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a long life of him, but it is throughout the whole a pane gyric. His countrymen now do not seem agreed in his character. By some it is considered that he might have saved the state by others he is classed among those who precipitated the revolution.'

TURNEBUS (ADRIAN), an eminent critic and translator, was born at Andeli, a small village near Rouen in Normandy, in 1512. Two nations have contended for the honour of his birth; the French, who say he was descended of a noble but decayed family in Normandy; and the Scotch, who have discovered (Dempster, and after him Mackenzie) that his French name Tournebauf is no other than Turnbull, and that he was the son of a Scotch gentleman of that name who married in Normandy. Whatever may be in this, Turnebus, for that is the name he took in his writings and correspondence, came to Paris at the age of eleven, and soon made such progress in classicaland polite literature as to surpass all his fellow-students, and even, we are told, his masters. He had every qualification indeed to form an accomplished scholar, great memory, indefatigable application, and both taste and judg→ ment far beyond his years. Before these all difficulties vanished, and his avidity and knowledge knew no intermission in his after-life. Even on the day of his marriage, it is said, he devoted some hours to study.

The progress of his pursuits are not particularly detailed, but he is reported to have taught the classics at Toulouse, and afterwards, in 1547, was appointed Greek professor at Paris, where he had for his colleagues Buchanan and Muretus, whose joint reputation brought scholars from all parts of Europe. In 1552, Turnebus was appointed superintendant of the royal printing-house for Greek books, and had William Morel for his associate, whom he left in sole possession of this office about four years after, on being appointed one of the royal professors. Such was his fame, that he had invitations and large offers from Italy, Spain, Portugal, Germany, and England, on condition of settling in either of those countries; but he preferred the moderate circumstances enjoyed in his own country to the most tempting offers of riches elsewhere. He died June 12, 1565, in the fifty-third year of his age, and was buried on

1 Life by Condorcet, published in 1787, 8vo.-Monthly and Crit. Reviews for that year.-Dict. Hist.

the evening of the same day, agreeably to his desire, in a very private manner, in the burial-place belonging to the college of Montaign, being followed to his grave by only a few friends. He was supposed to have embraced the doctrines of the Reformation; but this was not generally known; and so much was he admired, that both papists and protestants endeavoured to claim him as their own. It was his singular fate, that all who knew him, and all who read his works, loved him. This gave rise to some ingenious lines by Henry Stephens, in which, after putting the question, "Why does Turnebus please every body?" in various ways, he answers, that "he pleased every body, because he did not please himself," alluding to his extreme diffidence and modesty, and his very amiable manners. Such was the esteem in which he was held, that some of the German professors, when in their lectures they quoted the authority of Turnebus (or Cujacius, to whom the same compliment was paid) they used to move their right hand to their cap, as a token of veneration. He directed his studies chiefly to philological researches, and to translating the Greek authors. His translations have always been approved, and his criticisms were not less admired in his own and the succeeding age. It has been, indeed, sometimes objected, that he was too fond of conjectural emendations, and that, notwithstanding the con. stitutional gentleness of his temper, he displayed more than necessary warmth in his controversies with Ramus, and with Bodin; but in general his style, as well as his sentiments, were liberal; and he is said to have discovered nothing of the pedant but in his dress. His works were collected and published in three volumes, folio, which generally make but one, at Strasburg, 1600, and consist of his commentaries on various parts of Cicero, Varro, Horace, Pliny, &c.; his translations of Aristotle, Theophrastus, Plutarch, &c. and his miscellaneous pieces, letters, and poems. His "Adversaria" went through many editions, first in quarto, from 1564 to 1599, when the last was printed in folio. Niceron enumerates a few other separate publications, and comments contributed by him to some of the classics. Of his translations, Huetius says, that he had every quality which is necessary for a perfect translator; for he understood Greek thoroughly, and turned it into elegant Latin, closely and without depart

ing in the least from his author, yet in a clear and pleasant style."1

TURNER (DANIEL), a dissenting minister of the baptist persuasion, was born at Blackwater-farm, in the parish of St. Michael, and district of St. Alban's, Hertfordshire, on March 1, 1710. He appears to have had some classical education, which he afterwards diligently improved, but was not regularly educated for the ministry. In 1738 he published" An abstract of English grammar and rhetoric," and an advertisement at the end of this volume intimates that he then kept a boarding school. Two of his pupils have been ascertained, Dr. Hugh Smith, an alderman and eminent physician in London, and Dr. William Kenrick. He commenced preacher, without any of the usual forms of admission, but merely because he was thought capable of preaching, when he was about twenty years old; and having been approved of at his outset, he continued and was settled as minister of the baptist congregation at Reading. From this he was invited to become pastor of a similar congregation at Abingdon in 1748, where he spent the remainder of his long life. He began to preach and to print early in life, and he preached and printed to the last. Many of his publications were much approved, and produced occasional correspondence between him and some eminent men of his time, particularly Dr. Watts, Dr. Kennicott, and Dr. Lowth, bishop of London. He was a man of great piety, and of a disposition peculiarly candid, liberal, and benevolent. He died Sept. 5, 1798, in the eightyninth year of his age, and was interred in the baptist burying-ground at Abingdon.


He published, 1. "An Introduction to Psalmody," 1737. 2. "An abstract of English grammar," 1738. 3. "The balance of the merits of the whigs and tories," 1753. "A summary of facts relative to the election at Abingdon,” 1768. 5. "A friendly monitor to the hardened sinner," &c. 1770. 6. "An Introduction to rhetoric," 1771. "A Compendium of social religion," 1758, reprinted in 8." Remarks on Mr. Lake's sermon on Baptism," 9. "Meditations on select portions of Scripture," 2d edit. 1785. 10. "Devotional poetry vindicated against Dr. Johnson," 1785. 11. "A serious address to Chris

1778. 1781.

1 Niceron, vol. XXXIX.-Mackenzie's Scotch Writers.-Irvine's Life of Bu hanan.-Saxii Onomast.


12. "Essays on im13. "Exhortations to

tians on the duty of prayer," 1786. portant subjects," 1789, 2 vols. loyalty and peace,” 1792. 14. "Free thoughts on the spirit of free inquiry i religion," 1792. 15. "Letters religious and moral, addressed to young persons," 1793, 2d edit. 16. "Several pieces of poetry," printed, but not published, in 1794. 17. "The Monitor, or friendly address to the people of Great Britain," 1795. 18. "Common sense, or the plain man's answer to the question, whether Christianity be a religion worthy of our choice?" 1797. He also printed a few occasional sermons.'

TURNER (THOMAS), dean of Canterbury, was the son of Thomas Turner of Heckfield in Hampshire, alderman and mayor of Reading in Berkshire; and was born in the parish of St. Giles's in that borough, in 1591. In 1610 he was admitted on the foundation at St. John's college, Oxford, and had for his tutor Mr. Juxon, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury. His application to learning was assiduous and successful, and having entered into holy orders, he immediately distinguished himself as a divine of merit. In 1623 he was presented by his college to the vicarage of St. Giles's in Oxford, which he held with his fellowship, but relinquished it in 1628. Laud, when bishop of London, made him his chaplain, and in 1629, at which time Mr. Turner was B. D. collated him to the prebend of Newington in the church of St. Paul, and in October following to the chancellorship of the same church, in which also he was appointed by Charles I. a canon-residentiary. The king likewise made him one of his chaplains in ordinary, and gave him the rectory of St. Olave, Southwark, with which he held the rectory of Fetcham in the county of Surrey. In 1633, when Charles I. resolved on a progress to Scotland for his coronation, Turner was commanded to attend his majesty; previous to which he was, April 1, 1633-4, created D. D. by the university of Oxford. In 1641 he was preferred to the deanery of Rochester, and on the death of Dr. Eglionby to that of Canterbury, but of this last he could not obtain possession until the restoration. After the death of the king, to whom he had adhered with inflexible loyalty and attachment, he shared the fare of the other loyal clergymen in being stript of his preferments, and treated with much indignity and cruelty. On the

1 Prot, Dissenters' Magazine, vol. VI.

restoration, in August 1660, he entered into full possession of the deanery of Canterbury, and might have been rewarded with a mitre, but he declined it, "preferring to set out too little rather than too much sail." Instead of seeking further promotion, he soon resigned the rectory of Fetcham, "desiring to ease his aged shoulders of the burthen of cure of souls; and caused it to be bestowed upon a person altogether unacquainted with him, but recommended very justly under the character of a pious man, and a sufferer for righteousness.'

Having enjoyed an uninterrupted share of good health, during thirty years, he was at length attacked with that severe disease the stone; the sharpness of which he endured with exemplary fortitude and resignation. Nor did the "innocent gayety of his humour," which made his company so agreeable to all, forsake him to the last. He reached the age of eighty-one, and died in Oct. 1672, with "the greatest Christian magnanimity, and yet with the deepest sense imaginable of godly sorrow, working repentance unto salvation not to be repented of." He was buried in the dean's chapel in Canterbury cathedral, and his funeral sermon, since printed, was preached by Dr. Peter du Moulin, prebendary of the church, who gives him a very high and apparently very just character. It is not known that dean Turner published more than a single sermon on Matt. ix. 13. mentioned by Wood. Prynne censures him as an Arminian, yet Du Moulin, who enters so fully and so affectionately into his character, in all respects both as a man and as a divine, was a zealous Calvinist.

Dean Turner married Margaret, daughter of sir Francis Windebank, knt. secretary of state to Charles I. By her he had three sons, each of whom attained distinguished situations, and of whom some account will now be given.'

TURNER (FRANCIS), an English prelate, son of the preceding, received his education at Winchester school, and was thence elected fellow of New college, Oxford; where he took his degrees in arts, that of bachelor, April 14, 1659, and that of master in the beginning of 1663. He commenced B. D. and D. D. July 6, 1669, and in December following was collated to the prebend of Sneating in St. Paul's. On the promotion of Dr. Gunning to the see of Chichester, he succeeded him in the mastership of St. 1 Todd's Account of the Deans of Canterbury.-Funeral Sermon by Du Moulia.

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