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PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION.

The subject of Elocution, so far as it is deemed applicable to a work of this kind, will be considered under the following heads, viz. :

1. ARTICULATION;

4. READING VERSE; 2. INFLECTION;

5. THE VOICE; 3. ACCENT AND EMPHASIS; 6. GESTURE.

I. ARTICULATION.

FAULTS TO BE REMEDIED.

The most common faults of articulation are the following, viz. :

1. Dropping an unaccented vowel.

EXAMPLES.

CORRECT.

INCORRECT.

INCORRECT.

Gran'a-ry
im-mor tal
mock'er-y
lam-en-ta'tion
in-clem'ent
des'ti-ny
u-ni-ver'si-ty
un-certain
col'o-ny
emỏer-y
em'i-nent
ag'o-ny
eb'on-y
rev'er-ent

gran'ry.
im-mor-t'l.
mock'ry.
lam'n-ta-tion.
in-clem'nt.
des-t'ny.
u-ni-vers'ty.
un-cer-t'n.
col'ny.
emory.
em'nent.
ag'ny.
eb'ny.
rev'rent

CORRECT.
har'mo-ny
a-ban'don
reg'u-lar
par-tic'u-lar
sin'gu-lar
cal-cu-la'tion
cir-cu-la'tion
na'tion
Oc-ca'sion
fel'o-ny
ef'fi-gy
fem'o-ral
man'i-fold
culti-vate

harm'ny.
a-ban-don.
regʻlar.
par-tic'lar.
sin-g'lar.
cal-cl'a-sh'n.
cir-cl’a-sh'n.
na-sh'n.
oc-ca-sh'n.

fel'ny.

ef'gy.

fem'ral. man'fold. cult'vate.

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The vowels most likely to be dropped or incorrectly sounded are italicized.

He attended divine service regularly.
This is my particular request.
He graduated at one of the Eastern Universities.
She is universally esteemed.
George is sensible of his fault.
This calculation is incorrect.
His fears were justified by the event.
What a terrible calamity.
I will support the Constitution of the United States.
The whole nation lamented him.
His eye through vast immensity can pierce.
Observe these nice dependencies.
He is a formidable adversary.
Away! presumptuous man.
I will go and be reconciled to my brother.
He is generous to his friends.
A tempest desolated the land.
His reputation is ruined.
He preferred death to servitude.
God is the author of all things visible and invisible.
He is a man of eminent merit.
Expect not my commendation.
Caius' countenance fell.
He has contracted a bad habit.
Tell me the difference between articulation and utterance.
He was delighted with the exhibition.

3. Suppressing the final consonants.

EXAMPLES.
John an' James are frien's o' my father.
Boun' han' an' foot.
Gi' me some bread.
Tuf's o' grass.
The want o' men is occasioned by the want o' money.
We seldom fine' men o' principle to ac' thus.
Beas' an' creepin' things were foun' there.
Thrus' thy sickle into the harves'.
Thou has' thousan' frien's on thy side.
Evenin' an' mornin', an' at noon o' night.

EXERCISES.

He learned to write.
Did
you
find
any

birds' nests?
The masts of the ship were cast down.
He entered the lists at the head of his troops.
Be ye wise as serpents and harmless as doves.
He is the merriest fellow in existence.
I regard not the world's opinion.
Such were his commands.
He has three assistants.
Thou thoughtest that I was such a one as thyself.
The depths of the sea.
She trusts too much to servants.
He halts between two opinions.
His attempts were fruitless.
That race of animals is extinct.
He chanced to see a bee hovering over a flower.

4. Omitting or mispronouncing whole syllables.

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EXAMPLES.
Lit'er-a-ry is improperly pronounced lit-rer-ry.
nec'es-sa-ry

ne-ces-ry or nes-ry. co-tem'po-ra-ry

co-tem-po-ry. ex-tcm'po-ra-ry

ex-tem-po-ry. het-eroge'ne-ous

het-ro-ge-nous. in quis-i-to'ri-al

in-quis-i-to-ral. mis'er-a-ble

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mis-rer-ble. tol'er-a-ble

tol-rer-ble. con-fed'er-a-cy

con-fed-rer-cy. ac-com'pa-ni-ment"

ac-comp-ner-ment.

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EXERCISES.
He devoted his attention chiefly to literary pursuits.
He is a miserable creature.
He is a venerable man.
His faults were owing to the degeneracy of the times.
The manuscript was undecipherable.
The confederacy continued for many years.
His spirit was unconquerable,
It was a grand accompaniment.
Luther and Melancthon were cotemporaries.

Great industry was necessary for the performance of the task. 5. Blending the end of one word with the beginning of the next.

EXAMPLES.
I court thy gif sno more.
Bag sof gold.
Han d'me the slate.
The grove swere God sfir stemples.
This worl dis all a fleeting show,

For man' sillusion given.
My hear twas a mirror, that show devery treasure.
It reflecte deach beautiful blosso mof pleasure.

EXERCISES.
The magistrates ought to arrest the rogues speedily.
Life flutters convulsed in his quivering limbs.
The whirlwinds sweep the plain.
He went over the mountain.
Linked to thy side, through every chance I go.
But had he seen an actor in our days enacting Shakspeare.
What awful sounds assail my ears ?
We caught a glimpse of her.
Crowded houses and new pieces.
Old age has on their temples shed her silver frost.
Our eagle shall rise mid the whirlwinds of war,

And dart through the dun cloud of battle his eye.
Then honor shall weave of the laurel a crown,

That beauty shall bind on the brow of the brave. QUESTIONS.—Under what heads is the subject of Elocution considered ? What is the first source of defective articulation that is named? Give examples. What the second ? Give examples. Name the third, and give examples. What the fourth ? Give examples. Describe the fifth fault, and illustrate by examples.

DIRECTIONS FOR ACQUIRING A GOOD ARTICULATION. WORDS being made up of one or more elementary sounds, the first object of the student should be, to acquire the power of uttering those elements with distinctness and force; for if the elementary sounds are but imperfectly formed, the entire word must be indistinct.

Practice upon these sounds should be persevered in, until the learner has acquired a perfect control of his organs of speech. This exercise is one of great importance, as, in addition to the habit of correct articulation thus formed, it imparts a strength to the voice which can not be acquired in any other way.

As the vowels are the most prominent elements of all words, as well as the most easily uttered, it is proper that they should constitute the first lesson.

Each of these can be uttered with great force, so as to give a distinct expression of its sound, although the voice is suddenly suspended, the moment the sound is produced. This is done by expelling each sound from the throat in the same manner that the syllable “ah!” is uttered in endeavoring to deter a child from something it is about to do; thus, a'-a'-a'

Let the pupil be required to explode from the throat, in this manner, every one of the elements, in the following table, with all possible suddenness and percussive force, until he is able to do it with ease and accuracy. This must not be considered as accomplished, until he can give each sound with entire clearness, and with all the suddenness of the "crack" of a rifle. Care must be taken that the sound of the vowel alone be heard.

EXERCISE ON VOWEL ELEMENTS.
Pronounce each word, and then its vowel sounds.
a as heard in fate, main, say, they, feint, weigh, break, &c.

mat, hat, partial, &c.
bar, car, ah, vaunt, heart, guard, &c.
ball, hall, cause, saw, broad, groat, sought, &c.

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