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parochial duties in the north, found that his mind was not quite settled in his religious opinions, he wrote to his uncle Tunstall, who told him, in answer, that he should think of nothing till he had fixed his religion, and that, in his opinion, he could not do better than put his parish into the hands of some person in whom he could confide, and spend a year or two in Germany, France, and Holland; by which means he might have an opportunity of conversing with some of the most eminent professors on both sides of the question. To this admirable advice, for such it surely is, from a popish bishop of that age, Gilpin had but one objection, namely the expence; but the bishop wrote, that his living would do something towards his maintenance; and he would supply deficiencies. When they parted, the bishop gave him some books he had written while in the Tower, particularly one on the Lord's supper, which he wished to be printed under his inspection at Paris.

On the accession of queen Mary in 1553, Tunstall was restored to his bishopric; but still he was not a man to her mind, behaving with great lenity and moderation, and consequently his diocese escaped the cruel persecutions which prevailed in others. When he left London, he was strictly charged with the entire extirpation of heresy in his diocese; and was given to understand, that severity would be the only allowed test of his zeal. These instructions, says Mr. Gilpin, he received in the spirit they were given; loudly threatening, that heretics should no where find a warmer reception than at Durham and it was thought indeed that the protestants would hardly meet with much favour from him, as they had shown him so little. nothing was further from his intention than persecution : insomuch that his was almost the only diocese where the poor protestants enjoyed any repose. When most of the other bishops sent in large accounts of their services to religion, very lame ones came from Durham; they were filled with high encomiums of the orthodoxy of the diocese, interspersed here and there with the trial of an heretic, but either the depositions against him were not sufficiently proved, or there were great hopes of his recantation; no mention however was made of any burnings. A behaviour of this kind was but ill relished by the zealous council: and the bishop lay deservedly under the calumny of being not actuated by true Romish principles. When his ne

phew Bernard Gilpin, an avowed protestant, came home from his travels, the bishop not only received him with great friendship, but gave this heretic the archdeaconry of Durham; and Fox tells us, that when one Mr. Russel, a preacher, was before bishop Tunstall, on a charge of heresy, and Dr. Hinmer, his chancellor, would have examined him more particularly, the bishop prevented him, saying, "Hitherto, we have had a good report among our neighbours; I pray you bring not this man's blood upon my head."

From such a man it was naturally expected that, on the accession of queen Elizabeth, there would have been little difficulty in reconciling him to the reformation, and in fact the queen had nominated him as the first in a list of prelates to officiate at the consecration of several new bishops; but notwithstanding this, he refused to take the oath of supremacy, and was consequently deprived of his bishopric in July 1559. At the same time he was committed to the custody of Parker, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, and then in possession of Lambeth palace, by whom he was entertained in a very kind, friendly, and respectful manner; and Parker is said to have produced a change in some of his sentiments. It appears that Tunstall told Bernard Gilpin, that in the matter of transubstantiation, pope Innocent III. had done unadvisedly, in making it an article of faith; and he further confessed, that the pope committed a great error in the affair of indulgences, and in other things. Tunstall also held the doctrine of justification by faith only.

Bishop Tunstall did not continue long in this state of retirement, for he died Nov. 18, 1559, aged eighty-five, and was handsomely buried in the chancel of Lambeth church, at the expence of archbishop Parker, with a Latin epitaph by the learned Dr. Haddon. The character of Tunstall may in part be collected from the preceding particulars. Gilpin, who has frequently introduced notices of him in his Lives of Bernard Gilpin, Latimer, &c. says "he was a papist only by profession; no way influenced by the spirit of popery; but he was a good catholic, and had true notions of the genius of Christianity. He considered a good life as the end, and faith as the means; and never branded as an heretic that person, however erroneous his opinions might be in points less fundamental, who had such a belief in Christ as made him live like a Christian. He was just therefore the reverse of (his early patron)

Warham, and thought the persecution of protestants one of the things most foreign to his function. For parts and learning he was very eminent: his knowledge was extensive, and his taste in letters superior to that of most of his contemporaries. The great foible of which he stands accused in history, was the pliancy of his temper. Like most of the bishops of those times, he had been bred in a court; and was indeed too dextrous in the arts there practised." On this last failing, Mr. Gilpin seems to us to lay too much stress, for even the particulars which, in the preceding sketch we have extracted from his life of Bernard Gilpin, shew decidedly that Tunstall was no courtly complier in those measures which were particularly characteristic of the times, and which have been more or less the test of the worth of every eminent man who lived in them.

Bishop Tunstall's writings that were published, were chiefly the following: 1. "In Laudem Matrimonii," Lond. 1518, 4to. 2. "De Arte Supputandi," Lond. 1522, 4to, dedicated to sir Thomas More. This was afterwards several times printed abroad. 3. "A Sermon on Palm Sunday" before king Henry the 8th, &c. Lond. 1539 and 1633, 4to. 4. "De Veritate Corporis & Sanguinis Domini in Eucharistia," Lutet. 1554, 4to. 5. "Compendium in decem Libros Ethicorum Aristotelis," Par. 1554, 8vo. 6. "Contra impios Blasphematores Dei prædestinationis," Antw. 1555, 4to. 7. "Godly and devout Prayers in English and Latin," 1558, in 8vo.

Several of his letters and papers are published in Burnet's History of the Reformation, Strype's Memorials, Collier's Ch. History, Lodge's Illustrations, &c.1

TUNSTALL (JAMES), a learned and amiable divine, was born about 1710, and educated at St. John's college in Cambridge, of which he became fellow and a principal tutor. He was instituted to the rectory of Sturmer in Essex, in 1739, and, in 1741, elected public orator of the university. He afterwards became chaplain to Potter, abp. of Canterbury; and was there a person of such uniform meekness and humility as to make it said, after he left Lambeth, that "many a man came there, as chaplain,

} Ath. Ox. vol. I.-Tanner.-Bale and Pits.-Strype's Cranmer, pp. 66, 77 -81, 288, 309.-Strype's Parker, pp. 47, 54.-Strype's Grindal, 27.-More's Life of sir Thomas More.-Gilpin's Life of Gilpin, pp. 45-47, 65, 71, 101.Gilpin's Life of Latimer, see Index.-Biog. Brit.-Hutchinson's Hist. of Durham.-Dodd's Ch. Hist.-Burnet's Reformation,-Fox's Acts and Monuments. Lodge's Illustrations.

humble, but that none ever departed so except Dr. Tunstall." He was created D. D. at Cambridge in 1744; was collated by the archbishop to the rectory of Great Chart in Kent, and to the vicarage of Minster in the Isle of Thanet, both which he resigned in 1757, for the valuable vicarage of Rochdale in Lancashire, given him by abp. Hutton, who married his wife's aunt; but the exchange, from many circumstances, did not answer his expectation; he wished for a prebend of Canterbury. It is supposed that either family uneasinesses, or the above disappointment, hastened his death, which took place March 28, 1772.

His writings are, 1. "Epistola ad virum eruditum Conyers Middleton, &c." Cant. 1741, 8vo. In this work, he calls in question the genuineness of the letters between Cicero and Brutus, of which Dr. Middleton had made great use in his elegant "History of Cicero's Life;" and shews, that he had not paid sufficient attention to the letters to Atticus and his brother Quintus. 2. "Observations on the present collection of Epistles between Cicero and Brutus."" This was to confirm what he had before advanced, and by way of answer to a preface of Middleton's to an edition of the epistles. Mr. Markland, in a private letter, says, "I have read over Mr. Tunstall's book, twice more, since I came hither; and am more and more confirmed, that it can never be answered." 3. "Sermon before the House of Commons, May 29, 1746." 4. "A Vindication of the Power of the State to prohibit Clandestine Marriages, &c." 1755. 5. "Marriage in Society stated, &c. in a second Letter to Dr. Stebbing," 1755. 6. "Academica: part the first, containing Discourses upon Natural and Revealed Religion, a Concio, and a Thesis." The second part he did not live to publish; but it is supposed to be included in "The Lectures on Natural and Revealed Religion," published after his death, in 4to, by the rev. Mr. Dodsworth, treasurer of Salisbury, and his brother-in-law.

Among Dr. Birch's MSS. in the British Museum, is a collection of letters from Dr. Tunstall to the earl of Ox-' ford, in 1738 and 1739, on Ducket's Atheistical Letters, and the proceedings thereon.1

TURBERVILE (GEORGE), an English poet, descended from a family of considerable note in Dorsetshire, was a younger son of Nicholas Turbervile of Whitchurch, and 1 Nichols's Bowyer.

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supposed to have been born about 1530. He received his education at Winchester school, and became fellow of New college, Oxford, in 1561, but left the university without taking a degree, and resided for some time in one of the inns of court. He appears to have accumulated a stock of classical learning, and to have been well acquainted with modern languages. He formed his ideas of poetry partly on the classics, and partly on the study of the Italian school. His poetical pursuits, however, did not interfere with more important business, as his well-known abilities. recommended him to the post of secretary to Thomas Randolph, esq. who was appointed queen Elizabeth's ambassador at the court of Russia. While in this situation, he wrote three poetical epistles to as many friends, Edward Davies, Edmund Spenser (not the poet), and Parker, describing the manners of the Russians. These may be seen. in Hackluyt's voyages, vol. I. p. 384. After his return, he

was much courted as a man of accomplished education and manners; and the first edition of his "Songs and Sonnets,' published in 1567, seems to have added considerably to his fame. A second edition appeared in 1570, with many additions and corrections.

His other works were, translations of the "Heroical Epistles of Ovid," of which four editions were printed; and the "Eclogues of B. Mantuan," published in 1567. The only copy known of this volume is in the Royal Library. Wood, who appears to have seen it, informs us that one Thomas Harvey afterwards translated the same eclogues, and availed himself of Turbervile's translation, without the least acknowledgment. Among the discoveries of literary historians, it is to be regretted that such tricks are to be traced to very high antiquity. Another very rare production of our author, although twice printed, in 1576 and 1587, is entitled "Tragical Tales, translated by Turbervile, in time of his troubles, out of sundrie Italians, with the argument & L'Envoye to each tale." What his troubles were, we are not told. To the latter edition of these tales were annexed "Epitaphs and Sonets, with some other broken pamphlettes and Epistles, sent to certaine of his friends in England, at his being in Moscovia, anno 1569." Wood has mistaken this for his "Epitaphs, Epigrams, Songs, and Sonets," from which it totally differs.

Our author was living in 1594, and in great esteem, but we have no account of his death. There appear to have

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