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he endeavoured to correct the error by asserting in a subsequent publication that bishop Trissino, by the advice of the archbishop of Benevento, chose Sophonisba for a subject, although Trissino never was either bishop or archbishop, nor au ecclesiastic of any rank.

Trissino now retired to Vicenza in order to compose at more leisure a poem of which, many years before, he had laid the plan; but his peace was at this time interrupted by domestic dissentions, in consequence of which he had scarcely afterwards a happy moment. The eldest of his

two sons by his first wife, died, and Julius, the second, had conceived an aversion to his step-mother on account of the preference which his father seemed to give to her son Ciro. Mutual irritation ended in Trissino's resolving to disinherit Julius and settle all upon Ciro, and in Julius threatening to commence à suit at law for the recovery of his mother's fortune. To add to Trissino's distress, his wife Blanche died in 1540, on which he disposed of her son in marriage, and went again to Rome in hopes of tranquillity. There he remained some years, and finished and published his great poem, " Italia liberata da Gothi." In the mean time his son Julius was carrying on the law-suit at Venice, and was supported in it by his mother's relations. This obliged Trissino to go thither in 1548, although so much afflicted by the gout, as to travel on a litter. From Venice he went to Vicenza, where he found that Julius had begun to take possession of all his property, and he was so much enraged at this conduct, as to make a will in which he totally disinherited his unnatural son. Julius, more irritated than ever, carried on his law-suit, and having obtained a decision in his favour, without ceremony took possession of his father's house and the greater part of his goods. Trissino now returned to Rome, bidding an eternal adieu to his country, in some Latin verses, in which he said, "he would go to some country under another climate, as he, had been defrauded of his paternal mansion, and as the Venetians had encouraged that fraud by a cruel sentence," &c. &c. He did not, however, long survive this latter disappointment, but died at Rome about the end of 1550, in the seventy-second year of his age.

Trissino has the credit of having first discarded the shackles of rhyme, and employed the versi sciolti, or blank verse of the Italians. This he first tried in his " Sophonisba," and afterwards in his " Italia liberata," the subject

of which was the liberation of Italy from the Goths by Belisarius; and it was his design to exhibit in this poem, which consists of twenty-seven books, a specimen of the true epic, as founded on the example of Homer, and confirmed by the authority of Aristotle: but into the merits of this poem it is not necessary to enter so minutely as Ginguené has done, since it seems universally acknowledged that of all the attempts at epic poetry which had hitherto appeared, the "Italia liberata" may be considered as the most insipid and uninteresting; nor from the time it first appeared, in 1547-8, was it ever reprinted until the Abbate Antonini gave an edition of it in 1729, 3 vols. 8vo, and in the same year it appeared in the collected works of the author, Verona, 2 vols. folio. In this collection, besides his epic poem and the tragedy already mentioned, are, a comedy from Plautus, called "1 Simillimi;" lyric poems, both Latin and Italian; and various prose treatises, almost all on grammar and on the Italian language. As most of the great poets of his time wrote an "Art of Poetry," we find accordingly among Trissino's works an atten:pt of this kind, "Della Poetica," which was originally published in 1529, 1

TRISTAN L'HERMITE (FRANCIS), a French poet and dramatic writer, was born in the castle of Souliers, in the' province of la Marche, in 1601. When attached to the household of the marquis de Verneuil, natural son of Henry IV. he fought a duel, in which his antagonist, one of the guards, was killed, and fled for some time to England. Returning to Poitou, he found friends who obtained his pardon from Louis XIII.; and Gaston of Orleans made him one of his gentlemen in ordinary. His life became then divided between poetry, gallantry, and gaming, and he experienced all the reverses and vicissitudes to which such a life is exposed, many of which he had alluded to in his "Page disgracie," a romance published in 1643, 4to. He wrote much for the stage, and was seldom unsuccessful. His tragedy of "Mariamne" still keeps his reputation alive, although it was fatal to the actor, Mondori, who performed the character of Herod, and died of violent exertion. Tristan was admitted into the French academy in 1649, but always lived poor. He died Sept. 7, 1655, in the fifty-fourth year of his age. His dramas and other poems were printed in 3 vols. 4to.

1 Tiraboschi.-Ginguené Hist. Lit. d'Italic.-Roscoe's Leo.

There were two others of this name: JOHN BAPTIST TRISTAN L'HERMITE SOULIERS, who was gentleman of his majesty's bedchamber, and brother to the preceding. He was author of the genealogies of several families; "L'Histoire généologique de la Noblesse de Touraine," 1669, fol.; "La Toscane Francoise," 1661, 4to; "Les Corses Francoise," 1662, 12mo; "Naples Francoise," 1663, 4to, &c. containing the history of such persons in those countries as have been attached to France. There was also JOHN TRISTAN, Son of Charles Tristan, auditor of accounts at Paris. He attached himself to Gaston of France, duke of Orleans, was well skilled in antiquity and medals, and published a "Historical Commentary on the Lives of the Emperors," 1644, 3 vols. fol. a work full of curious observations; but Angeloni and father Sirmond found several faults in it, which Tristan answered with great asperity. He was living in 1656. 1

TRITHEMIUS (JOHN), a celebrated abbot of the Benedictine order, and one of the most learned men in the fifteenth century, was born February 1, 1462, at Tritenheim, in the diocese of Treves. After finishing his studies he took the Benedictine habit, and was made abbot of Spanheim in the diocese of Mentz, in 1483, which abbey he governed till 1506, and resigned it to be abbot of St. James at Wirtzberg. He died Dec. 13, 1516. Trithemius was well acquainted both with sacred and profane literature, and left various works, historical and biographical, among which the principal are, a treatise "On the illustrious ecclesiastical Writers," Cologn, 1546, 4to; in this book he gives some account of 870 authors; another "On the illustrious Men of Germany;" and a third on those of the "Benedictine Order," 1606, 4to, translated into French, 1625, 4to; six books " On Polygraphy," 160!, fol. translated into French; a treatise "On Steganography," i. e. the various methods of writing in cyphers, 1621, 4to, Nuremberg, 1721. There is a scarce book on this work, attributed to Augustus, duke of Brunswick, entitled "Gustavi Seleni Enodatio Steganographie J. Trithemii," 1624, fol. There are also various Chronicles," in "Trithemii Opera historica," 1701, fol. 2 vols. published by Freher, to which we may add his works on religious subjects, 1605, fol. "Anuales

Moreri.-Gen. Dict.-Dict. Hist.

Hirsaugienses," 2 vols. folio, a curious and important work, and others.'.

TRIVET (NICOLAS), a Dominican friar, son of sir Thomas Trivet, lord chief justice, was author of the "Annales 6. Regum Angliæ," published by Mr. Ant. Hall, of Queen's college, Oxford, in 1719, 2 vols. 8vo. He lived in the reigns of Edward I. II. III. and died in 1328. Bishop Nicolson says that an excellent copy of his history, which John Pits subdivides into three several treatises, was in his time in the library of Merton college, Oxford, "whence several of our most eminent antiquaries have had very remarkable observations." It is in French, and bears the title of "Les Gestes des Apostoiles, or the popes, empereurs, et rois;" but this must be a different work from the former. Trivet left many other MSS. on various subjects of philosophy and theology, a commentary on Seneca's Tragedies, &c. He was educated at Oxford, and esteemed one of the ornaments of the university in his time. 2

TROGUS (POMPEIUS), a Latin historian, was born in the country of the Vocontian Gauls, in Gallia Narbonensis, and lived in the reign of Augustus, about the beginning of the Christian æra. His father enjoyed a situation under the emperor. We know, however, nothing of the personal character of Trogus, nor should have heard of his name had not Justin made an abridgment of his "Universal History," comprized in forty-four books; the editions of which are noticed in our account of that classic.3

TROMMIUS (ABRAHAM), a learned protestant divine, was born at Groningen in 1633, and studied the classics, belles lettres, philosophy, and theology in that university, under Desmarets, Alting, and other eminent professors. He travelled afterwards through Germany and Switzerland, and studied Hebrew under Buxtorf. He then visited France and England, and on his return was appointed curate or minister, in the village of Haren, where he remained until 1671, when he was invited to be pastor at Groningen. In this office he continued forty-eight years, and died in 1719, aged eighty-six. In his eightieth year he was created doctor in theology at Groningen, as a testimony of respect on the part of the university. John Martinius, of Dantzick, having begun a Concordance of the

1 Niceron, XXXVIII.-Freheri Theatrum.-Dupin. ? Leland.-Bale.Tanner. Nicolson's Hist. Library. 3 Vossius Hist. Lat. Fabric. Bibl. Lat.

Old Testament, in Flemish, Trommius completed it, and published it at Amsterdam, 1685-1692, 2 vols. folio. He also published a Greek Concordance of the Septuagint. He had made preparations and corrections for a second edition of the Flemish Concordance, but did not, we presume, finish it, as it has never been printed. '

TROMP (MARTIN HAPPERTZ VAN), a celebrated Dutch admiral, who is mentioned in our account of De Ruyter, was born at the Brille, in Holland. He rose in the naval service by his merit, after having distinguished himself on many occasions, especially at the famous engagement near Gibraltar in 1607. He was accounted one of the greatest seamen that had till that time appeared in the world; and was declared admiral of Holland, by the advice of the prince of Orange. He in that character defeated a large Spanish fleet in 1630, and gained upwards of thirty victories, of more or less importance, at sea; but was killed when under deck in an engagement with the English, in 1653. The States General caused medals to be struck to his honour, and lamented him as one of the greatest heroes of their republic. It is said that in the midst of his greatest glory, he was modest and unassuming, and never arrogated a higher character than that of a burgher, and that of being the father of the sailors. His second son, Cornelius, who died in 1691, was also a brave officer, and sigualized himself in various naval engagements."

TRONCHIN (THEODORE), the first of a considerable family of learned men in Geneva and France, was born at Geneva, April 17, 1582, whither his father had filed on account of religion, and narrowly escaped from the massacre of the protestants in 1572. He was then at Troyes, in Champagne, and escaped by means of a priest, his friend and neighbour, who concealed him in his house. He intended to go into Germany, and only to pass through Geneva; but he remained there by the advice of an acquaintance, obtained the freedom of the city, and soon after was admitted into the council of two hundred in acknowledg ment of some services which he had done the State during the war with the Duke of Savoy.

His son, Theodore, was educated, by the advice of Beza, who was his godfather, and he made a vast progress in learning. The testimony which was given him in 1600,

Moreri.-Le Long Bibl. Sacra.

2 Moreri. Dict. Hist-Univ. Hist.

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