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borrow other Mens Opinions; to thinke themselves happy; For if they iudge by their owne Feeling; they cannot finde it: But if they thinke with themselves, what other men thinke of them, and that other men would faine be as they are, then they are happy, as it were by report; When perhaps they finde the Contrary within. For they are the first, that finde their owne Griefs; though they be the last, that finde their owne Faults. Certainly, Men in Great Fortunes, are strangers to themselves, and while they are in the pusle of businesse, they have no time to tend their Health, either of Body, or Minde. Illi Mors gravis incubat, qui notus nimis omnibus, ignotus moritur sibi. In Place, There is License to doe Good, and Evill; wherof the latter is a Curse; For in Evill, the best condition is, not to will; The Second, not to Can. But Power to doe good, is the true and lawfull End of Aspiring. For good Thoughts (though God accept them,) yet towards men, are little better then good Dreames; Except they be put in Act; And that cannot be without Power, and Place; As the Vantage, and Commanding Ground. Merit, and good Works, is the End of Mans Motion; And Conscience of the same, is the Accomplishment of Mans Rest. For if a Man, can be Partaker of Gods Theater, he shall likewise be Partaker of Gods Rest. Et conversus Deus, ut aspiceret Opera, quæ fecerunt manus suæ, vidit quod omnia essent bona nimis; And then the Sabbath. In the Discharge of thy Place, set before thee the best Examples; For Imitation, is a Globe of Precepts. And after

a time, set before thee, thine owne Example; And examine thy selfe strictly, whether thou didst not best at first. Neglect not also the Examples of those, that have carried themselves ill, in the same Place: Not to set off thy selfe, by taxing their Memory; but to direct thy selfe, what to avoid. Reforme therfore, without Braverie, or Scandall, of former Times, and Persons; but yet set it downe to thy selfe, as well to create good Presidents, as to follow them. Reduce things, to the first Institution, and observe, wherin, and how, they have degenerate; but yet aske Counsell of both Times; Of the Ancient Time, what is best; and of the Latter Time, what is fittest. Seeke to make thy Course Regular; that Men may know before hand what they may expect: But be not too positive, and peremptorie; And expresse thy selfe well, when thou digressest from thy Rule. Preserve the Right of thy Place; but stirre not questions of Iurisdiction : And rather assume thy Right, in Silence, and de falto, then voice it, with Claimes, and Challenges. Preserve likewise, the Rights of Inferiour Places; And thinke it more Honour to direct in chiefe, then to be busie in all. Embrace, and invite Helps, and Advices, touching the Execution of thy Place; And doe not drive away such, as bring thee Information, as Medlers; but accept of them in good part. The vices of Authoritie are chiefly foure : Delaies; Corruption; Roughnesse; and Facilitie. For Delaies; Give easie Accesse; Keepe times appointed; Goe through with that which is in hand; And interlace not businesse, but of ne

cessitie. For Corruption; Doe not onely binde thine owne Hands, or thy Servants hands, from taking; but binde the hands of Sutours also from offring. For Integritie used doth the one; but Integritie professed, and with a manifest detestation of Bribery, doth the other. And avoid not onely the Fault, but the Suspicion. Whosoever is found variable, and changeth manifestly, without manifest Cause, giveth Suspicion of Corruption. Therefore, alwayes, when thou changest thine Opinion, or Course, professe it plainly, and declare it, together with the Reasons, that move thee to change; And doe not thinke to steale it. A Servant, or a Favorite, if hee be inward, and no other apparant Cause of Esteeme, is commonly thought but a By-way, to close Corruption. For Roughnesse; It is a needlesse cause of Discontent: Severitie breedeth Feare, but Roughnesse breedeth Hate. Even Reproofes from Authoritie, ought to be Grave, and not Taunting. As for Facilitie; It is worse then Bribery. For Bribes come but now and then; But if Importunitie, or Idle Respects lead a Man, he shall never be without. As Salomon saith; To respect Persons, is not good; For such a man will transgresse for a peece of Bread. It is most true, that was anciently spoken; A place sheweth the Man: And it sheweth some to the better, and some to the worse: Omnium consensu, capax Imperij, nisi imperasset; saith Tacitus of Galba: but of Vespasian he saith; Solus Imperantium Vespasianus mutatus in melius. Though the one was meant of Sufficiencie, the other of Manners, and Affection. It is an as

sured Signe, of a worthy and generous Spirit, whom Honour amends. For Honour is, or should be, the Place of Vertue: And as in Nature, Things move violently to their Place, and calmely in their Place: So Vertue in Ambition is violent, in Authoritie setled and calme. All Rising to Great Place, is by a winding Staire: And if there be Factions, it is good, to side a Mans selfe, whilest hee is in the Rising; and to ballance Himselfe, when hee is placed. Use the Memory of thy Predecessour fairely, and tenderly; For if thou dost not, it is a Debt, will sure be paid, when thou art gone. If thou have Colleagues, respect them, and rather call them, when they looke not for it, then exclude them, when they have reason to looke to be called. Be not too sensible, or too remembring, of thy Place, in Conversation, and private Answers to Suitors; But let it rather be said; When he sits in Place, he is another Man.

XII

Of 23oldnesse

IT

T is a triviall Grammar Schoole Text, but

yet worthy a wise Mans Consideration. Question was asked of Demosthenes; What was the Chiefe Part of an Oratour? He answered, Action; what next ? Action; what next again? Action. He said it, that knew it best; And had by nature, himselfe, no Advantage, in that he commended. A strange thing, that that Part of an Oratour, which is but superficiall, and rather the vertue of a Player; should be placed so high, above those other Noble Parts, of Invention, Elocution, and the rest : Nay almost alone, as if it were All in All. But the Reason is plaine. There is in Humane Nature, generally, more of the Foole, then of the Wise; And therfore those faculties, by which the Foolish part of Mens Mindes is taken, are most potent. Wonderfull like is the Case of Boldnesse, in Civill Businesse; What first? Boldnesse; What Second, and Third? Boldnesse. And yet Boldnesse is a Childe of Ignorance, and Basenesse, farre inferiour to other parts. But neverthelesse,

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