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cers and crew, is pleasingly appa- which the grown babies of society rent. A frank and gentlemanly spirit, never seem satisfied, without imagiand a kindly heart, give a sunshiny nation be helped out with a picture, tone to the whole composition, and yet Captain Beechey’s descriptions a strong feeling of reverence for true are so graphic, that they require little religion, without the slightest touch assistance from the pencil. of fanaticism, is seen wherever cir- To conclude, the expedition of the cumstances call for the expression Blossom has been any thing but in of any opinions on the subject. vain. An accurate survey has been
Justice could not be done to the made of the greater part of the Pa. scientific parts of the work, except cific. A more complete and general in a review set apart for that pur account of the islands of that sea, pose. Suffice it here to say, that as than ever was before obtained, has nothing was left undone which could been laid before the public. A thoufulfil the views of the government, sand important errors have been corand benefit the country by the ex- rected, a thousand important facts pedition, nothing has been omitted have been ascertained. In the Arctic which could give value to the work; regions, discoveries, great in themand while the public in general read selves, and great in their conseit for entertainment, the naturalist quences, have been added to those and the philosopher will find much which went before; an hundred and genuine information, and great mat- forty-six miles alone remain untrater for thought.
versed; these may easily be accomSome beautiful engravings by Fin- plished, and certainty will be finally den are scattered through the vo- won. lumes; but, though this is an age in
Although we have purposely abstained from noticing the scientific parts of Captain Beechey's narrative, yet it is but fair to state, that the theories which he advances with the modest diffidence of true genius, display an extent of views and depth of knowledge which do him the highest credit. The minute, circumstantial, and accurate account given of the drift wood at page 580, is in itself highly valuable, as illustrative of a very curious question; and the opinion to which Captain Beechey inclines, that this immense quantity of loose timber is borne down from the interior by the rivers running into Bristol Bay, Port Clarence, Norton and Kotzebue Sound, Schismar, Hotham, and Wainwright's Inlets, though not absolutely proved to be correct, has every probability in its favour.
In regard to the currents also, Captain Beechey's account is wonderfully clear and accurate, considering the difficulty of examination, while the ship was close in shore engaged in the laborious occupation of surveying, and the labour which he bestowed in ascertaining how far these currents extended below the surface-for it must be remembered that almost all currents are quite superficial-entitles him to the highest praise.
To correct a clerical error in our text, it may be as well to state here, that the precise extent of coast discovered by Captain Beechey's expedition, including the discoveries of the boat, was 126 miles.
IRELAND AND THE REFORM BILL,
What a strange destiny is that of the peasant of Mayo, or Galway, Ireland !-how incorrigible in her takes as little thought of the vicissi. faults-how pitiable in her misfor- tude of the seasons, as he of Carlow tunes! The whole page of her his- or Kilkenny, whose crop almost tory—the whole aspect of her na- never disappoints him. Indeed we tional character—are made up, like a have some doubt whether the ConGerman story, of combinations of naught peasant would not think it a. the ludicrous and the terrible;—there sinful mistrust of Providence to is no calm-no resting-place of peace make any unusual provision for the and comfort, upon which the mind future; and when the torment of can repose with satisfaction and famine comes, he submits with me. thankfulness. Whether we look lancholy resignation to what he upon times past or present, we be- calls “the will of God.” In the hold frantic exultation, fierce con- places most subject to famine, there tention, and deep despair, following is an habitual patience of misery, each other in rapid succession—the which none but those who have witsounds of wild and fantastic glee nessed it would deem possibleseem scarcely to have died upon the “ they die, and make no sign.” The echoes, till they are succeeded by the author of an admirable book, deyells of savage fury,—and these again scriptive of the manners and habits give place to the hopeless wail that of the peasantry in the part of Iredespondency puts forth over the land of which we speak, says that dying and the dead.
the observation, sure it was too The Irish seem be utterly un- much trouble entirely,” reconciles teachable in the most ordinary les- them to the smoke that darkens their sons of prudence-all experience is little cabin, and the rain that patters lost upon them, and we would be through the unthatched roof; and almost constrained to look upon the same feeling inclines them to them as a doomed people—as a race lie down and die, when Providence foreordained to wretchedness, were has blasted their potatoe crop, and it not that we know that they enjoy deprived them of the fruit of their a great deal of happiness when pota- labours. Hard as was the task, it toes are plenty, and the sun shines was sometimes necessary to refuse merrily above their heads; and when that relief which could not be exthe misery they have suffered, and tended to all in full proportion to may suffer again, is no more thought their wants; but never was the reof than the dark clouds of November, fusal met by a murmur ora reproach. in this joyous month of June. The On one such occasion, “ God help western shores of Ireland being open us!” was the answer of the poor to the Atlantic ocean, the chilling man, with an expressive movemeut storms that sweep across that vast of his shoulders; “ God help us mass of waters frequently injure, then; for if your honour can do noand sometimes totally destroy, the thing for us, there is no one that crops of the farmer, compensating can." There is something peculiarly him only with huge piles of sea- touching in this submissive patience; weed, which the force of the storm and clamorous and reiterated supplitears from the inaccessible depths cation is much more easily repulsed, of the ocean, and flings upon the than the “ God bless you—sure it shore, from which it is removed for can't be helped then?” manure, or dried for burning. It It is among the contradictions that might have been supposed that where belong to Ireland, that while no such visitations were common, some soil in Europe is more generally rich habits of preparation would have and fertile, in no other country of grown up among the people, and Europe have there been such frethat they would no longer trust en- quent recurrences of famine. In tirely to the potatoe-the stock of other countries there has been somo which must be renewed every sea- care for provision even in war, but son, But there is no such tbing— in Ireland all was laid waste, and
many more perished by famine than absurdity of the sham Reform which by the sword. When Lord Edward his Majesty's Ministers propose to a Bruce, the brother of the deliverer country in a state so deplorable.” of Scotland, pushed his way from the The indignant language of Scripture north to the south of Ireland, famine says,
shall he ask for bread, and obliged him speedily to return; and shall you give him a stone !" But when he got back to Ulster, so horri- even this mockery would not be so ble was the state of the army, that the bad as that of our government, who, dead bodies of those who had died when a people is distracted by ignowere torn from their graves, and rance, barbarism, and starvation, of• their flesh boiled their own skulls, fer them a more extended right of and eaten by the famishing survivors. returning representatives to the ImAfter Desmond's rebellion in the perial Parliament! This is beginning reign of Elizabeth, Spenser tells us at the wrong end with a vengeance. that “out of every corner of the Nothing can save Ireland but a woods and glynnes they came creep- strictness of government coming ing forth upon their hands, for their more near to despotism than the legges could not beare them; they now existing British constitution will looked like anatomies of death, admit of, even in the most extreme they spake like ghosts crying out of cases; and instead of this, an attempt their graves; they did eate the dead is made to loosen the force of governcarrions, happy where they could ment, and to scatter its power among find them, yea, and one another soon the unruly hands of a wild and disafter, insomuch as the very carcases affected multitude. It is not posthey spared not to scrape out of sible to conceive more deplorable their graves; and if they found a infatuation; and throughout Ireland, plot of water-cresses or shamrocks, it is the general fear of the conserthere they flocked, as to a feast for vative party, and the universal boast the time.”
of the noisy supporters of the RevoIn the rebellions of the two Oʻ. Jutionary Bill, that once it is passed, Neales, the horrors of war were also it must be 'followed by a separation greatly aggravated by those of famine; from the legislative government of Þut even in peace this scourge has England, or, at the least, by an abannot ceased to visit fertile Ireland, and donment of the Church property to that which did result from the dire the funds of the State, and thence to necessities of warfare, is now the the payment of the Roman Catholic consequence of errors in social clergy. That the English Reform arrangement, and civil government. Bill will not satisfy the popular craThe Irish starve, while Ireland over. ving for change which it has excited, stocks the English market with corn is matter of reasonable conjecture; and cattle. The poor that dwell in that the proposed Irish Reform Bill the land have no protection, save will not satisfy the Irish, is already the hand of casual charity; but proved by Mr O'Connell's letter, for though all is done by charity that he is too cunning to have expressed private charity can do, what does it his dissatisfaction, without being well avail to a people in beggary-a aware that he could carry the mass nation which stretches out its hands of the people along with him :-and for food ?”
now that I have mentioned this letBut what, says the impatient read- ter, I shall say something about it, er who gapes for the wisdom which in conjunction with the proposed he doubis not is about to be pour- measure which it criticises. Feeled forth touching the Irish Reform ing, as I do, as much interest as a Bill," what has this to do with the foreigner possibly can feel, in the matter in hand ?” “ Most excellent, honour and glory of the kingdom of praiseworthy, and attentive reader," Kerry, I reflect with no small shame I answer, “No exordium to the brief upon the circumstance of one of its discourse which I intend to deliver representatives in Parliament having for your learning, can be more na- put forth such a rambling piece of tural, for it brings us directly to the botheration as this letter on the Reconsideration of the real Reform form Bill. Indeed the fact of having which is wanting, and teaches us to suffered Dan O'Connell to be electperceive the hollowness and cruel ed for Kerry, is in my mind no small disgrace to my favourite kingdom; gone, and we draw near the shore, and I marvel where its ancient aris- and climb our way to where O's tocratic pride is gone, when a man, Brien's cascade thunders down, tear whose grandfather was nobody, has ing its way through the thick wood, been suffered to seize the represen- in the season the dwelling-place of tation even without a fight for it. innumerable woodcocks, which Pat, What can he feel for Kerry, that a Dennis, Dan, and Larry, hunt down Kerry man should feel? How can to the water's edge, while you, standhe sympathize with the land of lakes ing or seated in your boat, deal death and Latin, of mountains and mathe- continually from your double-barmatics--of clouds and classicality— relled detonator. of scenery and science ? He has no Dan O'Connell feels nothing of all feeling for any thing but the rant this, as a representative of Kerry of radicalism, with a riotous rabble ought to do-the place that his soul roaring in his rear. I am not, thank loveth is that where there is crowd, Heaven, a Member of Parliament, and bustle, and noise, and newspabeing in no degree ambitious of the pers. He should represent some martyrdom of stewing in Saint Ste- town-some clamorous, prating, riotphens's five nights in the week from ous, litigious town, stuffed with radiJune to September, in the company cal manufacturing men, and flauntof such a group of talkers as the Re- ing loquacious women. He should form-stricken populace returned at have nothing to do with the county the late election; but if I were thus -I mean the kingdom-of Kerry. to suffer, I don't know the place I But this digression may seem to be would more willingly suffer for than beside the matter-so now for the Kerry. Rich and rare is its beauty; letter, and the Bill. The letter comthe very grass seems to rejoice in mences with the uşual whining rant growing as it shoots up, green and about the extreme excellence of the luxuriant, out of the dark soil. Far genuine Irish,” and the bad usage more delicious than the flesh of or- they have received from the English. dinary sheep is thy small mutton, 0 Nobody ever did justice to Ireland Kerry, slightly heather-flavoured! who was “ impregnated with AngleThy rivers, that " wander at their ism.” This whole phrase is an O'Conown sweet will,” not too huge, nor nellism-“ Angleism” has nothing to yet diminutive-how exquisite their do with English, and I venture furfish! How abundant and incompa- ther to affirm, that it is not“ genuine rable the trout, how admirable the Irish”—but why should the “ Libesalmon in size and flavour-better rator” be bound by the trammels of than if they were bigger I think, yet grammar? Let us come to his facts: a monster is sometimes taken, and -“ We genuine Irish,” he says, “ what a delicate monster !" Excel- “ have always behaved well to Englent are thy small well-proportioned land—we deserve well of the Engblack cattle, that spend their youth- lish people-we have observed every ful days upon the mountain-slopes, national treaty-we have performed picking the herbage not unmixed with perfect good faith every stipus with heath ; and magnificent are lation.” It is perhaps not too much these mountains, rearing their eagle to affirm, that O'Connell knows no haunted tops into the clouds! Ho- more of Irish history than of English nour and fame be unto you, Manger- grammar-What he has learned of ton, with the “ Devil's punch bowl” either is merely casual, such as may lying deep and still within your be picked up in conversation or bosom, and to you, loftier Carran from newspapers. It would be unThual, « and the rest,” and your charitable to suppose, that he made neighbouring lakes, island-studded; such an assertion about the "genuine where the green and crimson of the Irish," with any knowledge of the arbutus festoon the fantastic rocks, historical facts which it falsifies. drooping to the water, made beauti. The most prominently distinguishing ful with their shadows. The red feature of their history, is their indeer still dwells within thy natural constancy to political engagements, woods, fair Killarney; and we drop Other nations that have been attacked our oars that we may watch him by a powerful enemy, have fought sweeping along the hills--but he is while there was any hope in resist ance, and when that ceased, they have Irish, he says, the British nation is submitted, and become faithful to indebted for the adoption of the printheir conquerors, until by degrees ciple of the Reform Bill-there was they became incorporated with them; a majority of Scotch members against but the Irish never did make a ge- that principle-- there was a majoneral resistance to the English - rity of English members against their fashion was to submit, when that principle—but it was carried ever a great force, or even an im- through the second reading by " the portant individual, was at hand to great and overwhelming majority of require their submission ; but no the Irish members in its favour.' sooner was the power that had over- Thus, because Ireland, a distracted, awed their imagination withdrawn, uncivilized portion of the empire, than they broke their engagement, unable to pay any thing like its fair and relapsed into what they called proportion of the taxes, while the independence. Thus it is, that in outrageous habits of its population truth “ Ireland has never been con- require an enormous expense for quered,” because the Irish never civil and military force-because would wait for that to happen-they Ireland is able, by the number of its yielded to the English-then began representatives, to force the princito fight among themselves, and then, ple of revolution upon the United being in the humour, began to fight Kingdom, in spite of decided majoagainst the power to which they rities of the representatives of the owed allegiance-and this process wealthy, and powerful, and peacewent on, not once merely, but re- able portions of the empire against peatedly. Even Sir John Davies, it, this Ireland is to get a yet larger whom Írish patriots love to quote, share of the general representation ! because, being an English lawyer, If this be not using the argumentum he has nevertheless vowed at the ad absurdum, where an argument of end of his book, and probably at the serious cogency was intended, such end of his bottle also, that “ there is a blunder was never made. It is no nation of people under the sun impossible to adduce a stronger arthat doth love equal and indifferent gument than this, to prove that the justice better than the Irish, or will reasonable Reform of Irish represent rest better satisfied with the execu- ation would be found in its curtail. tion thereof, although it be against ment. themselves,"'-even he tells us, that My objection to the Irish Reform in Henry the Eighth's time the Irish Bill commences with the second made their fourth general submission, clause of its preamble--it is almost “ whereof the first was made to King needless to go farther than this and Henry the Second--the second to the succeeding clause, for if the King John-the third to King Ri- preamble be false, then the meachard the Second—and this last to sure founded upon it is erroneous, Sir Anthony St Leger in the thirty- ab initio, and ought not to pass. third of Henry the Eighth.” Four The Irish Reform Bill commences general submissions anterior to the thus--"Whereas it is expedient to days of Elizabeth, does not look very diminish the expenses of elections like “ the constant and undeviating in Ireland, and to extend the eleccourse of perfect good faith” of tive franchise to many of his Ma which Mr Dan O'Connell boasts, jesty's subjects therein, who have nou without in reality knowing any thing heretofore enjoyed the same, and to at all about the matter; yet it is upon increase the number of representathe ground of the transcendent me- tives for certain cities and boroughs rits of the Irish in this matter that in that part of the United Kingdom.” he demands a greater share for Ire- The first clause is true, also it is true land in the senate of the United King- that the moon is not made of green dom, than even the new constitu- cheese--the second and third clauses tion-making Ministry are pleased to are both flagrantly untrue. allow.
The propositions need but to be He has one other argument, to be calmly considered for one minute by sure, the logic of which must make any man who is not mad, nor Irish, to every undegenerate Kerryman blush appear in their true colour of glaring up to, and over, the ears. To the falsehood. Why should the elective