« PreviousContinue »
9. Absalom's beauty', Jonathan's love', David's valor', Solomon's wisdom', the patience of Job', the prudence of Augustus', and the eloquence of Cicero', are found in perfection in the Creator.
RULE XI.-All the members of a concluding series, usually require the falling inflection, except the last but one, which has the rising inflection.
EXAMPLES. 1. It is our duty to pity, to support', to defend', and to relieve' the oppressed.
2. At the sacred call of country, they sacrifice property', ease', health', applause', and even life!
3. I protest against this measure as cruel', oppressive', tyrannous', and vindictive!
4. God was manifest in the flesh', justified in the spirit', seen of angels', preached unto the Gentiles', believed on in the world', and received up into glory.
5. Charity is not puffed up', doth not behave itself unseemly', is not easily provoked', thinketh no evil', rejoiceth in the truth', beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth' all things, endureth' all things.
6. Nature has laid out all her art in beautifying the face; she has touched it with vermillion', pianted it with a double row of ivory' made it the seat of smiles and blushes', lighted it up and relieved it with the brightness of the eyes', hung it on each side with curious organs of sense', given it airs and graces which can not be described', and surrounded it with such a flowing shade of hair as sets all its beauties in the most agreeable light.
EXCEPTION 1.—When the particulars enumerated in a commencing or concluding series are not at all emphatic, they receive the usual inflection.
1. New York', Boston', Philadelphia', and Cincinnati', are large cities.
2. He was esteemed for his kindness', his intelligence', his selfdenial, and his active benevolence.
EXCEPTION 2.-In a series forming a climax, it is not unusual to reserve the falling inflection for the last term alone.
EXAMPLES. 1. Days', months', years', and ages', shall circle away,
And still the vast waters above thee shall roll. 2. Property', character', reputation', everything was sacrificed.
3. Toils', sufferings', wounds', and death', was the price of our liberty.
EXCEPTION 3.—When all the terms are strongly emphatic, they sometimes all receive the falling inflection.
1. They saw not one man', not one woman', not one child', not one four-footed beast!
2. His hopes', his happiness', his life', hung upon the words that fell from those lips.
3. They fought', they bled', they died, for freedom.
REMARKS ON SERIES.
REMARK 1.-The preceding rules are those given by most standard authors on this subject, both American and English. One or two authors, however, propose the following method for avoiding monotony.
EXAMPLES. 1. Desire', aversion', rage, love, hope, and fear, are drawn in miniature upon the stage.
2. Joy!, grief, fear, anger', pity', scorn, hate, jealousy, and love', stamp assumed distinction upon the player.
3. Mr. Locke's definition of wit comprehends metaphors', enigmas', mottoes', parables', fables', dreams', visions', dramatic writings', burlesque', and all the methods of allusion!!
REMARK 2.—Where a series consists of more than five members, one author proposes its division into two or more parts, as in the following
EXAMPLES. 1. Neither blindness', nor gouť, nor age', nor penury', nor domestic afflictions', nor political disappointments', nor abuse', nor proscription', nor neglect', had power to disturb him.
2. Herodotus', Xenophon’, Pericles', Phocion', Thales', Solon', Chilo', Pittacus', Bias', Cleobolus’, Periander, Thucydides', Socrates', Plato!, Aristotle', Isocrates', Lysias', Themistocles', Demosthenes', Pindar, Phidias', Euripides', Apelles', and Aristides', were distinguished men.
REMARK 3.—The only correct rules upon this or any subject connected with language, are merely a record of good usage, that is, such as is authorized by a majority of the best speakers and writers of the day. It is becoming more common than formerly for speakers to deliver the whole of a concluding series with the falling inflection and the whole of a commencing series with the rising inflection, and it is not improbable that this may be ere long the prevailing custom.
PARENTHESIS. RULE XII.-A clause included in a parenthesis, should be read more rapidly and in a lower tone than the rest of the sentence, and should terminate with the same inflection that next precedes it. If, however, it is complicated, or emphatic, or disconnected with the main subject, the inflections must be governed by the same rules as in other cases.
EXAMPLES. 1. God is my witness', (whom I serve with my spirit, in the gospel of his Son',) that, without ceasing, I make mention of you always in my prayers, making request', (if, by any means, now at length, I might have a prosperous journey by the will of God',) to come unto you.
2. When he had entered the room three paces, he stood still; and laying his left hand upon his breasť', (a slender, white staff with which he journeyed being in his right',) he introduced himself with the little story of his convent.
3. If you, Æschines, in particular, were persuaded', (and it was no particular affection for me, that prompted you to give up the hopes, the appliances, the honors, which attended the course 1 then advised; but the superior force of truth, and your utter inability to point any course more eligible',) if this was the case, I it not highly cruel and unjust to arraign these measures now, when you could not then propose a better?
4. As the hour of conflict drew near' (and this was a conflict to be dreaded even by him'), he began to waver and to abate much of his boasting
CIRCUMFLEX. RULE XIII.-The circumflex is used to express irony, sarcasm, hypothesis, or contrast.
EXAMPLES. 1. But nobody can bear the death of Clodius. 2. Man never is, but always to bê, blest.
3. Thêy follow an adventurer whom they fear; wě serve a monarch whom we love. They boast, they come but to improve our state, enlarge our thoughts, and free us from the yoke of error. Yes, thěy will give enlightened freedom to our minds, who are themsělves the slaves of passion, avarice, and pride. They offer us their protection: yes, sūch protection as vŭltures give to lămbs, covering and devôuring them.
MONOTONE. RULE XIV.-The use of the monotone is confined chiefly to grave and solemn subjects. When carefully and properly employed, it gives great dignity to delivery.
EXAMPLES. 1. The unbeliever! one who can gāze upon the sūn, and mõõn, and stārs, and upon the unfāding and impērishable sky, spread out so magnificently above him, and sāy, “All this is the work of chance!” 2. God wālketh upon the ocean. Brilliantly
The glāssy waters mirror back his smīles;
I hāil thee, as in gorgeous rūbes,
High on a throne of royal stāte, which fār
5. His broad expānded wings
Lay cālm and motionless upon the air,
By the sõle āct of his unlorded will. QUESTIONS.—Name the several principles which govern the use of the falling inflection. Give an example of each. In what cases is the rising inflection used ? Give examples. In what cases are the two inflections united in the same sentence? What is antithesis ? Give the rule for antithesis. How does the disjunctive or influence the inflection? Give an example. What is a series? A commencing series? A concluding series? Give an example of each. What is a simple series ? A compound series? Give the rule for a commencing series. For a concluding series. Give examples. What are the remarks upon them? What is the rule for inflection in a clause contained in a parenthesis? When is the circumflex used ? When is the monotone used?
III. ACCENT AND EMPHASIS,
ACCENT. That syllable in a word which is uttered more forcibly than the others, is said to be accented; as the italicized syllables in the following words ; morn'ing,
ex-or' bi-tant, de-bate,
com-pre-hen'sive. Accent when marked, is denoted by the same characters as those used in inflection ; the acute accent, by (), and the grave, by (). The latter is merely a nominal distinction, and means only, that the syllable thus marked is not accented at all.
Common usage alone determines upon what syllable the accent should be placed, and to the lexicographer it belongs, to ascertain and record its decision on this point.
In some few cases, we can trace the reasons for common usage in this respect. In words which are used as different parts of speech, or which have different meanings, the distinction is sometimes denoted by changing the accent.