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when he went to see foreign universities, represents him as a person of very great hopes. He confirmed this character among all the learned men under whom he studied, or with whom he became acquainted during the course of his travels, and these comprized most of the eminent men on the continent and in England. He returned to Geneva in 1606, and gave such proofs of his learning that he was the same year chosen professor of the Hebrew language. In 1607 he married Theodora Rocca, a woman of great merit in all respects, sister to the first syndic of the commonwealth, and grand-daughter to the wife of Theodore Beza, at whose house she had been educated, and whose goddaughter she was. He was chosen minister in December 1608, and created rector of the university in 1610. In 1614 he was requested to read some lectures in divinity besides those on the Hebrew language, on account of the indisposition of one of the professors; and when the professorship of divinity became vacant in 1618, he was promoted to it, and resigned that of Hebrew. The same year he was appointed by the assembly of pastors and professors to answer the Jesuit Coton, who had attacked the French version of the Bible in a book entitled "Geneve Plagiaire." This he did in his "Coton Plagiaire," which was extremely well received by the public. At the same time he was sent with Diodati from the church of Geneva to the synod of Dort, where he displayed his great knowledge in divinity, and a moderation which was highly applauded. He had permission to go to the duke of Rohan for some months in 1632, and fully answered the expectation of that nobleman, who shewed him afterwards great esteem, which he returned by honouring the duke's memory with an oration, which he pronounced some days after the funeral of that great man in 1638. He carried on a very extensive correspondence in the reformed countries, where he gained the friendship of the most learned men, and of several princes and great lords. He had much facility in composing orations and Latin verses, and his conversation was highly instructive, for he had joined to the study of divinity and of several languages, the knowledge of the law, and of other sciences, and of sacred and profane history, especially with regard to the two last centuries, particulars of which he frequently introduced, and applied when in company. In 1655 he was appointed by the assembly of pastors to confer and concur with John Dury in the affair of the reunion between

the Lutherans and the reformed, on which subject he wrote several pieces. He died of a fever on the 19th of November, 1657, having survived all the foreign divines who were present at the synod of Dort. He was an open and sincere man, zealous for religion and the service of the churches, a great enemy to vices, though very mild towards persons. His advice was highly esteemed both for the civil government, and in the two ecclesiastical bodies, and by strangers, a great number of whom consulted him. He left, among other children, Lewis Tronchin, who was a minister of the church of Lyons, and was chosen four years after to fill his place in the church and professorship of divinity at Geneva. He died in 1705. He was esteemed one of the ablest divines of his time, and a man of great liberality of sentiment. He was well known to, and corresponded with our archbishops Tillotson and Tenison, and the bishops Compton, Lloyd, and Burnet, who gives him a very high charaoter in his Tour through Switzerland. '

TRONCHIN (THEODORE), a celebrated physician, was apparently the grandson of Lewis Tronchin, and was born at Geneva in 1709. His father, John Robert Tronchiu, having lost his property in the fatal Mississippi speculation, Theodore left home at the age of eighteen, and came to England to lord Bolingbroke, to whom he is said to have been related, we know not in what degree; but Bolingbroke had it not in his power to do much for him, and he went to Holland to study chemistry under Boerhaave, whose work on that subject had engaged his attention, and made him desirous of seeing the author. Boerhaave is said to have soon distinguished Tronchin from the general mass of his pupils, and in 1731 advised him to settle at Amsterdam, where he introduced him to practice, and in a short time Tronchin was at the head of the physicians of Amsterdam. But having married a young lady of the family of the celebrated patriot De Witt, he fancied that the name would be disgraced by his accepting a place at court, and therefore he refused that of first physician to the stadtholder, aud quitting Amsterdam when the stadtholderate was made hereditary, returned to Geneva, where he could live in a pure republic. Here the council gave him the title of honorary professor of medicine, but no duties were attached to it. It was not his intention, however, to be idle, and he

1 Gen. Dict.-Chaufepic, who has a prolix life of Lewis Tronchin.

gave lectures on the general principles of medicine, in which he endeavoured to free the science from rooted prejudices and false theories. In 1756 he was called to Paris to inoculate the children of the duke of Orleans. He had introduced this practice both in Holland and at Geneva, and, in the former at least, without almost any opposition; and the success he had in his first trial in France, on these princes of the blood, having contributed not a little to his celebrity, he rose to the highest honours of his profession, and acquired great wealth. In 1765 he was invited to Parma to inoculate the royal children of that court. Although averse to accept any situations which might form a restraint upon his time or studies, he consented to the title of first physician to the duke of Orleans, and in 1766 fixed his residence at Paris. The arrival of an eminent physician in Paris is always accompanied by a revolution in practice. Tronchin brought with him a new regimen, new medicines, and new methods of cure, and many of them certainly of great importance, particularly the admission and change of air in sick rooms, and a more hardy method of bringing up children; he also recommended to the ladies more exercise and less effeminacy in their modes of living and in diet. His prescriptions were generally simple; but perhaps his fame was chiefly owing to his introducing the practice of inoculation, which he pursued upon the most rational plan. In all this he had to encounter long established prejudices, and being a stranger, had to contend with the illiberality of some of the faculty, obstacles which he removed by a steady, humane course, and his frequent success completed his triumph. He was in person a fine figure; there was a mixture of sweetness and dignity in his countenance; his air and external demeanour inspired affection, and commanded respect; his dress, voice, and manner, were graceful and pleasing: all which no doubt gave an additional Justre to his reputation, and perhaps an efficacy to his prescriptions. His extensive practice prevented his writing or publishing more than a few papers on some medical cases, one "De colica pictorum," 1757, 8vo. He also prefixed a judicious preface to an edition of "Oeuvres de Baillou," 1762. This eminent practitioner died Nov. 30, 1781. He was at that time a citizen of Geneva, a title of which he was very proud, a member of the nobility of Parma, first physician to the duke of Orleans, and to the infant duke of Parma, doctor of medicine of the universi

ties of Leyden, Geneva, and Montpellier, and a member of the academy of sciences of Paris, of that of surgery, of the Royal Society of London (elected 1762), and of the academies or colleges of Petersburgh, Edinburgh, and Berlin.' TROTTER, CATHERINE. See COCKBURN. TRUBERUS (PRIMUS), celebrated for his learned translations, was born in 1508. He was first a canon of Laybach, and began in 1531 to preach publicly in the cathedral of that city Luther's doctrine concerning the sacrament in both kinds; and to approve the marriage of priests; so that he embraced Luther's party, and left Carniola to retire into the empire, where the town of Kempson chose him for their pastor. He preached there for fourteen years, and acquired much fame by his translations. He translated into the Carniolan tongue, in Latin characters, not only the Gospels, according to the version of Luther, with his catechism, but also the whole New Testament, and the Psalms of David in 1553. At length the States of Carniola recalled him home. He translated also into his mother tongue the confession of Augsburgh, and Luther's Germansermons. Herman Fabricius Mosemannus thus notices Truber's translation, with the addition of some other particulars: "John Ungnad baron of Sonneck in Croatia, at the time of the Augsburgh confession, caused the Bible to be translated into the Sclavonian language at Aurach in the duchy of Wirtembergh. In this translation he employed three learned Sclavonians; the first was named Primus Truber, the second Anthony Dalmata, and the third Stephen Consul. But these books were seized on the road, and are still shut up in casks at Newstad in Austria. The character is altogether singular, almost resembling an Asiatic or Syriac character, with pretty large and square letters. A copy of this Bible may be seen in the library of the landgrave of Hesse. There are also some copies of it to be met with in Sclavonia." These Bibles are without doubt printed in Cyrillic characters. Truber was banished Carniola a second time, and died June 29, 1586. The same year, in a letter he wrote to the deputies of Carniola, he subscribes himself "Primus Truber, formerly canon in ordinary, called and confirmed at Laybach, pastor at Lack, at Tuffer near Ratschach, and at St. Bartholomew's field, chaplain at S. Maximilian of Cilly, Sclavonian preacher at

1 Eloges des Academiciens, vol. II.

Trieste, and after the first persecution preacher at Rosemburgh on the Tauber, pastor at Kempten and at Aurais, afterwards preacher to the States of Carniola, and at Rubia in the county of Goergh, and after the second persecution pastor at Cauffen, and now at Deredingen near Tubingen." 1 TRUBLET (NICHOLAS CHARLES JOSEPH), a French abbé of temporary fame, but who is upon the whole rather faintly praised by his countrymen, was born at St. Malo in Dec. 1697. He was related to the celebrated Maupertuis, who dedicated the third volume of his works to him. His first appearance as an author was in 1717, in his twentieth year, when he published in the French "Mercure," his "Reflections on Telemachus," which served to introduce him to La Motte and Fontenelle, who became afterwards not only the objects of his constant esteem, but of a species of idolatry which exposed him to the ridicule of the wits of his day. There are no memoirs of his education and early progress, but it appears that he was treasurer of the church of Nantes, and afterwards archdeacon and canon of St. Malo. For some time he lived in intimacy with cardinal Tencin, and visited Rome with him, but having no inclination to a life of dependence, whatever advantages it might bring, he returned to Paris, and employed his time in literary pursuits. His irreproachable conduct and agreeable manners procured him very general esteem as a man, but as a writer he never ranked high in the public opinion, and although very ambitious of a seat in the French academy, he did not reach that honour until 1761. About six years afterwards he retired to his native place, where he died in March 1770. His principal works were, 1. "Essais de litterature et de morale," 4 vols. 12mo, which have been often reprinted and translated into other languages. These essays, although the author was neither gifted with the elegance of La Bruyere, nor with the penetration of La Rochefoucault, contain much good sense and knowledge of books and men. 2. "Panegyriques des Saints," a work feebly written, but to which he prefixed some valuable reflections on eloquence. It was in this work he incurred the displeasure of Voltaire. He in general disliked the poetry of his country, and had not only the courage and imprudence to say that he thought it in general monotonous, but that he was unable to read even the

Ger. Dict. art. Dalmantin-Melchior Adam.-Freheri Theatrum.

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