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hunting of the Fox and Wolf, because they did make havock of the sheep of Jesus Christ," 8vo. Tanner mentions a few other articles, and there are several of his tracts yet in manuscript, in various libraries. He collated the translation of the Bible with Hebrew, Greek, and Latin copies, and corrected it in many places. He procured to be printed at Antwerp a new and corrected edition of William of Newburgh's "Historia gentis nostræ," from a MS. he found in the library at Wells; but complains that the printer not only omitted certain articles sent by him, but left out the preface he sent him, and substituted one of his Our author also translated several works from the Latin, particularly "The comparison of the Old Learning and the New," written by Urbanus Regins, Southwark, 1537, 8vo, and again 1538 and 1548.
His first work on the subject of plants was printed at Cologn, under the title of "Historia de naturis herbarum, scholiis et notis vallata," 1544, 8vo. Bumaldus is the only writer who mentions this work, and it probably was not reprinted in England. It was followed by a small volume under the title of "Names of Herbes, in Greek, Latin, English, Dutch and French," Lond. 1548. As his knowledge in natural history was not confined to botany, he published a treatise on birds, entitled "Avium præcipuarum, quarum apud Plinium et Aristotelem mentio est, brevis et succincta historia," Cologn. 1543, 8vo. By a letter of his prefixed to Gesner's "Historia Animalium," edit. 1620, relating to the English fishes, it appears that he had no inconsiderable degree of knowledge in that part of zoology. But the work which secured his reputation to posterity, and entitles him to the character of an original writer on that subject, in England, is his "History of Plants," printed at different times, in three parts, in fol. with cuts, under the title of a "New Herbal," Lond. 1551, part first; part second at Cologn, in 1562; with this was reprinted the first part, and his "Book on the Bathes of England and Germany." These were reprinted, with a third part, in 1568. Dr. Pulteney has given a minute account of the contents and progress of this work, and observes, that when we regard the time in which Dr. Turner lived, and the little assistance he could derive from his contemporaries, he will appear to have exhibited uncommon diligence, and great erudition, and fully to deserve the character of an original writer. He also paid early
attention to mineral waters, and to wines; and wrote on
It appears that at one time there was a design of placing Dr. Turner at the head of Oriel college. Kennet mentions a letter to that college (1550, July 5) to accept Dr. Turner for master of the same, appointed by the king;" but this appointment certainly did not take place. But from a passage in his "Spiritual Physic," he appears to have been once a member of the House of Commons. Fox speaks of Turner with great respect, as "a man whose authority neither is to be neglected, nor credit to be disputed." He married Jane, daughter of George Ander, an alderman of Cambridge, who after his death married Cox, bishop of Ely. In memory of her first husband, she left some money and lands to Pembroke Hall.
By this lady Dr. Turner had a son, PETER, who was a physician, and practised in London, and resided the latter part of his life in St. Helen's, Bishopsgate-street, London. He died in 1614, and was buried near his father in St. Olave's church, where there is a monument to his memory. He married Pascha, sister to Dr. Henry Parr, bishop of Worcester, by whom he had eight children, one of whom is the subject of the following article. '
TURNER (PETER), Son to the preceding Dr. Peter, and grandson to Dr. William Turner, was boru in 1585, and was admitted a probationer fellow of Merton college, Oxford, in 1607, where he proceeded in arts, and not being restricted to any particular faculty, as the fellows of other colleges are, became, according to Wood, versed in all kinds of literature. His first preferment was the professorship of geometry in Gresham college, in July 1620, but he continued to reside mostly at Oxford, and held this place together with his fellowship. In 1629, by the direction of Laud, then bishop of London, he drew up a scheme for the annual election of proctors out of the several colleges at Oxford in a certain order, that was to return every twenty-three years, which being approved of by his majesty, Charles I. was called the Caroline cycle, and is still followed, and always printed at the end of the "Parecbolæ sive Excerpta, e corpore statutorum universi tatis Oxon." In the same year he acted as one of the com
1 Ath. Ox. vol. I. new edit.-Pulteney's Sketches.-Ward's Gresham Professors. Strype's Cranmer, p. 235, 274, 314, 357.-Strype's Parker, p. 46, 151.-Fuller's Worthies:
missioners for revising the statutes, and reducing them to a better form and order. In 1630, on the death of Briggs, Mr. Turner was chosen to succeed him as professor of geometry at Oxford, and resigned his Gresham professorship. How well he was qualified for his new office appears by the character archbishop Usher gives of him, "Savilianus in academia Oxoniensi matheseos professor eruditissimus." In 1634 the new edition of the statutes was printed in fol. with a preface by Mr. Turner; and to reward him for his care and trouble, a new office was founded, that of "custos archivorum," or keeper of the archives, to which he was appointed, and made large collections respecting the antiquities of the university, which were afterwards of great use to Anthony Wood. In 1636, on a royal visit to Oxford, Mr. Turner was created M. D. but having adhered to his majesty in his troubles, and even taken up arms in his cause, he was ejected from his fellowship of Merton, and his professorship. This greatly impoverished him, and he went to reside with a sister, the widow of a Mr. Watts, a brewer in Southwark, where he died in Jan. 1651, and was interred in St. Saviour's church. He was a man of extensive learning, and wrote much, but being fastidious in his opinion of his own works, he never could complete them to his mind. We have mentioned the only writings he published, except a Latin poem in the collection in honour of sir Thomas Bodley, called the "Bodleiomnema,' Oxf. 1613. Wood also mentions" Epistolæ variæ ad doctissimos viros;" but we know of no printed letters of his ; Dr. Ward, however, gives extracts from three MS letters in English to Selden, chiefly relating to some Greek writers on the music of the ancients. '
TURNER (WILLIAM), a pious English divine, was a native of Flintshire, and born near Broadoak, in that county, but in what year we have not discovered. Our particulars indeed of this gentleman are extremely scanty, he having been omitted by Wood. Previously to his going to Oxford, he was for some time an inmate in the house of the celebrated Philip Henry, partly as a popil, and partly as an assistant in the education of Mr. Henry's children, one of whom, Matthew, the commentator, was first initiated in grammar-learning by Mr. Turner. This was in 1668, after which Mr. Turner entered of Edmund hall, Oxford, where
Ath. Ox. vol. II.-Ward's Gresham Professors.
be took his degree of M. A. June 8, 1675. afterwards vicar of Walberton, in Sussex, and resided there in 1697, at the time he published his principal work, but the date of his death we have not been able to ascertain. In 1695 he published a "History of all Religious," Lond. 8vo; but the work by which he is best known is his "Compleat history of the most remarkable Providences, both of Judgment and Mercy, &c. to which is added, whatever is curious in the works of nature and art. The whole digested into one volume, under proper heads; being a work set on foot thirty years ago, by the rev. Mr. Pool, author of the Synopsis Criticorum;' and since undertaken and finished by William Turner," &c. 1697, fol. This curious collection ranks with the similar performances of Clark, and Wanley in his "History of the Little World," but is superior, perhaps, to both in selection and conciseness. Dunton, in his "Life," gives Mr. Turner the character of "a man of wonderful moderation, and of great piety," and adds, what it is very natural for a bookseller to praise, that "he was very generous, and would not receive a farthing for his copy till the success was known." 1
TURRECREMATA. See TORQUEMADA.
TURRETIN (BENEDICT), the first of a celebrated family of protestant divines, was the son of Francis Turretin, descended from an ancient family at Lucca, who was obliged to fly his country for the cause of religion, and resided partly at Antwerp and Geneva, and lastly at Zurich, where he died. His son Benedict was born Nov. 9, 1588, and in his thirty-third year (1621) was appointed pastor, and professor of theology at Geneva. The same year the republic of Geneva being alarmed at the hostile preparations making by the duke of Savoy, sent Mr. Turretin to the States General of the United Provinces and to the prince of Orange, and he prevailed on their high mightinesses to advance the sum of 30,000 livres, and 10,000 livres per month, for three months, in case of a siege. He also obtained other pecuniary aid from the churches of Hamburgh, Embden, and Bremen. During his being in Holland, he had interviews with the French and English ambassadors, and had an audience of the king
1 Life of Philip Henry, p. 100, 161.-of Matt. Henry, p. 21.-Dunton's Life, P. 225,
of Bohemia, to whom he communicated the sympathy which the state of Geneva felt on his reverse of fortune. In 1622 he returned to Geneva, and was received with all the respect due to his services. He died at Geneva, March 4, 1631, with the character of a very learned divine, and a man of great moderation and judgment. His works are, 1. A defence of the Geneva translation of the Bible, against the attack of father Coton in his "Geneve Plagiaire." This extended to three parts, or volumes, printed from 1618 to 1626. 2." Sermons," in French, 66 sur l'utilité des chatiments." 3. "Sermons," in Italian,
TURRETIN (FRANCIS), son to the preceding, was born at Geneva, Oct. 17, 1623. After pursuing his studies in the classics and philosophy with great credit, he entered on the study of divinity, under the celebrated Calvinistic professors, John Diodati, Theodore Tronchin, Frederick Spanheim, &c. While a student he supported in 1640 and 1644, two theses, "De felicitate morali et politica," and "De necessaria Dei gratia." He afterwards went to Leyden, and formed an acquaintance with the most emineut scholars there; and afterwards to Paris, where he lodged with the celebrated Daillé, and studied geography under Gassendi, whose philosophical lectures he also attended. He then visited the schools of Saumur and Montauban, and on his return to Geneva in 1647 was ordained, and in the following year served both in the French and Italian churches of that city. In 1650 he refused the professorship of philosophy, which was offered to him more than once, but accepted an invitation to the pastoral office at Lyons, where he succeeded Aaron Morus, the brother of Alexander. In 1653 he was recalled to Geneva to be professor of divinity, an office which Theodore Tronchin was now about to resign from age, and Turretin continued in it during the rest of his life. In 1661 he was employed on a similar business as his father, being sent to Holland to obtain assistance from the States General to fortify the city of Geneva. Having represented the case, he obtained the sum of 75,000 florins, with which a bastion was built, called the Dutch bastion. He had an interview with the prince and princess dowager of Orange at Turnhout in Brabant; and having often preached while in Holland, he was so
Moreri.-Life by Pictet.