] out of..Nay: added in 1625.

[16] addes: ‘speaketh of' (1612). & Saciety: added in 1625. Seneca, Ep. X. I, § 6: comp. also III. 3, § 26: quoted again Adv. of L. II. 21, § 1. [18–21] A man..over: added in 1625.

[22] in good Spirits: Lat. in animo generoso et forti. [23—25] ‘but they are the same till the last' (1612). [26] Suet. Aug. [28] Tac. Ann. VI. 50. [30] Suet. Vesp. c. 23.

Dio Cass. LXVI. 17.

Sitting upon the Stoole: added in 1625. [31] Tac. Hist. 1. 41; Suet. Galba, C. 20. [32] Holding forth his Necke: added in 1623. [33] Dio Cass. LXXVI. 17.

In all these passages the quotations were omitted in the ed. of 1612. In the MS. of that edition in the British Museum, which Mr Spedding describes (Bacon's Works, vi. p. 535), the clause “Septimius Seuerus in dispatch,” is

also omitted. p. 7 (3] Juv. Sat. x. 357. The true quotation is

Qui spatium vitæ extremum inter munera ponit

Naturæ. It occurs again in a parallel passage in the Adv. of Learning, II. 21,

And it seeineth to me, that most of the doctrines of the Philo

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sophers are more fearefull and cautionary then the Nature of things requireth. So haue they encreased the feare of death, in offering to cure it. For, when they would haue a mans whole life, to be but a discipline or preparation to dye: they must needes make men thinke, that it is a terrible Enemy, against whom there is no end of preparing. Better saith the Poet, &c." [6] is: added in 1625. [7_end] Added in 1625. [13] Luke ii. 29. [15] Comp. Antitheta xvi; Nemo virtuti invidiam reconciliaverit præter mortem. [17] Hor. Ep. II. I,

Entered in the Promus, fol. 2 a.

14.

ESSAY 3

p. 8.

The Latin title is De unitate ecclesiæ. The Essay Of Unity in Religion” has grown out of that ‘Of Religion' which appeared in the edition of 1612, but has been so expanded and transformed that the differences cannot easily be indicated. I have therefore given the original Essay at length for the sake of comparison. “The quarrels, and diuisions for Religion, were euils vnknowne to the Heathen: and no marụell; for it is the true God that is the iealous God; and the gods of the Heathen were good fellowes. But yet the bonds of religious vnity, are so to be strengthened, as the bonds of humane society be not dissolued. Lucretius the Poet, when hee beheld the act of Agamemnon, induring and assisting at the sacrifice of his daughter, concludes with this verse;

Tantū relligio potuit suadere malorum. But what would hee haue done, if he had knowne the massacre of France, or the powder treason of England? Certainly he would haue beene seuen times more Epicure and Atheist then he was. Nay, hee would rather haue chosen to be one of the Madmen of Munster, then to haue beene a partaker of those Counsels. For it is better that Religion should deface mens vnderstanding, then their piety and charitie; retaining reason onely but as an Engine, and Charriot driuer of cruelty, and malice. It was a great blasphemie, when the Diuell said; I will ascend, and be like the highest: but it is a greater blasphemie, if they make God to say; I will descend, and bee like the Prince of Darkmesse: and it is no better, when they make the cause of Religion descend, to the execrable accions of murthering of Princes, butchery of people, and firing of States. Neither is there such a sinne against the person of the holy Ghost, (if one should take it literally) as in stead of the likenes of a Doue, to bring him downe in the likenesse of a Vulture, or Rauen; nor such a scandall to their Church, as out of the Barke of Saint Peter, to set forth the flagge of a Barge* of Pirats and Assassins.' Therefore since these thinges are the common enemies of humane society; Princes by their power; Churches by their Decrees; and all learning, Christian, morall, of what soeuer sect, or opinion, by their Mercurie rod; ought to ioyne in the damning to Hell for euer, these facts, and their supports; and in all Counsels concerning Religion,

* So in the original. In the copy in the Cambridge University Library it is Corrected in MS. to 'Barke.'

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that Counsell of the Apostle, would be prefixed, Ira hominis non imple! iustitiam Dei." [3] Band of Unity: Lat. unitatis et charitatis vin

culis. [8] Beleefe: Lat. confessione et fide. [12] Ex. XX. 5. p. 9(7] Matt. xxiv. 26, quoted from the Vulgate. The same quotation

occurs in the Advertisement touching the Controversies of the Church of England; Accordingly, was it foretold, by Christ, saying; That in the latter times, it should be said; Lo here, loe there is Christ: Which is to be understood, not as if the very Person of Christ, should be assumed, and co terfeitted; his Authority, and preheminence, (which is to be Truth it self,) should be challenged and pretended. Thus have we read, and seen, to be fulfilled, that which followeth, Ecce in Deserto; Ecce in Penetralibus: While some have sought the Truth, in the Conventicles, and Conciliables, of Hereticks, and Sectaries; others, in the Externe Face, and Representation, of the Church; And both Sorts have been seduced.” And again in the same Advertisement; “But when these vertues in the Fathers, and Leaders, of the Church, have lost their Light; And that they wax worldly, Lovers of themselves, and Pleasers of Men; Then Men begin, to groap for the Church, as in the Dark; They are in doubt, whether they be the Successours of the Apostles, or of the Pharises: yea, howsoever they sit in Moses Chair, Yet they can never speak, Tanquam Authoritatem habentes, as having Authority, because they have lost their Reputation, in the Consciences of Men, by declining their steps, from the way, which they trace out to others. So as Men, had need, continually, have sounding in their Eares, this same; Nolite Exire; Go not out: So ready are they, to depart from the Church, upon every voice." These are two instances out of many which will be given of the man'ner in which Bacon worked into his Essays his ripest and choicest thoughts. [13] St Paul. (15) 1 Cor. xiv. 23. [18] “Two principal causes have I ever known of Atheism, curious controversies, and prophane scoffing." Advertisement, &c. [22] Ps. i. 1. [25] Rabelais. [27] Pantag. II. 7. La morisque des hereticques. [28] Morris

daunce: Lat. Saltationes florales et gesticulationes. p. 10 [8] The Latin adds ad omnia in religione. [10] 2 Kings ix. 18. [14] Rev. iii. 14-16. [20] “But we contend, about Ceremonies, and Things Indifferent; About the Extern Pollicy, and Government of the Church. In which kind, if we would but remember, that the Ancient, and True Bounds, of Unity, are, One Faith, One Baptism; And not, One Ceremony, One Pollicy; If we would observe the League amongst Christians, that is penned by our Saviour; He that is not against us is with us..we should need no other Remedy at all.” (Advertisement, &c. Resuscitatio, p. 163, ed. 1657). And again; And therefore it is good we returne vnto the ancient bonds of vnitie, in the Church of God, which was one Faith, one Bastisme, and not one Hierarchie, one Discipline, and that wee obserue the league of Christians as it is penned by our Sauiour Christ which is in substance of doctrine this, Hèe that is not with us, is against

vs. But in things indifferent and but of circumstance, this, Hee that is not against vs, is with vs.(Certaine considerations touching the Church of England, sig. B. 3, verso, ed. 1604.) Comp. Adv. of L. 11. 25, $ 7. [21] in the two crosse Clauses: Lat. in clausulis illis quæ primo intuitu inter se opponi videntur. [23] Matt. xii. 30; Mark ix. 40. [27] Lat. quæ non sunt ex fide, sed ex opinione probabili, et intentione

sancta propter ordinem et ecclesiæ politiam sancita. p. 11 [5] S. Bernard. Ad Guillel. Abbat. Apologia (p. 983 L, ed. Paris,

1640). "Et hac ratione in tota Ecclesia, quæ utique tam pluribus tamque variatur dissiinilibus ordinibus, utpote regina quæ in psalmo legitur circumamicta varietatibus, nulla рах,

nulla

prorsus concordia esse putabitur.” And again, p. 984 H; “Relinquat videlicet sponsæ suæ Ecclesiæ pignus hæreditatis, ipsam tunicam suam, tunicam scilicet polymitam, eandemque inconsutilem et desuper contextam per totum." This is one of Bacon's most favorite quotations. It occurs in the Adv. of L. II. 25, § 7, in his Speech on the Naturalization of the Scottish Nation (Resuscitatio, p. 15), and in his Speech concerning the Union of Laws (Resusc. p. 25). One of the Fathers, made an excellent observation, upon the two Mysteries: The one, that in the Gospell; where the Garment of Christ, is said to have been without Seame; The other, that in the Psalm, where the Garment, of the Queen is said, to have been of divers Colours; And concludeth, In veste Varietas sit, Scissura non sit.” It is found again in A Discourse, of the Union, of England, and Scotland (Resuscitatio, p. 204), and in the Articles touching the Union, of England, and Scotland (ibid. p. 211). It was evidently in his mind at the Charge at the Sessions of the Verge (p. 6, ed. 1662). One other quotation is from the Certaine Considerations touching the better pacification, &c. of the Church of England (sig B 3, verso, ed. 1604): “The rest is left to the holy wisedome and spirituall discretion of the master-builders and inferiour builders in Christes Church, as it is excellently alluded by that Father that noted that Christes garment was without seame, and yet the Churches garment was of diuers collours, and thereupon setteth downe for a Rule; In veste varietas sit scissura non sit.It is entered in the Promus, fol. 9 b. Archdeacon Hare refers to the

me passage of S. Bernard, in a charge delivered in 1842, on “The Means of Unity” (p. 17). The quotation is given at length in note B. The allusion is to Ps. xlv. 14, where, instead of “in raiment of needlework,” the Vulgate has circumamicta varietatibus. [20] Lat. qui corda scrutatur et novit. [21] ‘not should be omitted. [26] 1 Tim. vi. 20, from the Vulgate; quoted again in Adv. of

L. I. 4, 8 4. p. 12 [4] Dan. ii. 33. [23] Lat. quæ omnia manifesto tendunt ad ma

jestatem imperii minuendam et auctoritatem magistratuum labefactandam; cùm tamen omnis legitima potestas sit a Deo ordinata. [31] Lucr. 1. 95.

p. 13 (8) Is. xiv. 14. Bacon quotes it again in the Adv. of L. 11. 22,

“Aspiring to be like God in power, the Angells transgressed and fel: Ascendam, & ero similis altissimo." [29] James i. 20, quoted from memory: the Vulgate is correctly given in An Advertisement, &c. (Resuscitatio, p. 176).

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ESSAY 4

10.

p. 14 [1] Comp. Antitheta XXXIX; Vindicta privata, justitia agrestis. Vindicia, quo magis naturalis, eo magis coercenda.

[9] Prov. xix. II. p. 15 [5.] Lat. alias ipse sibi pænam conduplicat, inimicus vero lucrım

facit. [15] The same saying is repeated in Apoph. 206. I have not been able to trace it in any books, and it is quite possible that in Bacon's time some sayings of Cosmo might still be traditional. (19) Job ii.

[27] Pertinax: Hist. Aug. Script. 1. 578, ed. 1671. Henry the Third: the Latin has Henrici Quarti magni illius Galliæ Regis. There is no reason for the change; Bacon again alludes to the assassination of Henry 3 and Henry 4 in A Charge in the Star-chamber against William Talbot (Resuscitatio, p. 55,) "In France, H. 3, in the face of his Army, before the walls of Paris, stabbed, by a wretched

Jacobine Fryer: H. 4 Prince, that the French do surname the Great;) One, that had been a Saviour, and Redeemer, of his Country from infinite Calamities; And a Restorer of that Monarchy, to the ancient State, and Splendour; and a Prince, almost, Heroicall; (except it be, in the Point, of Revolt, from Religion;) At a time when he was, as it were to mount on Horse-back, for the Commanding, of the greatest, Forces, that, of long time had been levied in France; This King, likewise, stiletted, by a Rascal Votary; which had been enchanted and conjured, for the purpose. Henry 3 was assassinated by Friar Clement on the end of August, 1589.

ESSAY 5 p. 16 [2] Seneca, EP. vii. 4, § 29. [12] Seneca, Ep. VI. I, § 12; quoted

in Adv. of L. II. 20, § 5, and again in De Sap. Vet. c. 26, in con nection with the same fable of Hercules. [17] Apollodorus, de Deor. Orig. II. C. 5. [20] “Hercules sailed across the ocean in a cup that was given to him by the Sun, came to Caucasus, shot the eagle with his arrows, and set Prometheus free.” (Works, VI. p. 746, ed. Spedding). Bacon gives the same interpretation to this fable in De Sap. Vet. c. 26, but adds, at the end of the same chapter, another; "The voyage of Hercules especially, sailing in a pitcher to set Prometheus free, seems to present an image of God the Word hastening in the frail vessel of the flesh to redeem the human race. But I purposely refrain myself from all licence of speculation in this kind, lest peradventure I bring

strange fire to the altar of the Lord.” (Works, vi. p. 753, ed. Spedding). p. 17 [4] World: the Latin adds undique circumfusos. But to speake

in a Meane: Lat. Verum ut a granditate verborum ad mediocritatem descendamus. (24) Compare Apoph. 253: “Mr Bettenham

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