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minds. In few words, mysteries are due to secrecy. Besides (to say truth) makedness is uncomely, as well in mind as body ; and it addeth no small reverence to men's manners and actions, if they be not altogether open. As for talkers, and futile persons, they are commonly vain and credulous withal: for he that talketh what he knoweth, will also talk what he knoweth not ; therefore set it down, that a habit of secrecy is both politic and moral: and in this part it is good, that a man's face give his tongue leave to speak; for the discovery of a man's self, by the tracts of his countenance, is a great weakness and betraying, by how much it is many times more marked and believed than a man's words. For the second, which is dissimulation, it followeth many times upon secrecy by a necessity ; so that te that will be secret must be a dissembler in some degree; for men are too cunning to suffer a man to keep an indifferent carriage between both, and to be secret, without swayimg the balance on either side. They will so beset a man with questions, and úraw him om, and pick it out of him, that, without an absurd silence, he must shew an inclination one way ; or if he do not, they will gather as much by his silence as by his speech. As for equivocations, or oraculous speeches, they cannot hold out long: s0 that no man can be secret, except he give himself a little scope of dissimulatiom, which is, as it were, but the skirts, or train of secrecy. But for the third degree, whieh is simulation and false profession, that I hold more culpable, and less politic, except it be in great and rare matters: and, therefore, a general custom of simulation (which is this last degree,) is a vice rising either of a natural falseness, or fearfulness, or of a mind that hath some main faults; which because a man must needs disguise, it maketh him practise simulation in other things, lest his hand should be out of ufe. The advantages of simulation and dissimulation are three : first, to lay asleep opposition, and to surprise; for where a man's intentions are published, it is an alarum to call up all that are against them : the second is, to reserve to a man's self a fair retreat ; for if a man engage himself by a manifest declaration, he must go through, or take a fall: the third is, the better to discover the mind of another; for to him that opens himself men will hardly shew themselves averse ; but will fain let him go om. and turn their freedom of speech to freedom of thought; and therefore it is a good shrewd proverb of the Spaniard, * Tell a lie and find a troth;" as if there were no way of discovery but by simulation. There be also three disadvantages to set it even; the first, that simulation and dissimulation commonly carry with them a shew of fearfulness, which, in any business doth spoil the feathers of round fying up to the mark; the second, that it puzzleth and perplexeth the conceits of many, that, perhaps, would otherwise co-operate with him, and makes a man walk almost alone to his own ends ; the third, and greatest, is, that it depriveth a man of one of the most prin

cipal instruments for actiom, which is trust and belief. The best composition and temperature is, to have openness in fame and opiniom ; secrecy in habit ; dissimulation in seasonable use ; and a power to feign if there be no remedy.

VII. OF PARENTS AND CHILDREN.

The joys of parents are secret, and so are their griefs and fears ; they cannot utter the one, mor they will not utter the other. Children sweetem labours, but they make misfortunes more bitter : they increase the cares of life, but they mitigate the remembrance of death. The perpetuity by generation is common to beasts ; but memory, merit, and noble works, are proper to men: and surely a man shall see the noblest works and foundations: have proceeded from childless mem, which have sought to express the images of their minds, where those of their bodies have failed ; so the care of posterity is most in them that have no posterity. They that are the first raisers of their houses are most indulgent towards their children, beholding them as the continuance, not only of their kind, but of their work ; and so both children and creatures.

The difference in affection of parents towards their several children, is many times unequal, and sometimes unworthy, especially in the mother ; as Solomon saith, ** A wise son rejoieeth the father, but an ungracious son shames the mother." A man shall see, where- there is a house full of childrem,

one or two of the eldest respected, and the youngest made wantons ; but in the midst some that are as it were forgotten, who, many times, nevertheless, prove the best. The illiberality of parents, in allowance towards their children, is an harmful error, and makes them base ; acquaints them with shifts; makes them sortwith mean company; and makes them surfeit more when they come to plenty: and therefore the proofis best when men keep their authority towards their children, but not their purse. Men have a foolish manner (both parents, and schoolmasters, and servants,) in creating and breeding an emulation between brothers during childhood, which many times sorteth to discord when they are men, and disturbeth families. The Italians make little. difference between children and nephews, or near kinsfolks; but so they be of the lump, they care not, though they pass not through their own body ; and, to say truth, in nature it is much a like matter; insomuch that we see a mephew sometimes resembleth an uncle, or a kinsman, more than his own parents, as the blood happens. Let parents choose betimes the vocations and courses they mean their children should take, for then they are most flexible ; and let them mot too much apply themselves to the disposition of their children, as thinking they will take best to that which they have most mind to. It is true, that if the affection, or aptness of the children be extraordinary, then it is good not to cross it; but generally the precept is good, “ optimum “ elige, suave et facile illud faciet consuetudo."—

Younger brothers are commonly fortunate, but seldom or never where the elder are disinherited.

VIII. OF MARRIAGE AND SINGLE LIFE.*

He that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune ; for they are impediments to great enterprises, either of virtue or mischief. Certainly the best works, and of greatest merit for the public, have proceeded from the unmarried or childless men ; which, both in affection and means, have married and endowed the public. Yet it were great reason that those that have children should have greatest careof futuretimes, unto which they know they must transmit their dearest pledges. Some there are, who, though they lead a single life, yet their thoughts do end with themselves, and account future times impertinences ; nay, there are some other that account wifeandchildrenbutasbills ofcharges; nay more,there are some foolish rich covetous men, that take a pride in having no children, because they may be thought so much the richer ; for, perhaps, they have heard some talk, ** Such an one is a great rich man," and another except to it, “ Yea, but he hath a great * charge of children ;" as ifit were an abatement to his riches : but the most ordinary cause of a single life is liberty, especially in certain self-pleasing and humorous minds, which are so sensible of every re- ! straint, as they will go near to think their girdles and garters to be bonds and shackles. Unmarried men are best friends, best masters, best servants ; but not

• See note D at the end.

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