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said; that virtuous men were like some herbs and spices, that give not their sweet smell, till they be broken or crushed.” Mr B. was Autumn Reader of Gray's Inn in 1590. Bacon gives a curious explanation of this in his Natural History (cent. iv. exp. 390): “Most Odours smell best, Broken, or Crusht, as hath beene said; but Flowers Pressed or Beaten, doe leese the Freshnesse and Sweetnesse of their Odour. The Cause is, for that when they are Crushed, the Grosser and more Earthy Spirit commeth out with the Finer, and troubleth it; Whereas in stronger Odours there are no such Degrees of the Issue of the Smell."

ESSAY 6 p. 18 [1] Lat. Artium civilium compendium quoddam et pars infirmior.

So in Antitheta XXXII; Dissimulatio compendiaria sapientia. [6] Tacitus saith: Lat. quod discrimen bene apud Tacitum, Cæsaren Augustum inter, et Tiberium, adnotatum est. Etenime de Livið sic ait, quod esset, &c. Tac. Ann. v. 1. Compare Adv. of L. II. 23, § 31. So tedious, casuall, and vnfortunate are these deepe dissimulations, whereof it seemeth Tacitus made this iudgement, that they were a cunning of an inferiour fourme in regard of true pollicy, attributing the one to Augustus, the other to Tiberius, where speaking of Liuia, he sayth: Et cum artibus mariti simulatione filii bene composita: for surely the continuall habite of dissimulation is but a weake and sluggish cunning, & not greatly politique.” This passage appears to be the germ of the Essay. [9] And againe: Lat. Idem alibi hisce verbis Mucianum inducit, Vespasianum ad arma contra Vitellium sumenda hortantem, (11) Tac. Hist. 11. 76non adversus divi Augusti acerrimam mentem, nec adversus cautissimam Tiberii senectutem. (15] Habits and Faculties, severall, and: omitted in the Latin. [20] It is difficult to say whether Bacon had in his mind the egregium publicum et bonas domi artes of Tac. Ann. III. 70, or the studin fori

et civilium artium decus of Agr. c. 39. p. 19[1] and a Poorenesse: omitted in the Latin.

[5] or vary: omitted in the Latin. [20] Closenesse, Reservation, and Secrecy: Lat. Taciturnitas. [30] Antith. XXVIII; Taciturnitas confessoris virtus. Taciturno nil reticetur; quia omnia tuto communicantur. [33] Lat.

facile aliorum animos reserabit. p. 20 [7] Secrecy: Lat. silentibus. Comp. Antith. xxvii. Antith.

XXXII; Etiam in animo deformis nuditas. [12] Antith. XXVIII ; Qui facile loquitur qua. scit, loquitur et quæ nescit. [18] Comp. Adv. of L. II. 23, § 12: “We will beginne therefore with this precept, according to the aunciente opinion, that the Synewes of wisedome, are slownesse of beleefe, and distrust: That more trust bee giuen to Coumtenances and Deedes, then to wordes: and in wordes, rather to suddaine passages, and surprised wordes: then to set and purposed wordes: Neither let that be feared which is sayde, fronti nulla fides, which is meant of a generall outward behauiour, and not of the priuate and subtile mocions and labours of the countenance and gesture, which

Si quis

as Q. Cicero elegantly sayth, is Animi Ianua, the gate of the Mynd: None more close then Tyberius, and yet Tacitus sayth of Gallus, Etenim vultu offensionem coniectauerat.Antith. XXXIII; Placet obscurus vultus, et perspicua oratio. [30] Lat. nisi obfirmato et

absurdo silentio se quis muniat. p. 21 [21] Lat. quod in hominis potestate relinquit, ut pedem referat et

se absque existimationis suæ jacturâ de negotio subducat. enim se manifesta declaratione obstringit, is cuneis quasi impactis includitur; aut pergendum est ei, aut turpiter desistendum. [26] Lat. verum assentabitur potius. [30] In the Promus, fol. 66, the proverb stands thus, Di mentira y saqueras verdad: and in fol. 13 a, Tell a lye to knowe a truth. Compare Adv. of L. II. 23, § 14; “And experience sheweth, there are few men so true to themselues, and so setled; but that sometimes vpon heate, sometimes vpon brauerye, sometimes

vpon

kindenesse, sometimes vpon trouble of minde and weaknesse, they open themselues; specially if they be put to it with a counter-dissimulation, according to the prouerb of Spain, Di mentira, y sacaras verdad: Tell a lye, and find a truth.Lat. perinde ac

si simulatio clavis esset ad secreta reseranda. p. 22 [2] round: Lat. perniciter. [7–10] Antith. xxxır; Qui dissimulat præcipuo ad agendum instrumento se privat, i.e. fide. (11] Lat. veracitatis famam.

ESSAY 7

This Essay stands sixth in the ed. of 1612. p. 23 (7] Antith. v; Brutorum æternitas soboles; Virorum, fama, merita, et instituta. [9–15] And surely.. Posterity: added in 1625. [16] Houses: 'house' (1612). [17] Lat. non tantum ut continuationem speciei suæ, sed ut rerum a se gestarum hæredes. [20] ‘The difference of affection in parents' (1612). [22] ‘Specially'

(1612). p. 24 [1] Prov. x. 1. See Adv. of L. 11. 23, $ 5. [6] middest: 'middle'

(1612). [7] many times: added in 1625. [16] and : added in 1625. [22] Kinsfolkes: 'kinsfolke' (1612). [29] betimes: Lat. in tenere ætate filiorum suorum. [29]-end. Added in 1625. [31] Lat.

flexibiles et cerei. p. 25 [4] A sentence of Pythagoras preserved by Plutarch (de Exilio, c. 8); έλου βίον άριστον" ηδύν δε αυτόν η συνήθεια ποιησει. Jeremy Taylor (Holy Dying, p. 340, ed. Bohn), quotes as if from Seneca, elige optimam vitam, consuetudo faciet jucundissimam.

ESSAY 8 p. 26 [1] Antith. v; Qui uxorem duxit et liberos suscepit, obsides fortunce

dedit. [4] Certainly: Lat. ut alibi diximus; referring to Essay 7, and to a passage in the short piece In felicem memoriam Elizabethae (Bacon's Works, vi. p. 296), of which Rawley gives the following translation in the Resuscitatio, p. 186. Childlesse she was, and left no Issue behind Her; which was the Case of many, of the most fortunate Princes; Alexander the Great, Julius Cæsar, Trajan and

others. And this is a Case, that hath been often controverted, and argued, on both sides; Whilest some hold, the want of Children, to be a Diminution, of our Happinesse; As if it should be an Estate, more then Human, to be happy, both in our own Persons, and in our Descendants: But others, do account, the want of Children, as an Addition to Earthly Happinesse; In as much, as that Happinesse, may be said, to be compleat, over which Fortune hath no Power, when we are gone: Which, if we leave Children, cannot be.” [6] In ed. 1612, after 'Men,' is inserted, “which have ght eternity in memory, and not in posterity; and.” [8–11) it were..pledges: added in 1625. See Adv. of L. II. prol. I. [12] who though they: 'that' (1612). Lat. qui licet liberis careant. [13] yet their : ‘whose' (1612). Lat. tamen memoriæ suæ incuriosi sunt, et cogitationes vitæ tantum curriculo terminant. [14] ‘and doe account' (1612). [15] other: 'others' (1612). account: 'esteeme' (1612). [16]——p. 27[1]

Nay more..Riches: added in 1625. p. 27 [3] ‘Specially' (1612). humorous: Lat. phantasticis. .[5] re

straint: 'restriction' (1612). [8] but: added in 1625. [9] Antith. v; Cælibatus et orbitas ad nil aliud conferunt, quam ad fugam. [11] doth well with: ‘is proper for' (1612). [20] Antith. v; Uxor et liberi disciplina quædam humanitatis; et cælibes tetrici et severi. [22--25] though..they: added in 1625. [23] Charitable: Lat. munificiet charitativi. [26, 27] because..upon: added in 1625.

[27] Tendernesse: Lat. indulgentia et teneritudo affectueum.

[30] Plut. Gryll. 1; Cic. de Orat. i. 44. Compare Adv. of L. I. 8, § 7;

Vlysses, Qui vetulam prætulit immortalitati, being a figure of those which preferre Custome and Habite before all excellencie."

suam: added in 1625. p. 28 [5] Quarrell: Lat. ansa. [6] The saying is attributed to Thales.

See Diog. Laert. I. 26, Plut. Symp. Probl. 111. 6. Thales the wise, being importuned by his mother (who pressed hard upon him) to marrie; pretily put her off, shifting and avoiding her cunningly, with words: for at the first time, when she was in hand with him, he said unto her: Mother, it is too soone, and it is not yet time: afterwards, when he had passed the flower of his age, and that she set upon him the second time, and was very instant: Alas mother, it is now too late, and the time is past.” (Holland's trans. p. 691, ed. 1603.) It is repeated in Apoph.

220.

"Art thou yong? then match not yet; if old, match not at all.

-Vis juvenis nubere? nondum venit tempus.

Ingravescente ætate jam tempus præteriit. * and therefore, with that philosopher, still make answer to thy friends that importune thee to marry, adhuc intempestivum, 'tis yet unseasonable, and ever will be.” Burton, Anat. of Mel. pt. 3, sec. 2, mem. 6, [9–17] It is often seene. .Folly: added in 1625.

[13] Com pare Colours of Good and Evil, 8, p. 262.

subs. 3.

* Stobæus, Serm. 66. Alex, ab Alexand. lib. 4. cap. 8.

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Compare with the beginning of this Essay, Bacon's Natural History, cent. x. exp. 944: “The Affections (no doubt) doe make the Spirits more Powerfuli, and Active; And especially those Affections, which draw the Spirits into the Eyes: Which are two: Loue, and Enuy, which is called Oculus Malus. As for Loue, the Platonists, (some of *them,) goc so farre, as to ho that the Spirit of the Louer, doth passe into the Spirits of the Person Loued, which causeth the desire of Returne into the Body, whence it was Emitted: Whereupon followeth that Appetite of Contact, and Coniunction, which is in Louers. And this is obserued likewise, that the Aspects that procure Loue, are not Gazings, but Sudden Glances, and Dartings of the Eye. As for Enuy, that emitteth some Maligne and Poisonous Spirit, which taketh hold of the Spirit of Another; And is likewise of greatest Force, when the Cast of the Eye is Oblique. It hath beene noted also, that it is most Dangerous, when an Enuious Eye is cast vpon Persons in Glory, and Triumph, and loy. The Reason whereof is, for that, at such times, the Spirits come forth most, into the Outward Parts, and so meet the Percussion of the Enuious Eye, more at Hand: And therefore it hath beene noted, that after great Triumphs, Men haue beene ill disposed, for some Dayes following. Wee see the Opinion of Fascination is Ancient, for both Effects; Of Procuring Loue; and Sicknesse caused by Enuy: And Fascination is euer by the Eye. But yet if there be any such Infection from Spirit to Spirit, there is no doubt, but that it worketh by Presence, and not by the Eye alone; Yet most

forcibly by the Eye.” p. 29 [8] Comp. Reginald Scot's Discouerie of Witchcraft (XVI. 9. P.

485, ed. 1584). “This fascination (saith Iohn Baptista Porta Neapolitanus) though it begin by touching or breathing, is alwaies accomplished and finished by the eie, as an extermination or expulsion of the spirits through the eies, approching to the hart of the bewitched, and infecting the same, &c. Wherby it commeth to passe, that a child, or a yoong man endued with a clcare, whole, subtill and sweet bloud, yeeldeth the like spirits, breath, and vapors springing from the purer bloud of the hart. And the lightest and finest spirits, ascending into the highest parts of the head, doo fall into the eies, and so are from thence sent foorth, as being of all other parts of the bodie the most cleare, and fullest of veines and pores, and with the verie spirit or vapor proceeding thence, is conueied out as it were by beames and streames a certeine fierie force; whereof he that beholdeth sore eies shall haue good experience. For the poison and disease in the eie infecteth the aire next vnto it, and the same proceedeth further, carrieng with it the vapor and infection of the corrupted bloud: with the contagion whereof, the eies of the beholders are most apt to be infected.” (10] Mark

vii. 22. P. 30 [17] a kinde of plaie-pleasure: Lat. scenicam quandam voluptatem.

[22] Plaut. Stich. I. 3, 55; Nam curiosus nemo'st quin sit malevolus.

[25] Comp. Antith, 1; Tanta solet esse industria hominum novorum,

ut nobiles præ illis tanquam statuæ videantur. p. 31 [4] Narses (A.D. 472—568), the great general of Justinian, and rival

of Belisarius. Agesilaus. And for the deformitie of his legge, the one being shorter than the other, in the flower of his youth, through his pleasant wit, hee vsed the matter so pleasantly and patiently, that he would merrily mocke himselfe: which maner of merry behauiour did greatly hide the blame of the blemish. Yea further, his life & courage was the more commendable in him, for that men saw that notwithstanding his lamenesse, he refused no paines nor labour.” North's Plutarch, Agesilaus, p. 652, ed. 1595. Agesilaus II. was king of Sparta from 398 to 361 B.C. [16] Spartian. Vit. Adrian. 15. [19] Fellowes in office: Lat. collegæ. [25] Lat. quinetiam in aliorum notam hæc Fortunæ collatio magis incurrit. [27] Gen. iv. 5. p. 32 [3] Liberality: Lat. largitioni supra meritum. [15] in their

Rising: Lat. cum honoribus cumulantur. (18—20] And Envy... Flat: this passage was originally in the Essay “Of Nobility,” in the ed. of 1612, where it stands thus; "and Enuy is as the sunne beames, that beate more vpon a rising ground, then vpon a leuell.”

[29] the more deepe, and sober: Lat. magis sanos et sobrios. [32] Lat. Ca

nentes illud, Quanta patimur. p. 33 [4] Ingrossing: Lat. Monopolium. [5] Tamberlanes. Tamer

lane, or Timour, is said to have been lamed by a shepherd whose sheep he was stealing, and who shot him with arrows in the hip and shoulder. See Ahmed, Vita Timuri, ed. Manger, Vol. 1. p. 18. [23] Lat. quam si callide et quasi furtim se notæ subtrahat. [31] Witchcraft: Lat. Veneficii et incantationis. [32] The Lot (Lat. Sors) gave its name to the practisers of witchcraft, Sorcerers,

Lat. sortiarii. p. 34 [12] Lat. instar salubris ostracismi. In this form it occurs in the Antitheta xvi; Invidia in rebus publicis, tanquam salubris ostracis.

[25] Lat. intermiscendo actiones gratas et populares odiosis. p. 35 [4] the State : Lat. Regem, aut Statum ipsum. [12] The same

sentence occurs in the Antitheta, and the Historia Vitæ et Mortis. [20] Matt. xiii. 25.

mus.

ESSAY 10

This Essay first appeared in the edition of 1612, where it was placed twelfth in order, but was considerably enlarged in 1625. The first part stood thus: “Ioue is the argument alwaies of Comedies, and many times of Tragedies. Which sheweth well, that it is a passion generally light, and sometimes extreme. Extreame it may well bee, since the speaking in a perpetuall Hyperbole, is comely in nothing, but

Lore.p. 36[1] See Antitheta XXXVI; Amori multum debet scena, nihil vita.

[2] of Man: omitted in the Latin. [13] “Cleopatra oftentimes vnarmed Antonius, and intised him to her, making him lose matters of great importaunce, and very needefull iourneys, to come and be

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