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is the same which in ordinary internal sound has affected the unaspirated c and f in Old Irish (éc death, Modern Irish éug, and in the same way Old Irish na cert, Modern Irish na gceart).

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99. The following forms have a nasal after them :

(1) The article in the nom. sg. neuter, acc. sg. and gen. pl. of all three genders.

(2) All a-stems in the same cases, nom. sg. neuter: dliged n-doraid, lestar n-arggit, acc. sg. masc. ar fer n-aile, fem. gen. pl. co mathib fer n-Ulad.

(3) Generally all masculines and feminines in the acc. sg. and all three genders in the gen. pl. rég n-amra.

(4) The nom. dual neuter and the dative dual of all three genders of (n-, dib n- two).

(5) The plural possessive pronouns ar our, far your, a their (French leur).

(6) The prepositions co with; i in, iar after, ré before.

(7) The numerals secht, ocht, nói, deich (ocht probably after analogy of the three others). (8) The infixed pronouns a, da eam, 8 eam, eos.

After suppression of the a there remains of the first two only -n- and -dn-; rom-bertaigestar, rod m-bertaigedar, Sc. M. 15.

(9) The relative pronoun a.

100. Here also transfers have taken place: after analogy of neuters in a, neuters in i and as have also received such an n: muir n-Icht, mind n-oir, inmain n-ainm... Aeda, dear the name of Aed; hi tech n-oil.

In neuters in man the nasal may belong to the stem: léim n-úathmar ainm n-Aeda.

101. On the other hand, as the neuter as a separate gender gradually dies away, so also sometimes the n before neuter astems is wanting.

102. In all remaining cases, where in the grammatical formulæ mentioned in $ 89 neither aspiration nor the nasal is observable, the first word-form originally had as terminal sound any consonant except m or n.

103. Cases occur in which the last syllable of words of more than one syllable has remained as such, even when not in their original condition. The last syllable is preserved :

(1) when it ends in r: bráthir, Latin frater, eter, Latin inter;

(2) when it terminates in a double consonant: do-berat they give, for berant, Greek č epov; firu, Latin viros, Goth. rairans ; lóche lightning, a nominative form like the Latin lucens;

(3) when it contained a long vowel with final s, t, or d: tuatha the peoples, nom. pl., as Goth. thiudos, Skr. kanyās the maidens: do-bera he may give, 3 sg. conj. pres. as Latin ferat, Skr. bharāt.

104a. Of final consonants except the nasal (in the cases mentioned § 97) only r and the t of the group nt are preserved. gs, ks, ts, nts, ns were assimilated to 88,8, and have disappeared: rí king, Latin rex; mí month, Latin mensis; lóche, lightning (gen, lóchet); cf. Latin lucens.

1015. Rarely an original s in terminal sound is assimilated to a following m, n, r or l: e.g. the 8 of the form inna, na of the article; gen. sg. fem. nammucci of the pig; gen. sg. fem. nallongsi of the banishment; cf. allatin e Latino, prep. ass a, Latin ex.

105. In the third sg. of the s-future of the conjoined flexion a similar 88, s has disappeared, although it did not originally stand in the final sound: téi stands for a pre-historic tēss-it, cf. Grk. OTELEEL.

106. In the gen. sg. of masculine and neuter stems in a and in the dat. sg. of neuters in as more than one syllable has been lost: eich equi appears to answer to the Skr. açvasya: tij, dative of teg house, must have had a termination after the stem-form teges-.


107. h is often placed as in mediæval Latin before an initial vowel. This is without fixed rule in Old Irish, but gradually becomes invariable in particular cases:

(1) after the forms inna and na of the article (gen. sg. fem., nom. pl.), e.g. na hingine of the girl; na heich the steeds;

(2) after the possessive a fem. gen., e.g. a ech his steed, a hech her steed;

(3) after the prepositions co, fri, la, a (ass), e.g. co hEmain, fri hór, la háes, a hEmain;

(4) after ba fuit, e.g. halaind, ba , but also in any other situation often hé, he;

(5) in general before certain words without regard to the preceding word, e. ġ. before the preposition in- when its nasal has disappeared: T'emraig in Tara; hitá ubi est; very often h Eriu, h Erend.

108. In Middle and Later Irish an f is placed before certain words: focus, comfocus near, Old Irish ocus, fúacht cold, Old Irish úacht; for inquit, Old Irish or, ol; fur-áil enjoin, Old Irish ur., er-áil; ros-fuc tulit eos, Old Irish ro uc, ruc; dos fanic came to them, Old Irish do anic, tánic; con facca vidit, Old Irish con acca; dona fib eis qui, Old Irish donaib .


1085. Sometimes, especially in Later Irish, the initial vowel in small proclitic words is suppressed: con tein for ocon tein by the fire; tudchatar for imma tudchatar wherefore they are come; sin maig for isin maig on the plain; na

lámaib for inna lámaib in their hands. Thus also in the article na has arisen from inna.

108. Thus also the 8 of the initial sound of the proclitic article and relative pronoun has disappeared and has only survived in union with prepositions which had a consonantal terminal sound (cf. $ 169 and $ 207). Thus also the conjunction and preposition amal, amail may be put with samail likeness, Latin simile.



109. Declension varies according to the original terminal sound of the stem. The following may be distinguished :

I. Stems in a, with the subdivision of stems in ia, Masculine, Feminine and Neuter;

II. Stems in i, Masculine, Feminine and Neuter;
III. Stems in u, Masculine and Neuter;

IV. Stems with consonantal terminal sound, namely (a) stems in d, th (originally t) and + (originally nt), (6) stems in a guttural, (c) stems in r (the terms of kinship), (d) stems in n, Masculine and Feminine, (e) Neuters in man, (f) Neuters in as and other stems in s.


(a) Stems in a.

7. 110. Paradigms: fer Masc. man, túath Fem. people, dliged Neut. law.

Singular. N. in fer

in túath ($ 64) a n-dliged no G. ind för inna túaithe

in dligid D. dond fiur don túaith

don dligud A. in fer no

in túaith no a n-dliged nV. a fär a thuath

a dliged n. I, G,


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