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are, 1. "The Life of St. Francis Xavier;" the best edition of this is that of 1596, 4to. On this work we shall have occasion to make some remarks in our article of Xavier. "The History of Loretto," Svo. 3. A treatise on the Latin Particles. 4. "An Abridgment of Universal History," from the creation to 1598, &c. All the above are in elegant Latin. The best editions of his Universal History are those which have a continuation by father Philip Briet, from 1618 to 1661. The best French translation of it is by the abbé Lagneau, Paris, 1757, 4 vols. 12mo, with notes.
TUSSER (THOMAS), an English poet of the sixteenth century, and styled the British Varro, was born, as it is supposed, about the year 1515, at Rivenhall near Witham in Essex. His father, William Tusser, married a daughter of Thomas. Smith, of Rivenhall, esq. by whom he had five sons and four daughters; and this match appears to have been the chief foundation of "the gentility of his family," for which he refers his readers to "the Heralds' book." The name and race, however, have long been extinct. At an early age, much against his will, he was sent by his father to a music-school; and was soon placed as a chorister or singing-boy in the collegiate chapel of the castle of Wallingford; and after some hardships, of which he complains, and frequent change of place, he was at length admitted into St. Paul's, where he arrived at considerable proficiency in music, under John Redford, the organist of that cathedral, a man distinguished for his attainments in the science. From St. Paul's he was sent to Eton school, and was some time under the tuition of the famous Nicholas Udall, of whose severity he complains, in giving him fiftythree stripes at once for a trifling fault. Hence he was removed to Cambridge, and, according to some, was first entered of King's college, and afterwards removed to Trinity hall; but his studies being interrupted by sickness, he left the university, and was employed about court, probably in his musical capacity, by the influence of his patron, William lord Paget. He appears to have been a retainer in this nobleman's family, and he mentions his lordship in the highest terms of panegyric.
In this situation, which must have been during the latter part of the reign of Henry VIII. and the first years of Edward VI. when his patron was in great favour, he remained
1 Moreri.-Dict. Hist.
ten years, and then retiring into the country, and marrying, turned farmer at Katwade, now Cattiwade, a hamlet of the parish of Brantham, in Sanfort hundred, Suffolk, near the river Stour. Here he composed his book of Husbandry, the first edition of which was published in 1557, and dedicated to his patron lord Paget. It is probable that he must have been acquainted with rural affairs, for several years at least, before he could produce even the rude essay which forms the germ of his future and more elaborate work. He appears to have suffered some reverse in his farming business, as we find him afterwards successively at Ipswich, where his wife died, at West Dereham, and at Norwich. He married, however, a second wife, of the name of Moon, which affords him a play of words; but this match did not add to his happiness, apparently from a disparity in age, she being very young. He then obtained, by the interest of Salisbury, dean of Norwich, a singing-man's place in that cathedral. After this he tried farming again, at Fairsted, near his native place; but again failing, he repaired to London, which he mentions with due commendation, until being driven from it by the plague in 1574, he went to Cambridge. When the scourge abated he returned to London, and died there, as is generally supposed, about 1580, and was interred in St. Mildred's church in the Poultry, with an epitaph, recorded by Stow.
For an author, the vicissitudes of his life present an uncommon variety of incident. "Without a tincture of careless imprudence," says Warton, "or vicious extravagance, this desultory character seems to have thriven in no vocation." There are no data, however, to account for his frequent changes of life and his failures. Farming was his leading pursuit, and in that, although he was a good theorist for the time, he was unsuccessful in practice. Stillingfleet says, "He seems to have been a good-natured cheerful man, and though a lover of economy, far from meanness, as appears in many of his precepts, wherein he shews his disapprobation of that pitiful spirit, which makes farmers starve their cattle, their land, and every thing belonging to them; choosing rather to lose a pound than spend a shilling. Upon the whole, his book displays all the qualities of a well-disposed man, as well as of an able farmer." Mr. Stillingfleet adds, "Googe set Tusser on a level with Varro and Columella and Palladius; but I would rather compare him to old Hesiod. They both wrote in the infancy of husbandry;
both gave good general precepts, without entering into the detail, though Tusser has more of it than Hesiod; they both seem desirous to improve the morals of their readers as well as their farms, by recommending industry and œconomy; and that which perhaps may be looked upon as the greatest resemblance, they both wrote in verse, probably for the same reason, namely, to propagate their doctrines more effectually."
Tusser's "Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry" appears to have obtained a very favourable reception from the public, above twelve editions having appeared within the first fifty years, and afterwards many others were printed. The best editions are those of 1580 and 1585, but they are very scarce. In 1812 the public was favoured with a new edition, carefully collated and corrected by Dr. William Mavor, of whose biographical sketch we have availed ourselves in the present article. Dr. Mavor has rendered his edition highly valuable by a series of notes, georgical, illustrative, and explanatory, a glossary, and other improvements.1
TUTCHIN (JOHN), a party writer in the reign of king James the second, very early in life became obnoxious to the government from the virulence of his writings. He was prosecuted for a political performance on the side of Monmouth, and being found guilty, was sentenced by Jefferies to be whipped through several market-towns in the west. To avoid this severe punishment he petitioned the king that the sentence might be changed to hanging. At the death of this unfortunate monarch he wrote an invective against his memory, which even the severity of his sufferings can hardly excuse. He was the author of "The Observator," which was begun April 1, 1702. Becoming obnoxious to the tories, he received a severe beating in August 1707, and died in much distress in the Mint, the 23d of September following, at the age of forty-seven. In some verses on his death he is called captain Tutchin. Besides political and poetical effusions, he wrote a drama entitled "The unfortunate Shepherd," 1685," 8vo, which is printed in a collection of his poems.
TUTET (MARK CEPHAS), an eminent merchant in Pudding-lane, is said to have united to the integrity and skill
1 Life by Dr. Mavor.-Philips's Theatrum, edit. 1801.—Censura Literaria.— Bibliographer, vol. I.
2 Biog. Dram.-Swift's Works.-Pope's Works, by Bowles.
of a man of business the accomplishments of a polite scholar and an intelligent antiquary. He was elected a member of the Society of Antiquaries June 26, 1755. In 1771 he married a cousin, but had not. any issue. On the 5th of July, 1785, presently after supper, he received a sudden and unexpected paralytic stroke, which in a few hours deprived him of speech and senses; in which state he lay till the 9th of July, being the day on which he had accomplished fifty-two years and eleven months. By his will he ordered his coins, medals, books, and prints, to be sold by auction (which was done from the 11th of January to the 18th of February, 1786, inclusive); the produce to be added to the principal part of his estate, which his industry and extreme frugality had increased to a considerable fortune, the interest of which he bequeathed to his widow for her life; and after her to a female cousin of the same condition; the ultimate reversion equally amongst the children of his brother. Few of his survivors understood better the rare secret of collecting only what was truly valuable; a circumstance which invincible modesty alone prevented from being more generally known. To those who were favoured with his intimacy his treasures and his judicious communications were regularly open. His select and valuable library was remarkable for the neatness of the copies; and many of the books were improved by notes written in his own small but elegant hand-writing.'
TWEDDELL (JOHN) an enterprizing scholar of uncommon talents and attainments, was born June 1, 1769, at Threepwood, near Hexham, in the county of Northumberland. He was the son of Francis Tweddell, esq. an able and intelligent magistrate. His earlier years were passed under the care and instruction of a most pious and affectionate mother; and at the age of nine years he was sent to school at Hartforth, near Richmond, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, under the superintendance of the Rev. Matthew Raine (father of the late learned Dr. Raine, of the Charter-house), who early discovered those rare endowments which were shortly to win high distinction, and were cherished by him with a kind solicitude, and treated with no common skill. Previously to his commencing residence at the university of Cambridge he spent some time under the immediate tuition of the Rev. Dr. Samuel Parr, whose
Biog. Brit. art. Ducarel.
pre-eminent learning opened not its stores in vain to an ardent and capacious mind; and whose truly affectionate regard for his pupil spared no pains to perfect him in all the learning of Greece and Rome; nor is it too much to say, that the tutor saw his pains requited, and gloried in his charge; whilst he secured the grateful respect and lasting attachment of his accomplished scholar. Mr. Tweddell's proficiency in his academical course procured him unprecedented honours. The "Prolusiones Juveniles," which were published in the year 1793, furnish an ample and unequivocal testimony to the extent and versatility of his talents. Professor Heyne, of Goettingen, in a letter addressed to Dr. Burgess (the truly learned and venerable bishop of St. David's), thus speaks of Mr. Tweddell's productions: → "Redditæ mihi his diebus sunt litteræ tuæ, missæ ex urbe Dresdæ, Saxoniæ, inclusæ litteris elegantissimis Joannis Tweddell, juvenis ornatissimi; cujus visendi et compellandi copiam mihi haud obtigisse vehementer doleo; spirant litteræ ejus indolem ingenuam, ingenium venustum, mores amabiles et jucundos. Eruditionem autem ejus exquisitam ex prolusionibus ejus juvenilibus perspexi, quas litteris adjunxerat; una cum generoso libertatis sensu, quem cum ipsa libertate sibi eripi haud videtur pati velle.”
In 1792 Mr. Tweddell was elected fellow of Trinity college; and, soon afterwards, entered himself a student of the Middle-Temple. By those who were acquainted with the vivacity and playfulness of his mind, and who remember with what an exquisite feeling he relished the beauties of poetic fiction and the graces of classical composition, it will not be thought surprising that the study of the law should be in a more than common degree distasteful; yet, such was his deference to the wishes of his father, that, although he could never overcome the prevailing aversion of his mind, he paid considerable attention to his professional studies. It appears, both from the records of his private sentiments, as well as from his large and constant intercourse with the best sources of English history, and his predilection for political economy, that he would have wished to employ his talents and cultivated. address in diplomacy at the courts of foreign powers.
It was not without a view to this that Mr. Tweddell determined to travel, and employ a few years in acquiring a knowledge of the manners, policy, and characters of the principal courts and most interesting countries of Europe,