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Nom. Sg. beothu life, Gen. bethad (for

bivat-at-as), Grk. Blórns, Latin aetas. Nom. Sg. nia, nia filius sororis, Gen.

niad (for nepātas), Latin nepās. The Irish nie might also contain the suffix

-at (with short vowel). Nom. Sg. tenge, tenga tongue, Gen. tengad

(for tengat-as); cf. Old Gaulish Attrebas. Nom. Sg. fili, file poet, Gen. filed (for

velet-as). Nom. Sg. tricha thirty, Gen. trichat (for

tri-cant-as); cf. Grk. Tplák-ovt-a: care, cara friend, Gen. carat (for caraj-ant

αs); cf. Grk. ελέφας, ιμάς, τύψας. Nom. Sg. fiche twenty, Gen. fichet (for

vicent-as); cf. Latin vig-int-i: lóche lightning, Gen. lóchet (for locent-as),

Latin torrens, agene. Nom. Sg. N. muir sea for mor-i, Latin

mar-e: 3 Sg. Pres. Act. berid for beret-i, Grk. pépet, Skr. bharat-i: 3 Pl. berit for berant-i, Doric pépovt-l, Skr.

bharant-i. Nom. Sg. fáith vates for vāt-is, Grk.

TT60-cs, Latin ign-is. Acc. Sg. faith n- for våt-in, Grk. Tóo-lv. Acc. Pl. fáthi for vātīs, Skr, kavin, Goth.

balgins. Nom, and Acc. Dual di šúil two eyes for

sūl-i, Skr. kav-i. Nom. Sg. rect right for rect-u, Latin

corn-u: 3 Sg. Imperat. berad for berat-u, Skr. bharat-u: 3 Pl. Imperat.

berat for berant-u, Skr. bharant-u. Nom. Sg. bith world for bit-us: mug

servus for mog-us: fiss knowledge for

viss-us, Goth, magus, Latin fructus. Acc. Sg. bith n- for bit-un, Latin fruct

um, Goth, magu. Acc. Pl. mogu, Goth. maguns, Lat. fructus. Nom. and Acc. Du. mug for mog-u,

Skr. bāhū, two arms. Nom. Pl. M. eich for equ-i, Latin equ-i,

Grk. (TT-OL: Nom. Du. Fem. di choiss two feet for coss-i, Skr. kanye two maids: Dat. Sg. don menmain menti for meneman-i, Skr. manman-e, Latin

patr-i. Dat. Sg. M. and N. don fiur to the man

for vir-u: dond eoch to the horse for

equ-o, Latin vir-o, Grk. In mW. Dat. Sg. F. don túaith to the people, for

tot-i, Grk. χώρα, δίκη ?

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89. The effect of the original terminal sound is only discoverable in the initial sound of the following word, when both words according to the construction are very nearly connected with one another : as article and substantive, substantive and adjective, numeral and substantive, preposition and article or substantive, verbal particle and verb, negative and verb, relative pronoun and verb, conjunction and verb, infixed pronoun and verb. These combinations are treated as if they were one word. The terminal sound of the first part and the initial sound of the second part are treated almost as if they were standing in the median sound. An attributive modification with a preposition may closely belong to the preceding noun: fúan cáin corcra n-imbi, a beautiful purple cloak about him, FB. 45: 08e cen udnucht n-imbi, SP. 111, 6: dobera muin n-immi, Ir. T. p. 144, 31.

90. Three things may occur as to the initial sound of the following word : (1) it exhibits aspiration : (2) it exhibits a nasal : (3) it exhibits no change of the kind.

ASPIRATION.

91. Aspiration has taken place after an original vowel terminal sound of the preceding word. Aspiration changes c and t to ch and th; 8 and f to s and Š (S 4) and in Middle and Modern Irish also b, d, g, m to bh, dh, gh, mh. The remaining sounds are not affected by aspiration.

92. The following forms and words are followed by aspiration (cf. Z. p. 180, Stokes, Fís Adamnáin, p. 38): (1) The article

in the Gen. and Dat. Sg. M. and N. (Toû, TỘ), the Nom. Pl. M. Oź (), the Nom. and Dat. Sg. F. (Ý, tậ), see $ 171. (2) The

nominal a-stems in the same cases, if an adjective or a genitive follows after them: Gen. Sg. M. oc fennad lóig fothlai: fiad a chlaidib thana deirg: in trir churad: Dat. Sg. M. N. co n-galur fáail : co n-ilur thor : a triur churad : do airiuc thuile: ón mud chetna : Nom. Pl. M. naim thuascirt in domain: a thárraluig slighith: Nom. Sg. F. fled chaurad: rigon...chaemcasto: tegdas chumtachta : Dat. F. di chlaind chéit ríg: alleind chorcra: co m-binne cheoil. Also in Voc. Sg. a ingen fial: Nom. Du. grúad chorcra Lg. 18, 13. (3) In general all stems in the Dat. Sg. co mid chollan chain: iar cuairt chaille : do gin chlaidib: ón chomdid chumachtach : ó Choin cherda Conchobair : na leth chlí: do denam thole : sin t-síd thréll : in lin chein. Also in the case originally distinguished from the dative (instrumental?) which is used to note time: ind adaig thússech, in the first night. (4) The Nom. Sg. cú; Cúchulaind, literally, the hound of Culann. (5) The vocative particle a.

(6) The possessive pronouns mo my, do thy, and the mas

asculine, a his, of the third person. (7) The Nom. Acc. Du. M. and F. di two: the Nom. Acc. N. trí three (trá chét cethir four. (8) The prepositions di, do, fo, ó, tré, air (ar), cen, fiad, imm, ol, ós : also eter (though as to Old Irish the reverse is noted, Z. 656). (9) The negations ni (mani), na, nach, nad. In Old Irish, according to Zeussa 179, aspiration is often absent after ni. Probably in this case the two words are not to be pronounced quickly one after the other but separately with emphasis, e.g. if, as in ni clóin non injustus, the copula is absent between the negation and the predicate. (10) The verbal particles no, ro, do. (11) The enclitic infixed pronouns -m me, -t te; of the pronouns of the 3rd person according to Zo 181: d, n (eum, id), a (id, eos),” which is supported in the Irish texts by nod chluined Lg. 8 (referring to andord M. or N.), conda thanic adiit eos Hy. 2. 39. (12) The 3rd Sg. rel. as, bas, the 3rd Sg. Second Present bad, the 3rd Sg. Perf, bu, bo, ba; according to Z? 181 also other forms of the verb substantive : as chóir, and so on; bas ferr Sc. M. 2; ro bad chomairche, SC. 10; diammad chara SC. 10. 7; co m-bo chomsolus FB. 2 and so on. After bad and bu aspiration is still usual in Modern Irish (O'Donovan, Gr. p. 386). (13) Isolated forms of other verbs: fuachimm chein SP. II. 10: hi tucu cheist SP. II. 12; nad déni thoil SP. IV. 2; tairces churathmir FB. 73. (14) Certain pro

nouns:

08 me chene SP. II. 12; coich thussa SC. 12; cia thoetsat Sc. M. 3. 16; is thorrach Lg. 1; further cíasо thú TE. 13, LU.; masa thú SC. 33. 30. (15) The conjunctions ce cia though, ó since ; mar as; feib how: ciá thíastaís FB. 61; o thanic 81 ; mar charas SC. 44. 10; feib thallad FB. 82. ACcording to Zeuss182 also if, air then. Moreover the conjunctions ocus, is and, or : lígradóir...ocus charrmocail FB. 2; do brothrachaib...ocus cholcthib 4; ocus chineul TE. 2 Eg.; eter aite is chomalta SC. 29. 3; itir suide no sessam Hy. 1. 3; cuslennaig chornairi Lg. 17, 22.

93. Aspiration has come to be used as a grammatical instrument in cases where it has no etymological ground. To ' this some of the above-indicated cases may belong which may be indicated as follows: (1) Aspiration appears as a mark of the feminine, after the Nom. Sg. of i stems also, although this originally terminated in is: súil cháirech; turbaid chotulta ; gáir chommaidmi ; gáir chuitbiuda. In the same way of other stems : nau tholl; ail chloche. (2) As sign of the masculine also after a genitive which originally terminated in as ; glond catha chomramuig; in chon chetna ; bethath che ; perhaps also ind ríg thuas SP. iv. 2. (3) In the initial sound of verbal forms before which the relative pronoun is absent: in cúach thucais FB. 74 ; ni fri biasta chathaigmit-ni 57,73; theis 17; is thuc 73; co fult budi thic immach SC. 33. 26; is messi thall TE. 13, Eg. Aspiration here expresses a dependence or close conjunction; and it has the same significance when the object appears aspirated after verbal forms of various kind (cf. also co n-den-sai chorai Ir. T.

p. 130, 29), or the predicate after any form of the verb substantive. In Modern Irish the Acc. thú thee is distinguished by its permanent aspiration from the Nom. .

94. Later aspiration is sometimes made use of after word forms which were distinguished within the historic period by a vowel termination, although they have lost a consonant at the end: chóigith TE. 1 Eg: : re se thráth Sc. M. 21. 36.

95. In some words a certain fleetness in the articulation

appears to have led to a permanent aspiration of the initial sound: chucai, chucu (ad eum, ad eos), chena, thra, as for ind ríg thúas of the king above, SP. iv. 2 (cf. § 61).

96. Aspiration is regularly employed in the second member of a compound. Most of the stems which stand in the first part of a compound terminated originally in a vowel, and these have given the rule for every compound : dobar chú otter (literally water-hound), roth-chless play of wheel ; briathar-chath word-battle ; óen-fecht once; ard-chend high-headed; óenchossid one-legged: thence also ríg-thech king's house (stem rég- with composition" vowel); often after 80-, Skr, su-, e.g. 80-chumact potens, but also after do-, although this originally (Skr. dusGrk, dvo-) terminated in a consonant, e.g. do-chumact impotens; after mi-, miss-, e.g. mi-thoimtiu bad intention, cf. Goth. missadeds misdeed.

ECLIPSIS.) Tim

97. A nasal appears before the initial sound of the following word, if the preceding word originally had a nasal as its terminal sound. This nasal is drawn to the following word, and its form is directed by the nature of the subsequent initial sound. It appears as n before d, g and vowels; as m before b; before c, t, f, sit disappears ( 42); it becomes assimilated to a subsequent n, m, r, I, though, even in Old Irish, these sounds are not always written double (gen, pl, narrúun, commonly na rún of the secrets). Perhaps the disappearance of the nasals before c, t, f, s is, at least in part, founded on assimilation.

98. Modern Irish grammarians call this change of initial sound ECLIPSIS.) The preceding sound eclipses the original initial sound in the pronunciation: na mbárd of the bards is pronounced na márd, &c.; c, t, and f are also affected by this eclipsis in later Irish writing, receiving before themselves g, d, and bh: na gceart of the rights is pronounced na geart. This change has nothing to do directly with the original nasal, but it

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