India: Development and Participation

Front Cover
Oxford University Press, 2002 - Business & Economics - 512 pages
4 Reviews
This book explores the role of public action in eliminating deprivation and expanding human freedoms in India. The analysis is based on a broad and integrated view of development, which focuses on well-being and freedom rather than the standard indicators of economic growth. The authors place human agency at the centre of stage, and stress the complementary roles of different institutions (economic, social, and political) in enhancing effective freedoms. In comparative international perspective, the Indian economy has done reasonably well in the period following the economic reforms initiated in the early nineties. However, relatively high aggregate economic growth coexists with the persistence of endemic deprivation and deep social failures. Jean Dreze and Amartya Sen relate this imbalance to the continued neglect, in the post-reform period, of public involvement in crucial fields such as basic education, health care, social security, environmental protection, gender equity, and civil rights, and also to the imposition of new burdens such as the accelerated expansion of military expenditure. Further, the authors link these distortions of public priorities with deep-seated inequalities of social influence and political power. The book discusses the possibility of addressing these biases through more active democratic practice.
 

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Contents

Introduction and Approach
1
12 INEQUALITY AND PARTICIPATION
8
13 COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES
11
14 WOMENS AGENCY AND SOCIAL CHANGE
17
15 INSTITUTIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES
20
16 DEMOCRACY ENVIRONMENT AND MILITARISM
23
17 VOICE ASSERTION AND SOLIDARITY
28
18 A CONCLUDING REMARK
32
510 EDUCATION AND POLITICAL ACTION
186
Population Health and the Environment
189
62 MALTHUSIAN FEARS AND THE REAL ISSUES
196
63 GENDER EQUITY AND THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
198
64 HEALTH CARE AS A SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
201
65 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND BEYOND
208
66 ACHIEVEMENTS OF TAMIL NADU
213
67 ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
218

Economic Development and Social Opportunity
34
22 ON EDUCATION AND HEALTH
38
23 THE SOCIAL DIMENSION OF HEALTH AND EDUCATION
41
24 THE GOVERNMENT THE STATE AND THE MARKET
44
25 INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN MARKETS AND GOVERNANCE
46
26 MARKETEXCLUDING AND MARKETCOMPLEMENTARY INTERVENTIONS
49
27 MARKET MANIA AND MARKET PHOBIA
53
28 COOPERATIVE ACTION AND SOCIAL CONTEXT
56
29 A POSITIVE FOCUS
61
India in Comparative Perspective
64
32 LESSONS FROM OTHER COUNTRIES
70
33 EAST ASIA AND GROWTHMEDIATED PROGRESS
73
34 HUMAN CAPITAL AND MORE BASIC VALUES
81
35 INDIAS INTERNAL DIVERSITIES
83
36 SELECTED REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
89
37 POLITICAL ACTION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN WEST BENGAL
94
SCRUTINY AND SIGNIFICANCE
97
39 SOCIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN HIMACHAL PRADESH
101
310 CONCLUDING REMARK
110
India and China
112
42 CONDITIONS OF LIFE AND DEATH
114
43 CONTRASTS IN BASIC EDUCATIONS
116
44 PREREFORM ACHIEVEMENTS
120
45 POSTREFORM RECORDS
122
46 HEALTH CARE IN THE POSTREFORM PERIOD
128
47 PREREFORM AND POSTREFORM CONNECTIONS
130
48 AUTHORITARIANISM FAMINES AND VULNERABILITY
132
49 COERCION POPULATION AND FERTILITY
134
410 THE REAL LESSONS FOR INDIA FROM CHINA
140
Basic Education as a Political Issue
143
52 THE STATE OF SCHOOL EDUCATION
146
53 EDUCATIONAL HOPES AND THE DISCOURAGEMENT EFFECT
154
54 ON FEMALE EDUCATION
160
55 THE SHIFTING GOALPOST OF UNIVERSAL ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
164
56 PUBLIC EXPENDITURE AND EDUCATION POLICY
168
57 SCHOOL QUALITY AND THE NEED FOR ACCOUNTABILITY
172
58 THE SCHOOLING REVOLUTION IN HIMACHAL PRADESH
177
59 COMPULSORY SCHOOLING AND THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION
184
68 CONSEQUENCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PLUNDER
222
69 ENVIRONMENT AND THE CONSTRUCTIVE PERSPECTIVE
226
Gender Inequality and Womens Agency
229
72 ON THE FEMALEMALE RATIO
231
73 WOMENS AGENCY AND CHILD SURVIVAL
245
74 FERTILITY AND WOMENS EMANCIPATION
253
75 GENDER BIAS IN NATALITY
257
76 WIDOWHOOD AND GENDER RELATIONS
262
POVERTY VS PATRIARCHY
266
78 GENDER EQUALITY AND SOCIAL PROGRESS
271
Security and Democracy in a Nuclear India
275
82 THE MORAL AND THE PRAGMATIC
278
83 SOURCES OF STRENGTH AND DANGERS OF UNDERESTIMATION
280
84 DETERRENCE AND SECURITY
283
85 THE NUCLEAR DEBATE
286
86 THE SOCIAL COSTS OF MILITARISM
289
87 DEFENCE EXPENDITURE AND SOCIAL NEEDS
292
COSTS AND RISKS
294
89 MILITARISM AND DEMOCRACY
299
Well Beyond Liberalization
306
92 RADICAL NEEDS AND MODERATE REFORMS
310
93 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE NINETIES
315
94 ECONOMIC REFORM AND SOCIAL POLICY
333
95 HUNGER AMIDST PLENTY
336
96 GLOBALIZATION AND INEQUALITY
340
97 A CONCLUDING REMARK
345
The Practice of Democracy
347
102 INEQUALITY AND EMPOWERMENT
352
103 DECENTRALIZATION AND LOCAL DEMOCRACY
358
104 TRANSPARENCY AND CORRUPTION
363
105 ACCOUNTABILITY AND COUNTERVAILING POWER
368
106 HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACY
371
107 DEMOCRACY AND PARTICIPATION
375
Statistical Appendix
381
References
415
Subject Index
479
Name Index
500
Copyright

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About the author (2002)

Jean Dreze is a Visiting Professor at the Delhi School of Economics and an international authority on development economics. His association with India goes back more than twenty years during which time he has studied the issues in India minutely and has authored many books, research papers, and newspaper articles on education, poverty, development, nuclear doctrine, freedom of information, and the Narmada Struggle. Amartya Sen is the Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and the winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economic Science. He has been President of the Indian Economic Association, the American Economic Association, the International Economic Association, and the Econometric Society. He has taught at Calcutta, Delhi, Oxford, Cambridge, the London School of Economics, and Harvard.

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