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reckon with confidence upon his income, and, with she has just finished, and presents me with a pair his reckless style of living, he is often in debt. He half-done, which she begs I will finish and wear despises small economies, and looks down upon for her sake.” the merchant and trader, whose business it is to watch closely what they receive and what they pay

CHAPTER III. out. The Virginian does not often go far from his plan

THE BOYHOOD OF WASHINGTON. tation. His chief journey is to the capital, at Williamsburg, where he goes when the colonial House The old lady thus described was the widow of of Burgesses is in session. Then he gets out his George Washington, and so little had life in Virgreat yellow coach, and his family drive over ginia then changed from what it had been in 1732, rough roads and come upon other planters and that the description might easily stand for a portrait their families driving through the woods in the of George Washington's mother. Of his father he same direction. At the capital, during the session, remembered little, for though his mother lived long are held balls and other grand entertainments, after he had grown up and was famous, his father and the men discuss the affairs of the colony. died when the boy was eleven years old. They honor the King and pay their taxes without It was near the shore of the Potomac River, much grumbling, but they are used to managing between Pope's Creek and Bridge's Creek, that affairs in Virginia without a great deal of interfer- Augustine Washington lived when his son George ence from England. The new country helps to was born. The land had been in the family ever make them independent; they are far away from since Augustine's grandfather, John Washington, King and Parliament and Court; they are used had bought it, when he came over from England to rule; and in the defense of their country against in 1657. John Washington was a soldier and a Indians and French they have been good soldiers. public-spirited man, and so the parish in which

But what is the Virginian lady doing all this he lived — for Virginia was divided into parishes time? It is not hard to see, when one thinks of as some other colonies into townships - was named the great house, the many servants, the hospitality Washington. It is a quiet neighborhood; not a shown to strangers, and the absence of towns. sign remains of the old house, and the only mark She is a home-keeping body. She has to provide of the place is a storfe slab, broken and overgrown for her household, and as she can not go shopping with weeds and brambles, which lies on a bed of to town, she must keep abundant stores of every- bricks taken from the remnants of the old chimney thing she needs. Often she must teach her chil- of the house. It bears the inscription : dren, for very likely there is no school near, to

Here which she can send them. She must over

The uth of February, 1732 (old style) see and train her servants, and set one to spinning, another to mending, and another to sewing;

George Washington but she does not find it easy to have nice work done;

was born her black slaves are seldom skilled, and she has to send to England for her finer garments. There is The English had lately agreed to use the calenno doctor near at hand, and she must try her hand dar of Pope Gregory, which added eleven days to at prescribing for the sick on the plantation, and the reckoning, but people still used the old style must nurse white and black.

as well as the new. By the new style, the birthday In truth, the Virginian lady saves the Old Do- was February 22, and that is the day which is minion. If it were not for her, the men would be now observed. The family into which the child rude and barbarous; but they treat her with un- was born consisted of the father and mother, Aufailing respect, and she gives the gentleness and gustine and Mary Washington, and two boys, grace which they would quickly forget. Early in Lawrence and Augustine. These were sons of this century some one went to visit an old Virgin Augustine Washington and a former wife who ian lady, and she has left this description of what had died four years before. George Washington she saw :

was the eldest of the children of Augustine and “On one side sits the chambermaid with her Mary Washington; he had afterward three brothers knitting; on the other, a little colored pet learning and two sisters, but one of the sisters died in into sew; an old decent woman is there with her fancy. table and shears, cutting out the negroes' winter It was not long after George Washington's birth clothes ; while the old lady directs them all, in- that the house in which he was born was burned, cessantly knitting herself. She points out to me and as his father was at the time especially interseveral pair of nice colored stockings and gloves ested in some iron-works at a distance, it was


determined not to rebuild upon the lonely place. is told that she had given an agent directions how Accordingly Augustine Washington removed his to do a piece of work, and he had seen fit to do it family to a place which he owned in Stafford differently, because he thought his way a better County, on the banks of the Rappahannock River He showed her the improvement. opposite Fredericksburg. The house is not now “And pray," said the lady, “who gave you any standing, but a picture was made of it before it exercise of judgment in the matter? I command was destroyed. It was, like many Virginia houses you, sir; there is nothing left for you but to of the day, divided into four rooms on a foor, obey." and had great outside chimneys at either end. In those days, more than now, a boy used very

Here George Washington spent his childhood. formal language when addressing his mother. He He learned to read, write, and cipher at a small might love her warmly, but he was expected to school kept by Hobby, the sexton of the parish treat her with a great show of respect. When church. Among his playmates was Richard Henry Washington wrote to his mother, even after he Lee, who was afterward a famous Virginian. When was of age, he began his letter, “Honored Madam," the boys grew up, they wrote to each other of grave and signed it, “Your dutiful son.”

This was a matters of war and state, but here is the beginning part of the manners of the time. It was like the of their correspondence, written when they were stiff dress which men wore when they paid their nine years old.

respects to others; it was put on for the occasion,

and one would have been thought very unman“RICHARD HENRY LEE TO GEORGE WASHINGTON :,

nerly who did not make a marked difference “Pa brought me two pretty books full of pictures he got them in Alexandria they have pictures of dogs and cats and tigers and between his every-day dress and that which he elefants and ever so many pretty things cousin bids me send wore when he went into the presence of his betters. you one of them it has a picture of an elefant and a little Indian

So Washington, when he wrote to his mother, boy on his back like uncle jo's sam pa says if I learn my tasks good he will let uncle jo bring me to see you will you ask your

would not be so rude as to say, “Dear Mother." ma to let you come to see me.


Such habits as this go deeper than mere forms

of speech. I do not suppose that the sons of this “ GEORGE WASHINGTON TO RICHARD HENRY LEE:

lady feared her, but they stood in awe of her, "Dear Dickey I thank you very much for the pretty picture, which is quite a different thing. book you gave me. Sam asked me to show him the pictures and I showed him all the pictures in it; and I read to him how the “We were all as mute as mice, when in her tame elephant took care of the master's little boy, and put him presence,” says one of Washington's companions ; on his back and would not let anybody touch his master's and common report makes her to have been very little son. I can read three or four pages sometimes without missing a word. Ma says I may go to see you, and stay all day much such a woman as her son afterward was a with you next week if it be not rainy. She says pony Hero if Uncle Ben will go with me and lead Hero. I have a

I think that George Washington owed two strong little piece of poetry about the picture book you gave me, but I must n't tell you who wrote the poetry.

traits to his mother,-a governing spirit, and a spirit "G. W.'s compliments to R. H. L.,

of order and method. She taught him many lessons And likes his book full well,

and gave him many rules; but, after all, it was her Henceforth will count him his friend, And hopes many happy days he may spend.

character shaping his which was most powerful. “ Your good friend,

GEORGE WASHINGTON. She taught him to be truthful, but her lessons I am going to get a whip top soon, and you may see it and

were not half so forcible as her own truthfulness.

There is a story told of George Washington's It looks very much as if Richard Henry sent his boyhood – unfortunately there are not many letter off just as it was written. I suspect that his stories — which is to the point. His father had correspondent's letter was looked over, corrected, taken a great deal of pride in his blooded horses, and copied before it was sent. Very possibly and his mother afterward took great pains to keep Augustine Washington was absent at the time on the stock pure. She had several young horses one of his journeys; but at any rate the boy owed that had not yet been broken, and one of them in most of his training to his mother, for only two particular, a sorrel, was extremely spirited. No years after this, his father died, and he was left to one had been able to do anything with it, and it his mother's care.

was pronounced thoroughly vicious, as people are She was a woman born to command, and since apt to pronounce horses which they have not learned she was left alone with a family and an estate to to master. George was determined to ride this care for, she took the reins into her own hands, colt, and told his companions that if they would and never gave them up to any one else. She help him catch it, he would ride and tame it. used to drive about in an old-fashioned open Early in the morning they set out for the pastchaise, visiting the various parts of her farm, justure, where the boys managed to surround the as a planter would do on horseback. The story sorrel and then to put a bit into its mouth. Wash

* From B. J. Lossing's “The Home of Washington."

I may

ride my


whip it." +


ington sprang on its back, the boys dropped the “ It is well; but while I regret the loss of my bridle, and away flew the angry animal. Its rider favorite, I rejoice in my son who always speaks the

at once began to com- truth."
mand; the horse re- The story of Washington's killing the blooded

sisted, colt is of a piece with other stories less particular,
back- which show that he was a very athletic fellow. Of
course, when a boy becomes famous, every one likes

to remember the wonderful things he did before he was famous, and Washington's playmates, when they grew up, used to show the spot by the Rappahannock near Fred. ericksburg where he stood and

threw a stone ing about the field, rearing and plunging. The to the opposite bank; and at the celebrated Natboys became thoroughly alarmed, but Wash on ural Bridge, the arch of which is two hundred feet kept his seat, never once losing his self-control or above the ground, they always tell the visitor his mastery of the colt. The struggle was a sharp that George Washington threw a stone in the air one; when suddenly, as if determined to rid itself the whole height. He undoubtedly took part in of its rider, the creature leaped into the air with a all the sports which were the favorites of his countremendous bound. It was its last. The violence try at that time — he pitched heavy bars, tossed burst a blood-vessel, and the noble horse fell dead. quoits, ran, leaped, and wrestled; for he was a

Before the boys could sufficiently recover to consider how they should extricate themselves from the scrape, they were called to breakfast; and the mistress of the house, knowing that they had been in the fields, began to ask after her stock.

“Pray, young gentlemen,” said she, “have you seen my blooded colts in your rambles? I hope they are well taken care of. My favorite, I am told, is as large as his sire.”

The boys looked at one another, and no one liked to speak. Of course the mother repeated her question.

“The sorrel is dead, madam," said her son. “I killed him ! And then he told the whole story.

THE HOUSE NEAR FREDERICKSBURG WHICH WAS WASHINGTON'S HOME They say that his mother Aushed with anger, as her son often used to, and then, like powerful, large-limbed young fellow, and he had him, controlled herself, and presently said, quietly: a very large and strong hand.

(To be continued.) The illustrations on this page are copied from the original pictures in Mr. B. J. Lossing's “Mt. Vernon and its Associations,"

by permission of Messrs. J. C. Yorston & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.

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If we did not know it to be so, it would be hard of constant contact with the cold ice, and of preto believe that any animal could make its home in venting the awkward slipping which would certainly the midst of the almost perpetual snow and ice of occur if the sole of the foot were hard and smooth. the far north. And yet many more animals than As a rule, the white bear avoids man and exerts are generally supposed to do so live in that intense all its strength and cunning in capturing its prey. cold, and have accom mmodated themselves to their It prefers some member of the seal family, probsurroundings. For example, the mosquito, which ably because the seals are usually so plump and we are wont to think of as belonging only to the tender. Apparently a baby walrus is a choice hottest climates, has been found, with wings and morsel for it, for it never neglects an opportunity of bill in good working order, as far north as man has pouncing on one. ever gone.

In the water, the walrus would be more than a However, it is not the mosquito, but the white match even for the polar bear, its huge tusks and bear, which claims attention just now, and it terrible strength making it the most formidable deserves attention for the manner in which it has of sea mammals; but on the ice, despite the fierce adapted itself to its strange mode of life.

courage with which both parents fight for their It is not called an amphibious animal, but might offspring, the battle is too unequal, and the unprobably be so called, for it is perfectly at home in lucky little walrus, caught napping, usually falls the water,- indeed it has been known to pursue a victim to the big bear. And it frequently hapand capture so nimble a fish as the salmon. Nor pens that one or both of the parent-walruses are is it only a swift swimmer; it can swim very great killed in the ain attempt to rescue their baby. distances, as it often needs to do, for it is fre- Nennook, as the white bear is called by the quently carried far out to sea on the huge cakes Eskimo, frequently displays great cunning in captof ice which, as spring comes on, break off and uring the wary seal, which, fearing its enemy, float away to the south.

takes its nap on the ice close by the edge, ready The polar bear's foot is unusually long and to roll into the water at the first alarm. The bear broad even for a bear's foot, and this peculiarity slips quietly into the water a long distance from aids in enabling it to swim so rapidly. But the the sleeping seal, and then swims under water, great foot is of most use in crossing the slippery stopping occasionally to put out his head and ice or crusted snow. The under part of the foot breathe, until he is in such a position that the is covered with long, soft fur, which answers the seal cannot get into the water without falling into double purpose of keeping the foot warm in spite his clutches.




patch of wheat, may be induced to grow by dint

of much coaxing; for the summer, though short, On the northwestern coast of Norway, the is mild and genial in those high latitudes, and has mountains hide their heads in the clouds and dip none of that fierce intensity which, with us, forces their feet in the sea. In fact, the cliffs are in some the vegetation into sudden maturity, and sends places so tall and steep that streams, flowing our people flying toward all the points of the comfrom the inland glaciers and plunging over their pass during the first weeks in June. sides, vanish in the air, being blown in a misty In was on such a sunny little slope, right under spray out over the ocean. In other places there the black mountain-wall, that Halvor Myrbraaten may be a narrow slope, where a few potatoes, had built his cottage. Halvor was a merry fellow, some garden vegetables, and perhaps eve who went about humming snatches of hymns and


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