« PreviousContinue »
ness of his remarks also on Euripides, Babrius, the PseudoRowley, &c. bear sufficient witness to the diligence of his researches and the force of his understanding. His mode of criticism is allowed to have been at once rigorous and candid. As he never availed himself of petty stratagems in support of doubtful positions, he was vigilant to strip his antagonists of all such specious advantages. Yet controversy produced no unbecoming change in the habitual gentleness and elegance of his manners. His spirit of inquiry was exempt from captiousness, and his censures were as void of rudeness, as his erudition was free from pedantry. In private life he was a man of great liberality, of which some striking instances are given in our authorities. In one year it is said he gave away 20007.; and for such generous exertions he had the ability as well as the inclination, for he had no luxuries, no follies, and no vices to maintain. Of such a man it is unnecessary to add that he died lamented by all who knew the worth of his friendship, or enjoyed the honour of his acquaintance. His constitution had never been of the athletic kind, and therefore easily gave way to a joint attack from two violent disorders, which ended his life, Aug. 15, 1786, in his fifty-sixth year. He died at his house in Welbeck-street, Cavendish-square. and was interred in St. George's chapel, Windsor. He had for many years been a member of the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquaries. In 1784 he was, without the slightest private interest or solicitation, elected a curator of the British Museum, in the duties of which office, the highest honour that can be enjoyed by a literary man, he was indefatigably diligent.
The publications of this excellent scholar were, 1. "An Epistle to Florio (Mr. Ellis, of Christ-church) at Oxford,” Lond. 1749, 4to. 2. "Translations in Verse; Pope's Messiah; Philips's Splendid Shilling, in Latin," and "the eighth Isthmian of Pindar, in English," 1752, 4to. "Observations and Conjectures on some passages in Shakspeare," 1766, 8vo. Mr. Tyrwhitt afterwards communicated many judicious remarks on our national bard to Mr. Steevens and Mr. Reed for the editions of 1778 and 1785. Proceedings and Debates in the House of Commons in 1620 and 1621, from the original MS. in the library of Queen's college, Oxford, with an appendix, printed at the Clarendon press, 1766, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. "The manner of holding parliaments in England; by Henry Elsynge, Cler. Par. corrected and enlarged from the author's original
MS." Lond. 1768, 8vo. With a view to raise a spirit of research into ancient classical MSS. his first critical publication in literature was, 6. "Fragmenta duo Plutarchi, 1773, from an Harleian MS. 5612." He observes himself of this, that it had no great merit, and was only published to stimulate similar inquiries. 7. "The Canterbury Tales of Chaucer," in 4 vols. 8vo, to which he afterwards added a 5th volume in 1778. There has since been a splendid edition printed at Oxford in 2 vols. 4to. This is certainly the best edited English classic that has ever appeared. 8. "Dissertatio de Babrio, Fabularum Æsopicarum scriptore. Inseruntur fabulæ quædam Æsopeæ nunquam antehac editæ ex cod. MS. Bodl. Accedunt Babrii fragmenta. 1776." The object of this publication, which, though small in size, evinced the greatest critical acumen, was to shew, that many of the fables which pass under the name of Æsop, were from another antient writer of the name of Babrius, whose fragments are preserved in Suidas in verse. 9. "Notes on Euripides,' which, in Dr. Harwood's opinion, form the most valuable part of Musgrave's edition, 1778. 10. "Poems, supposed to have been written at Bristol in the 15th century, by Rowley and others; with a preface, an account of the Poems, and a Glossary." This was twice re-published in 1778, with an appendix tending to prove that they were written, not by any antient author, but by Chatterton. This became the subject of warm controversy, which, however, was settled, by 11. "A Vindication of the Appendix to the Poems called Rowley's, in reply to the dean of Exeter, Jacob Bryant, esq. and others, by Thomas Tyrwhitt." Mr. Tyrwhitt's next work was of a different kind, namely, 12. "ПEPI AIONN; de Lapidibus, Poema Orpheo a quibusdam adscriptum, Græce et Latine, ex edit. Jo. Matthæi Gesneri. Recensuit, notasque adjecit, Thomas Tyrwhitt. Simul prodit auctarium dissertationis de Babrio." Mr. Tyrwhitt in this critical work, refers the poem "on Stones" to the age of Constantius. He next printed for his private friends, 13. "Conjecturæ in Strabonem ;" and he also superintended, 14. "Two Dissertations on the Grecian Mythology, and an examination of sir Isaac Newton's objection to the Chronology of the Olympiads," by Dr. Musgrave. For this work a very liberal subscription was raised for the doctor's family, entirely by the exertions of Mr. Tyrwhitt, who had before given up to the widow a bond for several hundred pounds which the Doctor had borrowed of him, His last literary labour was, 15. "A newly discovered
Oration of Isæus against Menecles," which Mr. Tyrwhitt revised in 1785, and enriched with valuable notes, at the request of lord Sandys. These few specimens are from the Medicean Library, and are sufficient to shew Mr. Tyrwhitt's powers, and to make us regret that his modesty declined the proposal made to him of directing the publication of the second volume of Inscriptions collected by Mr. Chisbull, and first laid open to the public by the sale of Dr. Askew's MSS. How he succeeded in the illustration of such subjects will best appear by that most happy explanation of the Greek inscription on the Corbridge altar, which had baffled the skill of all preceding critics, and will be a lasting proof how critical acumen transcends elaborate conjecture. (See Archæologia, vol. III. p. 324, compared with vol. II. pp. 92, 98.) Nor must his observations on some other Greek inscriptions in Archæologia, vol. III. p. 230, be forgotten.
Mr. Tyrwhitt left many materials for a new edition of Aristotle's "Poetics," which were prepared for the press by Messrs. Burgess and Randolph, afterwards bishops of St. David's and London, and were published in 1794, at the Clarendon press, in a sumptuous 4to form, with an edition also in 8vo, less expensive. This is a very elegant and accurate edition, and contains Tyrwhitt's commentaries, as well as his version, which is close and faithful. '
TYSON (EDWARD), a learned physician, the son of Edward Tyson, of Clevedon, in Somersetshire, gent. was born in 1649, and admitted commoner of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1667, where, after taking the degree of M. A. he entered on the study of medicine, was made fellow of the royal society, and proceeded M. D. at Cambridge in 1680. Soon after this he became fellow of the college of physicians, reader of the anatomical lecture in surgeons'hall, and physician to the hospitals of Bethlem and Bridewell, London, in which station he died Aug. 1, 1708. He was a skilful anatomist, and an ingenious writer, as appears by his essays in the Philosophical Transactions, and Mr. Hook's collections. He published also "The anatomy of a Porpoise dissected at Gresham college," Lond. 1680. "The anatomy of a Pigmy, compared with that of a Monkey, an Ape, and a Man," Lond. 4to, with a "Philosophical essay concerning the Pygmies of the ancients," ibid.*
Nichols's Bowyer, vols. III. and IX.
Ath. Ox. vol. II.-Masters's Hist. of C. c. c. c.
TYSON (MICHAEL), a learned divine and ingenious artist, was the only child of the rev. Michael Tyson, dean of Stamford, archdeacon of Huntingdon, &c. who died in 1794, aged eighty-four, by his first wife, the sister of Noah Curtis, of Wolsthorp, in Lincolnshire, esq. He was born in the parish of All Saints, in Stamford, Nov. 19, 1740, and received his grammatical education in that country. He was then admitted of Bene't college, Cambridge, and passed regularly through his degrees; that of B. A. in 1764, of M. A. in 1767, and of B. D. in 1775; and after taking his bachelor's degree was elected a fellow of his college. In the autumn of 1766 he attended a young gentleman of his college, Mr. Gough (afterwards the celebrated antiquary) in a tour through the north of England and Scotland, and made an exact journal of his several stages, with pertinent remarks on such places as seemed most interesting. At Glasgow and Inverary he had the freedom of the corporations bestowed upon him. After his return, in the following year he was elected a fellow of the society of antiquaries, and in 1769 a fellow of the royal society. In 1770 he was ordained deacon at Whitehall chapel, by Dr. Green, bishop of Lincoln. In 1773, his father being promoted to the archdeaconry of Huntingdon, he gave the officiality of it to his son, which was worth about 50l. per ann. and about the same time, being bursar of the college, he succeeded Mr. Colman in the cure of St. Benedict's church, in Cambridge, as he did also in 1776, in the Whitehall preachership, at the request of the late Dr. Hamilton, son-in-law of bishop Terrick, who had formerly been of Bene't college.
In the same year, 1776, he was presented by the college to the rectory of Lambourne, near Ongar, in Essex; but, it being the first time that the college presented to it, the family from which it came litigated the legality of the society's claim, which, however, after a suit in chancery, was determined in favour of the college. But when they threatened another prosecution, Mr. Tyson, who was eager to settle on his living, as he had an intention of marrying, injudiciously entered into a composition with the parties, which, but for the liberality of the college, might have involved his family in debt. He died of a violent fever, May 3, 1780, in the fortieth year of his age, and was interred in Lambourne church. He left an infant son, who died in 1794.
In his early days Mr. Tyson amused himself with some poetical attempts, of which two were published, one "On the birth of the prince of Wales," the other "An Ode on Peace." He was a good classical scholar, and studied with great success the modern languages, particularly Italian, Spanish, and French. He was also a skilful botanist, but his principal researches were in history, biography, and antiquities, which he very ably illustrated both as a draughtsman and engraver. His taste in drawing and painting is said to have been exquisite. There are several etchings by his hand, particularly the portrait of archbishop Parker, taken from an illumination by T. Berg, in a MS. preserved in the library of Bene't college, and prefixed to Nasmith's catalogue of the archbishop's MSS. Strutt also mentions the portrait of sir William Paulet; and of Jane Shore, from an original picture at King's college, Cambridge. To these we may add that of Michael Dalton, author of "The Country Justice," Jacob Butler, esq. of Barnwell, Mr. Cole, and others his private friends. He occasionally corresponded in the Gentleman's Magazine, but his publications were few, as his career was short. In the Archæologia are two articles by him, a description of an illuminated picture in a MS. in Bene't college, and a letter to Mr. Gough, with a description and draught of the old drinkinghorn in Bene't college, called Goldcorne's horn. His skill was always liberally bestowed on his friends; and his contributions to works of antiquity, &c. were frequently and readily acknowledged by his learned contemporaries.'
TYTLER (WILLIAM), an ingenious writer on historical and miscellaneous subjects, was born at Edinburgh, Oct. 12, 1711. He was the son of Mr. Alexander Tytler, writer (or attorney) in Edinburgh, by Jane, daughter of Mr. William Leslie, merchant in Aberdeen, and grand-daughter of sir Patrick Leslie of Iden, provost of that city. He was educated at the high school, and at the university of Edinburgh, and distinguished himself by an early proficiency in those classical studies, which, to the latest period of his life, were the occupation of his leisure hours, and a principal source of his mental enjoyments. At the age of thirty-one, Mr. Tytler was admitted into the society of writers to his majesty's signet, and continued the practice of that profession with very good success, and with equal
Nichols's Bowyer, vols. VI and VIII.-Cole's MS Athenæ in Brit. Mus.