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respect from his clients and the public, till his death, which happened Sept. 12, 1792.
With the duties of his profession he combined a more than common share of classical learning, historical knowledge, and a singularly correct taste in the sister arts of poetry, painting, and music; all of which he continued to cultivate and enjoy to the close of his long life. To his other studies, he added those of metaphysics and moral philosophy; by means of which he had early become acquainted with Dr. Beattie, whom, as the biographer of the latter informs us, he loved and respected as an able champion of truth, and with whom he ever after continued to live on the footing of the most intimate friendship. He also possessed the esteem and regard of many of the most distinguished literary characters of the age, as lord Monboddo, lord Kaimes, Dr. John Gregory, Dr. Reid, Principal Campbell, Dr. Gerard, and others. As an author, Mr. Tytler was first and principally distinguished for his "Inquiry, historical and critical, into the evidence against Mary queen of Scots, and an examination of the Histories of Dr. Robertson and Mr. Hume, with respect to that evidence," 1759, 8vo, frequently reprinted, and in 1790 extended to 2 vols. 8vo, with large additions. In this work, he displayed an uncommon degree of acuteness in the examination of a question, which has been maintained on both sides with great ability, but not always with the temper and manners which guided Mr. Tytler's pen. As a supplement to this work, he read in the Society of Antiquaries in Scotland, of which society he was a warm friend and protector, and for many years vice-president, "A dissertation on the marriage of queen Mary to the earl of Bothwell," which forms a distinguished article in the first volume of the transactions of that society published in 1791, in 4to.
His other publications were, 1. "The Poetical remains of James I. of Scotland, consisting of the King's Quair in six cantos, and Christ's kirk of the green,' to which is prefixed a dissertation on the life and writings of king James," Edinburgh, 1783. This dissertation forms a valuable morsel of the literary history of Europe: for James ranked still higher in the literary world as a poet, than in the political world as a prince. Great justice is done to his memory in both respects in this dissertation: and the two morsels of poetry here rescued from oblivion, will be
esteemed by men of taste, as long as the language in which they are written can be understood. 2. "A Dissertation on Scottish music," first subjoined to Arnot's "History of Edinburgh." 3. "Observations on the Vision, a poem,' first published in Ramsay's Evergreen, now also printed in the Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. This may be considered as a part of the literary history of Scotland. 4. "On the fashionable amusements in Edinburgh during the last century," ibid. He also contributed No. 16 to the periodical paper called "The Lounger."
Mr. Tytler was father to the hon. Alexander Frazer Tytler, lord Woodhouselee, one of the judges of the supreme civil court of law in Scotland, to whom the public is indebted for a valuable and truly original " Essay on the Principles of Translation;""Elements of General History," the "Life of Lord Kaimes," and other ingenious works. This very excellent scholar and upright judge died very lately, but we have not seen any tribute to his memory of which we could avail ourselves, although something of the kind may very naturally be expected from the same pen which has recorded the talents and virtues of his father.'
TZETZES (JOHN), a celebrated grammarian of Constantinople, died about the end of the twelfth century. Being put under proper masters at fifteen, he learnt not only the belles lettres, and the whole circle of sciences, but even the Hebrew and Syriac tongues. He had a prodigious memory, and, it is said, was able to repeat all the Scriptures by heart. He seems to have been a most accomplished person, who understood almost every thing; but was a severe critic on the performances of others, and not without a considerable share of vanity. He wrote "Commentaries upon Lycophron's Alexandria," which he published first under the name of his brother, Isaac Tzetzes: they are inserted by Potter in his edition of this poet at Oxford, 1697, in folio. He wrote also "Chiliades," or miscellaneous histories, in verse, which Fabricius calls his most celebrated work, as abounding with political and civil knowledge; "Scholia upon Hesiod;" "Epigrams and other Poems ;' ;" "Pieces upon Grammar and Criticism." He mentions also " Allegories upon Homer," which he dedi
1 Memoir of Mr. Tytler, by Mr. Mackenzie, in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. IV.-Forbes Life of Beattie.
cated to the empress Irene, wife of Manuel Comnenus. This empress was married in 1143, and died in 1158, which nearly ascertains the age of Tzetzes. The "Allegories" of this author were published by Morel, Paris, 1616, 8vo, and the "Chiliades," at Basil, 1546, fol.
BALDI (GUIDO), was an eminent mathematician in Italy, in the end of the sixteenth and early part of the seventeenth century, but no particulars are known of his life, nor when he died. The following occur in catalogues as his works: 1. "Mechanica," Pis. 1577, fol. and Ven. 1615. 2. “Planisphæriorum universalium Theorica," Pis. 1579, fol. and Col. 1581, 8vo. 3. "Paraphrasis in Archimedis Equiponderantia," Pis. 1588, fol. 4. Perspectiva," ibid. 1600, fol. 5. "Problemata Astronomica," Ven. 1609, fol. 6. "De Cochlea," ibid. 1615, fol.*
UBALDINI (PETRUCCIO), an illuminator on vellum, who was in England in the reign of queen Elizabeth, appears to have been a native of Florence, and, while here, a teacher of the Italian language. Vertue speaks of some of his works as extant in his time, or as having very lately been so; as the Psalms of David in folio, with an inscription by Ubaldini to Henry earl of Arundel, whom he calls his Mæcenas. The date is, London, 1565. There was another book on vellum, written and illuminated by him, by order of sir Nicholas Bacon, who presented it to the lady Lumley. This is, or was, at Gorhambury. There were other specimens of his skill in the royal library, now in the British Museum, and he appears also to have been an author. Walpole mentions one of his MSS. in the Museum, entitled "Scotia descriptio a Deidonensi quodam facto, A. D. 1550, et per Petruccium Ubaldinum transcripta
1 Vossius de Hist. Græc.-Saxii Onomast.
A. D. 1576," which was published afterwards in Italian, with his name, at Antwerp, 1588, fol. The Museum catalogue attributes also the following to Ubaldini: 1. " Discourse concerning of the Spanish fleet invading England in 1588 and overthrowen," Lond. 1590, 4to. 2. "Le Vite delle Donne illustri del regno d'Inghilterra, e del regno di Scotia, &c." ibid. 1591. Walpole, who appears to have examined this work, gives, as a specimen of Petrucchio's talents for history, two of his heroines. The first was Chembrigia, daughter of Gurguntius, son of king Bellinus, who, having married one Cantabro, founded a city, which, from a mixture of both their names, was called Cambridge. The other illustrious lady he styles expressly donna senza nome, and this nameless lady, as Walpole says, was the mother of Ferrex and Porrex in lord Dorset's "Gorboduc," who, because one of her sons killed the other that was a favourite, killed a third son in a passion. morali, politici, et economici," 1592, 4to. alcune Attioni, e di varii Accidenti," 1595, 4to. 5. "Rime," 1596, 4to. 6. "Militia del Gran Duca di Toscano," 1597. 7. "Vita di Carlo Magno," 1599, 4to; and, 8. "Lo Stato delle tre Corti," 4to.
4. " Scelta di
Thus far we have gathered from Walpole's Anecdotes, who adds, that Ubaldini seems to have been in great favour at court, and is frequently mentioned in the rolls of new years-gifts, which used to be reposited in the jewel-office. There is a notice of this kind as far as 1588, but how much longer he lived is not known. But we find Baretti giving other particulars of Ubaldini. He says he was a nobleman of Florence, who lived many years in England, in the service of Edward VI. The "Lives of Illustrious Ladies" he penned with great gallantry and elegance, and he must certainly have been the favourite of the British (English) belles of his time, having been as handsome in his figure, and as valiant with his sword, as he was able at his pen. retti also informs us that in the preface to his Life of Charles the Great, he says it was the first Italian book that was printed in London; the date is 1581, printed by Wolf, and consequently the date given above from the Museum catalogue must have been a subsequent edition. Ubaldini adds, that he wrote it, because, having seen how many fables and dreams the poets have writ of that emperor, he thought it the duty of a man, born to be useful to others, to explode, as much as possible, falsehood from the world,
and substitute truth instead." Baretti informs us that in the Foscarini library at Venice there is a manuscript history of Ubaldini, written with his own hand, of the reign of his master Edward.'
UBERTI (FAZIO, or BONIFACE), an Italian poet of the fourteenth century, was the descendant of an illustrious family of Florence, the Uberti, who, when the Guelphs became victorious, were banished from Florence, and their property divided among their enemies. Our poet was born in the poverty and obscurity to which his family had been reduced, and although the Florentines allowed him to return and reside in the country of his forefathers, he never became rich, and was obliged to attend the courts of the nobility, and gain a subsistence by chaunting his verses. Of those he composed a great many in the form of songs and other small pieces which were admired for their novelty; he is even thought to have been the inventor of the ballad species. In more advanced age, he undertook his "Dittamondo," in imitation of Dante, who in his vision takes Virgil for his guide; Uberti takes Solinus, who conducts him over the whole habitable globe. By means of this fiction he includes geographical and historical matter, which has induced some to call his poem a geographical treatise. It is said to be written with energy and elegance, and was first printed, or at least a part of it, at Vicenza in 1474, fol. and reprinted at Venice in 1501. Both are rare, and chiefly valued for their rarity. Villani, who gives us a sort of eloge rather than a life of Uberti, says that he died at an advanced age in 1370.2
UDAL (EPHRAIM), a loyal divine, although of the puritan stamp, was the son of JOHN UDAL, an eminent nonconformist of the sixteenth century, and a great sufferer for his nonconformity, being frequently silenced and imprisoned, and at last condemned to die for writing a seditious book called "A Demonstration of Discipline;" but he appears to have been respited, and died in the Marshalsea prison about the end of 1592. He wrote "A Commentary on the Lamentations of Jeremiah;" "The State of the Church of England laid open in a conference, &c. ;" and probably the work above-mentioned for which he was condemned; but he is better known in the learned world, as the author of the first Hebrew grammar
I Walpole's Anecdotes.-Baretti's Italian Library.