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czar of Russia', or contemplating defeat at the gallows of Leipsic'; he was still the same military despot'.

5. In this wonderful combination, his affectations of literature must not be omitted. The jailer of the press', he affected the patronage of letters'; the proscriber of books', he encouraged philosophy'; the persecutor of authors', and the murderer of printers', he yet pretended to the protection of learning'; the assassin of Palm', the silencer of De Stäel', and the denouncer of Kotzebue', he was the friend of David', the benefactor of De Lille', and sent his academic prize to the philosopher of England'.

6. Such a medley of contradictions', and, at the same time, such an individual consistency', were never united in the same character! A royalist', a republican', and an emperor'; a Mohammedan, a Catholic', and a patron of the synagogue'; a subaltern and a sovereign'; a traitor and a tyrant; a Christian and an infidel; he was, through all his vicissitudes, the same stern, impatient, inflexible original'; the same mysterious, incomprehensible self'; the man without a model', and without a shadow'


From SHAKSPEARE. WILLIAM SHAKSPEARE was born at Stratford-on-Avon, in England, in 1564. He was the son of a wool-comber, and received some education at a grammar school, though little is known with certainty of the incidents of his life. He removed to London when about twenty-two years of age, and rose to distinction through the success of his immortal dramas. He died in 1616.

To be', or not to be: that is the question :
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune',
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing' end' them? To die': 'to sleep';
Nô more; and by a sleep' to say we end
The heart-ache' and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to, 't is a consummation
Devoutly to be wished. To die', to sleep';
To sleep': perchance to dream-ay!, there's the rub;

For in that sleep of death what dreams may come
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil
Must give us pause: there's the respect
That makes calamity of so long life';
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time',
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,
The pangs of despised love!, the law's delay!,
The insolence of office, and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes',
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bodkin'? Who would fardels bear,
To grunt and sweat under a weary life',
But that the dread of something after death,
The undiscovered country' from whose bourn
No traveler returns', puzzles the will
And makes us rather bear the ills we have
Than fly to others that we know not of ?
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all\;
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought,
And enterprises of great pith and moment
With this regard their currents turn awry',
And lose the name of action.


FROM THOMAS Hoop, Thomas Hood was born in 1798. He is chiefly distinguished as a humorist and comic poet. He was for a time the editor of the New Monthly Magazine. The Plea of the Midsummer Fairies," Song of the Shirt," and “Whims and Oddities,” are among his most popular productions. He died in 1845. Ile ranks first among English poets of his style.

The following lesson presents an example, in which the matter included in the parentheses, is disconnected with the main subject, and is, therefore, subject to the general principles of inflection.

1. Thou happy, happy elf'!
(But stop', first let me kiss away

that tear';)
Thou tiny image of myself!
(My love, he's poking peas into his ear'!)

Thou merry, laughing sprite',
With spirits feather-light,

Untouched by sorrow, and unsoiled by sin’;
(My dear, the child is swallowing a pin'!)



Thou little tricksy Puck'!
With antic toys so funnily bestuck,

Light as the singing bird that wings the air,(The door'! the door'! he'll tumble down the stair!!)

Thou darling of thy sire'!
(Why, Jane, he'll set his pinafore afire!)

Thou imp of mirth and joy'!
In love's dear chain so bright a link,

Thou idol of thy parents';—(Hang' the boy!
There goes my ink'!)

Thou cherub—but of earth';
Fit playfellow for fays, by moonlight pale,

In harmless sport and mirth',
(That dog will bite' him, if he pulls his tail!)

Thou human humming-bec', extracting honey From every blossom in the world that blows,

Singing in youth's Elysium ever sunny', (Another tumble'!-that's his precious nose!!)

Thy father's pride and hope'! (He'll break the mirror with that skipping-rope'!)

With pure heart newly stamped from Nature's mint. (Where did he learn that squint\?)

Thou young domestic dove'! (He'll have that jug' off, with another shove'!)

Dear nursling of the hymeneal nest! (Are these torn clothes his best ?)

Little epitome of man! (He'll climb upon the table', that's' his plan!)

Touched with the beauteous tints of dawning life', (He's got a knife !)

Thou enviable being'!
No storms, no clouds, in thy blue sky foreseeing,

Play on', play on',

My elfin John'! Toss the light ball, bestridel the stick, (I knew' so many cakes would make him sick'!)

With fancies buoyant as the thistle-down, Prompting the face grotesque, and antic brisk',

With many a lamb-like frisk! (He's got the scissors, snipping at your gown'!)




Thou pretty opening rose'! (Go to your mother, child', and wipe your nose'!)

Balmy and breathing music like the south’, (Lle really brings my heart into


mouth!) Bold as the hawk', yet gentle as the dove'; (I'll tell you what', my love',

I can not write, unless he's sent above!!)


WILLIAM Pitt, afterward Earl of Chatham, and Sir ROBERT WALPOLE, were distinguished English statesmen of the last century. Pitt entered Parliament when he was twenty-seven. At that time, Walpole was a leading politician, and as Pitt opposed his measures with a force and eloquence seldom equaled, he drew upon himself the opposition of Walpole, as expressed in this extract, and which Pitt answered in the succeeding extract with a vigor and eloquence never surpassed.

In this and some succeeding lessons, the emphatic words are marked, in addition to the inflections.

1. I was unwilling to interrupt the course of this debate, while it was carried on with calmness and decency, by men who do not suffer the ardor of opposition to cloud their reason, or transport them to such expressions as the dignity of this assembly does not admit.

2. I have hitherto deferred answering the gentleman, who declaimed against the bill with such fluency and rhetoric, and such vehemence of gesture; who charged the advocates for the expedients now proposed, with having no regard to any interests but their own, and with making laws only to consume paper', and threatened them with the defection of their adherents, and the loss of their influence, upon this new discovery of their folly and ignorance. Nor, do I now answer him for any other purpose, than to remind him how little the clamor of rage' and petulancy of invective, contribute to the end for which this assembly is called together'; how little the discovery of truth is promoted', and the security of the nation established, by pompous diction and theatrical eniotion.

3. Formidable sounds and furious declamation, confident assertions' and lofty periods', may affect the young and incxperienced; and perhaps the gentleman may have contraoted his habits of oratory, by conversing more with those of his own age, than with such as have more opportunities of acquiring knowledge, and more successful methods of communicating their sentiments. If the heat of temper would permit him to attend to those, whose age and long acquaintance with business give them an indisputable right to deference and superiority, he would learn in time to reason', rather than declaim'; and to prefer justness of argument and an accurate knowledge of facts', to sounding epithets and splendid superlatives', which may disturb the imagination for a moment, but leave no lasting impression upon the mind. He would learn, that to accuse and prove' are very different'; and that reproaches, unsupported by evidence', affect only the character of him that utters' them.

4. Excursions of fancy and flights of oratory', are indeed pardonable in young' men, but in no other; and it would surely contribute more, even to the purpose for which some gentlemen appear to speak, (that of depreciating the conduct of the administration',) to prove the inconveniences and injustice of this bill', than barely to assert' them, with whatever magnificence of language', or appearance of zeal, honesty', or compassion'


See note at the head of the preceding Exercise.
(Observe in this, examples of antithesis and relative emphasis.)

1. The atrocious crime of being a young man, which the honorable gentlemen has, with such spirit and decency, charged upon me, I shall neither attempt to palliate nor deny'; but content myself with hoping, that I may be one of those whose follies cease with their youth', and not of that number, who are ignorant in spite of experience. Whether youth' can be imputed to a man as a reproach', I will not assume the province of determining'; but surely ăge may become justly contemptible, if the opportunities which it brings have passed away without improvement', and vice appears to prevail', when the passions' have subsided". The wretch', who, after having seen the consequences of a thou

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