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now printed the speech which he had delivered against the third reading of Strafford's attainder bill; the commons, in their indignation, voted that it should be burnt by the hands of the hangman.

The ill-advised impeachments of the 5th of January, 1642, were among the first fruits of Digby's confidence with the royal ear. On the retreat of the five members, with Lord Kimbolton, into the city, Digby offered to seize them with an armed force; but the king, less infatuated than his councillor, rejected the proposal. Digby was now the object of universal odium and execration; he saw and felt his disgrace and danger, and fled to Holland. Weary at length of inactivity, he ventured to return to England, and contrived to reach York undiscovered, where he had an interview with the king. But on his return to Holland with some confidential communication to the queen, the vessel in which he had embarked was taken at sea and brought into Hull. Here he had the singular address so to move the feelings and enlist the sympathy of Sir John Hotham, then governor of Hull, on his behalf, that he concealed his knowledge of the rank and quality of his prisoner, and connived at his escape. Soon after this, we find him behaving with great gallantry at the battle of Edgehill, and subsequently at the siege of Lichfield; but on a disagreement with Prince Rupert, he threw up his regiment and returned to court. On the death of Falkland, Digby became principal secretary of state to the king; he was about the same time elected high-steward of the university of Oxford. In his new capacity of secretary, Digby exhibited little talent. His project for a treaty between the king and the city of London, wild in itself, was frustrated by the mismanagement of the correspondence relating to it; he was soon after gulled by Brown, who commanded at Abingdon, into negotiations which, while they had for their professed object the delivery of that important place to the king, were entered into by Brown with no other view than to gain time for putting himself into a better state of defence. Again, in October, 1645, he hastily entered into an intercourse with Lesley, and some other commanders of the Scottish forces then in England, without first having made sure of his men, and was greatly surprised when he discovered that the crafty Lesley had imparted their whole correspondence to the parliamentary party. His acceptance of the lieutenant-generalship of the forces north of the Trent, on the dismissal of Prince Rupert, was an equally unadvised and rash step. He had no military talents, but he never discovered the fact until he found himself cut off by Lesley's army from returning into England, after having vainly attempted to form a junction with the marquess of Montrose. In this dilemma, he adopted the sudden resolution of leaving his men and embarking for the Isle of Man, from whence he went to Ireland.

His favourite scheme now was to get the prince of Wales persuaded to raise his standard in Ireland; but failing in this, he retired to France, where the Cardinal Mazarine showed him some little attention. We soon after hear of him as having entered the French army as a volunteer, and commanding a troop of horse, chiefly composed of English In this sergentlemen, in what was called the war of the Frondeurs. vice he greatly distinguished himself by his personal bravery, and was rewarded by Louis with a very lucrative monopoly. His succession to the earldom of Bristol by the death of his father, completed his title

to estimation in the eyes of his new friends. New singularities, however, soon took possession of him. With a professed love of money amounting to avarice, and whilst he was universally supposed to be amassing enormous wealth, he was indulging in secret in the most amorous dissipation and unbounded extravagance. From this dream of delusion he was at last awoke by the necessity of his circumstances, -he found himself without a penny, and took up a new whim to ascend the highest ladder of ambition. His first idea was to supplant Mazarine as premier of France. With his usual precipitancy and blindness to the most obvious consequences, he instituted all sorts of intrigues to this end, and quickly found himself dismissed from all his employments, and shunned and abandoned by the whole court. He now wandered in a state of positive destitution into the Spanish camp in the Netherlands; but here his fame had preceded him, and none seemed willing to enter into friendship with such an unstable and intriguing character. Yet such was the extraordinary fascination of his manners, and such the address with which he wielded the varied talents which he unquestionably possessed, that in spite of their previous disinclination to intimacy with him, the principal officers in the Spanish army soon found him their trusty companion; and even the celebrated Don John of Austria took him to his bosom as his confidential friend.

His next freak was to embrace Catholicism. How far the man was conscientious in this change of religious profession, it does not become us to judge, on the slender evidence we possess on the subject. It is strange, however, that he never seems to have dreamt of his conversion operating to the prejudice of his political advancement in his own country. On presenting himself in England, he was indeed received with external marks of respect by Charles, but no office either in the state or the court was offered to him; and, in his blindness to what must have been obvious to every other person but himself, he imputed the neglect with which he was treated to the malignant influence of Clarendon. His bitterness soon manifested itself in the charge of high treason which he preferred against the chancellor in the house of peers, on the 10th of July, 1663. The measure, as might have been antici pated by any one else but himself, ended in his own disgrace. He remained for two years concealed, or rather affecting to conceal himself; at last the duchess of Cleveland obtained a private audience for him with Charles. From this period, his public life may be regarded as having closed. He died on the 20th of March, 1677, at Chelsea, where he was buried.

Andrew Marvell.

BORN A. d. 1620.-died a. d. 1678.

THIS eminent English statesman and poet, who has been honoured with the name of the British Aristides,' was the son of a respectable clergyman of the church of England. He was born at Kingston-uponHull, on the 15th of November, 1620, and probably received the first rudiments of education under his father, whom Echard calls the facetious Calvinistic minister of Hull.' Young Marvell was early distinguish

ed for remarkable proficiency and quickness of mind. Indeed, at fifteen years of age, his father sent him to Cambridge, where he was admitted, in 1635, as a student at Trinity college: Mr Cooke, the editor of the edition of his works in 1726, erroneously states this as on the 14th of December, 1633; but the admission-book of Trinity college has the following entry. — 266,“ 13th April, 1638. Andrew Marvell juratus et admissus, which is the record of his election to a scholarship on the foundation. We have no evidence of his attaining academical honours, or towards what profession he directed his studies.

The Jesuits, who were then making converts with industrious proselytism among the young men of distinguished abilities, inveigled Marveli from college to London, where his father followed and rescued him from their fangs; and it appears, that, like every youthful mind of ardent and undisciplined feeling, he went through the usual course of rapidly succeeding extremes and inconsistent opinions. So powerful and vigorous an intellect could not but subside into rational and wise views of the principles of human conduct, and the civil government of man; and in proportion to the difficulty of discovering truth, is the usual estimation of its value.

From the time of his admission on the foundation at Trinity college, in 1638, to the year 1640, in which he lost his father, he appears to have pursued his studies with indefatigable application; that event seems to have given some new character to his views and prospects which, at this distance of time, and with the scanty information of his early life, cannot now be discovered. It is certain, however, that be gave up his residence at college: and, with other students, absented himself so long from his exercises, that the masters and seniors came to a resolution on the 24th of September, 1641, to refuse them the benefits of the college, and gave them three months to make the amende homorable. Marvell does not appear to have manifested any penitence, but was publicly expelled for non-residence. This story, however, probably means nothing more than that Marvell, as a scholar, did not take Lis degree at the regular time, which, by the rules of Trinity college, now vacates of scholarship, and, which probably did at the time and in the instance in question. Captain Thompson, his last biographe er, supposes that this intermission of his studies and residence was cansed by new stares of the Jesuits; but this is improbable,-a bur..t chud dreaus the fire. It is much more probable, that the political turmous with preceded the breaking out of the civil wars, engaged bhs attention; and that a small independency, on the death of his father, reaeved him from the necessity of earning his bread in the dry and uninteresting study of technical law. But however this may be, he ap pears to have extented the plan of his education, in traveling abroad Bobe considerable time, through most of the polite parts of Europe." His poem of Fectoe, a humorous satire on an Irish priest Roque, Richard Fecoe, an incorrigible poetaster, is the first recorded instance of his satirical writing; though possessing considerable It has, however, the imer, it is composed in a siovenly metre.


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merit of originating one of the best satirical poems in the language, Dryden's M Flecnoe against the lambent dulness' of Thomas Shadwell.

It has been supposed that Marvell, at this time, made his first acquaintance with Milton, who was then in Italy; and who, though twelve years older than Marvell, had left Christ's college only four years before the date of the latter's admission. "At Rome," says Hartley Coleridge, "Marvell first saw Milton, then a young and enamoured roamer in classic lands, who was soon to make all Europe ring from side to side,' already a poet, not of promise merely, but of high achievement, in the flower of manly beauty, in the vernal warmth of high and generous daring; not even in the proudest days of her Republic, had Rome to boast two nobler youths than Milton and Marvell. No doubt they sympathised in passionate indignation to see priestcraft throned on the seven hills. D'Israeli has written a book upon the Quarrels of Authors,' why does not he, or somebody else, write one about the Friendships of Authors?' Why is it, that the little good that has been on earth has never found an historian ?"

In Paris, Marvell wrote a severe poem on one Lancelot Joseph de Maniban, a whimsical abbot, who pretended to prognosticate the fortunes of people by the character of their hand-writing. After his return home, we hear no more of Marvell for the space of twelve years. Some of his biographers, determined to fill up the chasm, have sent him as secretary to a Turkey embassy; but unluckily it does not appear that Cromwell had any minister at the Ottoman court. This long blank in the biography of such a man, at such an era, is unaccountable; though it cannot be doubted, from subsequent circumstances, that he must have been the warm and bold friend of the popular party. In 1653, by the transcript of a curious letter from him to Oliver Cromwell, the original of which is unknown, the latter, it appears, had appointed him tutor to his nephew. This letter is extremely interesting, and, in some degree, unfolds Marvell's opinion on education; he writes that his pupil was of a "gentle and waxen disposition;" that " he hath in him two things which make youth most easy to be managed,-modesty, which is the bridle to vice-and emulation, which is the spur to virtue." There is more wisdom in the simplicity and tenderness of these sentiments than first meets the eye.

In the second part of the Rehearsal Transposed, he says, in reply to some reproaches of Dr Parker, "I never had any not the remotest relation to public matters, nor correspondence with the persons then predominant, till the year 1657, when, indeed, I entered into an employment, for which I was not altogether improper, and which I consider to be the most innocent and inoffensive towards his majesty's affairs, of any in that usurped and irregular government, to which all men were then exposed." This office was that of assistant Latin secretary to the commonwealth, with Milton; which sufficiently proves he was an accomplished scholar, and of tried integrity. It is true, that the sentence

oted betrays a great dissatisfaction at the issue of the struggle in Cromwell's usurpation; and it is more than probable, ll, with Tirfax, and many other of the great characters of of evils, longed for the Restoration.


mwell till the parliament of the 25th of April,

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