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are still in a very good condition, so that it is quite Canadians, Mexicans, or the inhabitants of Nicareasy to see what they represent. In order that agua. The fact is, that the name of our country there shall be no mistake, the names of some of the can not very well be applied to its citizens. To persons are painted beneath them. Of course all speak of us properly, we should be called Unitedthe windows are blocked up now, and the man who States-of-Americans, but this is too long a title, takes us down carries a light; but on certain days and in Europe the term Americans is generally this ancient church is illuminated with many can- applied to the people of the United States, and to dles, and then it is crowded with visitors. Below no others. It is not well to have too much name. this church are the remains of Roman buildings of I used to own a dog whose whole name was Fax the time of the emperors, on the foundations of Mentis Incendium Gloria, but I always called which the old Christian edifice was built. Three him “ Fax." rooms have been excavated here, and a stair-way I have said that Rome offers wonderful attracleads down to them, but they are very wet and un- tions and advantages to artists, but we shall pleasant. Still below these are great walls belong- find that it offers just as much to those who ing to a building of the time of the Roman repub- love art, but are not artists. The city is crowded, lic. This edifice was of massive stone, and on so to speak, with collections of painting and statits walls were erected the later Roman buildings, uary, among which are to be found some of the which are of brick. When that lower edifice, now greatest works of the kind in the world. When like the ground-floor of a three-story cellar, was in we begin to visit the principal galleries, some use, it was, of course, on the surface of the ground. of which are in private palaces, and some in
There are, no doubt, many persons now living public buildings, we shall think that they exist in Rome who have beneath them the residence of everywhere in the city. You have probably read some gentleman of the Middle Ages, under which, in Mrs. Clement's valuable series of papers on perhaps, is the home of a Roman family of the time art, in this magazine, descriptions of the most of the Cæsars; and this may have been built upon important works of art to be found in Rome. the foundations of another Roman house, which These we shall go to see, and take a great deal more was considered a good place to live in some five or pleasure in looking at them because we already six hundred years before. It must be a very satis- know something about them. Our first art expef.uctory thing, when one is going to build a house, dition will be made to the Vatican, because that is to find beneath the ground some good substantial so grand and interesting a building in itself; walls which will make excellent foundations. It and because it contains the most important art very often happens that these remains of ancient treasures in Rome. Among these are the famous buildings are built of larger stones, and are firmer Sistine Chapel, which owes its reputation to the and more solid than the houses which are erected wonderful frescoes by Michael Angelo; the Stanze, upon them. There is another side, however, to this or rooms, of Raphael, which contain a great many matter, and the remains of old buildings are fre- frescoes by this great master; Raphael's Loggia, quently very much in the way of those who wish a long gallery with a glass front, the ceiling of to erect new houses, for it does not always occur that which is adorned with frescoes, which are somethe ancient walls are in the right places, or of a times called Raphael's Bible, as they consist of suitable kind, to serve as foundations for the modern scenes from the Old and New Testaments. Then, building. Then they have to be dug up and taken there is the gallery of pictures, most of them by out, which is a great labor. There is a handsome great masters; and the department of sculpture, American church in Rome; for as great numbers consisting of many halls and galleries filled with of our country people visit that city every winter, an almost endless collection of statues, sarcophagi, and a good many live there, it is considered desir- bas-reliefs, and other works of the greatest ancient able for us to have a church of our own. This sculptors. was built in a place which used to be one of the To visit these collections, which alone are worth most populous parts of ancient Rome, and the a trip to Europe, we must have printed permits, work was made very expensive by the difficulty of which are very easily obtained. getting rid of portions of walls, arches, rooms, and To reach the Sistine Chapel, the Picture Gallervaults which these Romans had left behind them, ies, and Raphael's Rooms, we must present ourselves never thinking that in the course of ages there at the bronze gates, the principal entrance to the might be such people as Americans who would wish Vatican, situated to the right of the great square to build a church here.
in front of St. Peter's. The Vatican, with its galI may remark here that wherever we go in leries and grounds, together with St. Peter's and Europe, we shall find ourselves called Americans, some other buildings, belongs exclusively to the although this term would apply just as well to Pope, who exercises here a sovereignty entirely
distinct and separate from that of the King of to have personal guards composed of Swiss soldiers, Italy, who now includes the rest of Rome in his as they were considered more honest and trustwordominions. The Pope has his own soldiers, who thy than any others. In Walter Scott's “Quentin are not very many, and who generally act as guards Durward " you will learn a great deal about the to the various parts of the Vatican. Behind the Swiss guards of France. In Paris the porter at bronze doors, which are enormous barred gates, the doors of great houses is still often called “The we shall see some of these soldiers, one of whom Swiss," although he is almost always a Frenchman. will ask us for our permossos, or permits. I am And these guards of the Pope are now Italians, sure you never beheld military gentlemen like but they still retain the old name. them before. They are called the Swiss Guard, Rome is full of the greatest things in the world, and are dressed in a uniform of flowing tunic and and I believe that the marble staircase of the Vatican breeches, formed of broad perpendicular stripes of which now extends itself before us, straight on and black, red, and yellow, long stockings striped in up in a gentle slope to such a distance that the people black and yellow; and on state occasions they at the top seemed dwarfed, as if they were at the wear brass helmets with heavy white plumes, and end of some long avenue of trees, if not the greatcarry halberds, or pikes with ax-heads at the est straight flight of steps in the world, is certainly ends. The officers' dress, of the same design, is one of them. It is called the Scala Regia, or of bright silk, and they make a dazzling appear- Royal Stair-way; and up it we go. The steps are ance. These men appear as if they belonged to not very high, but very broad, which is the case the Middle Ages and had nothing to do with our in most of the Roman palaces, and this makes the modern times; and they very properly seem so, ascent easier; but when we come to the top we for their uniform was designed by Michael Angelo, shall find that the business of going upstairs is by not long after the discovery of America, and their no means at an end. When we have found staircostume has never been changed. It used to be way after stair-way, and have gone up and up and the custom of many of the potentates of Europe up to the various places we have come to see, we shall understand what it is to be in a building ten government. In this collection is the famous dying stories high.
Gladiator, or, as it should be called, the Dying As I have said before, the entrance to the sculpt- Gaul; and the Faun of Praxiteles, a beautifulstatue ure galleries is reached by going around St. of a youth, which is well known to all of us who have Peter's Church. There are many of these galleries read Hawthorne's story of “ The Marble Faun.” In filled with the great works of Greece and Rome, this Capitoline Museum and in a building opposite, and here we shall find the originals of many world- called the Conservatori, there are a great many famous statues with which we are all familiar from antique statues and sculptures, and among them, engravings and casts, such as the Apollo Belvidere, in the last-named building, is one which I am sure the Laocoön, and the beautiful Mercury, formerly my young companions will find very interesting. known as Antinous. The magnificent marble It is the tombstone of a boy named Q. Sulpicius halls, the mosaic pavements, and the grand collec- Maximus, who died at the age of eleven and a tion of sculpture to be seen here will be a delight half, in consequence of having worked too hard at and surprise to us, no matter how much we may school. I do not believe that many of the St. have read or heard about them before.
NICHOLAS young people are likely to die from In this part of the building there is also the vast this cause, but if any of them should feel inclined library of the Vatican, in which there are a great to study too hard and play too little, they might many interesting things to be seen besides books, get some useful hints from this tombstone. Young such as superb and costly presents made to differ- Q. Sulpicius was engaged in a competition with ent popes by European sovereigns.
fifty-two other scholars in writing Greek verses, Although we are in the Pope's house, we shall and succeeded in excelling them all. It would, not see him, for the public is not allowed to enter however, have been better for him personally if he his private apartments and beautiful grounds. had not done so well, for his efforts killed him, and
Another great collection of sculpture we shall all he gained was fame. This has been very lastfind at the Capitoline Museum, a building on the ing, for his achievements are related upon this Capitol Hill, once the seat of the ancient Roman tombstone, and all of us who are learned enough may read quotations from his Greek verses, which enjoyment of the picture, a looking-glass is fixed are inscribed upon the marble, and gaze upon the upon a table in such a way that visitors can look statuette of the boy himself, no doubt a very good down into it and see the perfect reflection of the portrait.
beautiful fresco above their heads. Many of the In the central square of the Capitol, which is churches, too, contain famous works, and among surrounded on three sides by buildings, stands a these we shall certainly not omit San Pietro in Vinvery large bronze statue of Marcus Aurelius, once coli, where sits Michael Angelo's majestic and awful Emperor of Rome, mounted on a spirited horse. statue of Moses. No end of statues; no end of This is the only equestrian statue which has been paintings; no end of grand palaces full of the preserved in a perfect condition out of the many works of ancient and modern artists, shall we see that decorated ancient Rome. Michael Angelo, who while we are in Rome. The great difficulty will designed the buildings which at present stand on be not to allow our desire to enjoy beautiful things this hill, was very fond of this statue, and especially to tire us out. Visitors often overtax their strength; admired the horse. One day, while he was study- but we shall be prudent and not work too hard in ing it, he forgot that it was not alive, and wishing to the pursuit of pleasure. see it in another position, he cried out, “ Cam ! ” The burying-places of Rome are among its most which means, go on. After looking at this horse curious sights. We have seen one of these, the for some time, one might easily imagine that a tomb of Hadrian, which was an enormous edifice shout or a touch of a whip would make it jump. built for the last resting-place of one man and a
A long inclined plane, covered with an asphalt few of his family; and now we shall visit a small pavement, leads down to the street below; and building which contained the remains of quite a near the top of this incline is a large iron.cage, in congregation of people. This is situated near one which some live wolves are always kept. This is in of the city gates, in a place now occupied by vinememory of the ancient wolf who was good enough yards, and is called a columbarium. It is a small to take care of Romulus and Remus when there square house of stone, the greater part underwas nobody else to do it. This wolf is still consid- ground, and contains but one room, into which we ered as a Roman emblem; pictures and carvings descend by a very steep and very narrow flight of of it are seen on many buildings and public places, stairs. The ancient Romans very often burned the and it is even stamped on pats of butter. It is a bodies of deceased persons, and in this place they great pity, from an artistic point of view, that kept the little urns, or caskets, which contained some more graceful creature did not adopt the lit- the ashes. All around the four walls of the room, tle babies who afterward founded the city. Not and in a large square pillar of masonry in the cenfar from here, on the Palatine Hill, is still shown ter, are little recesses, like pigeon-holes, and this a cave which is said to be the identical den in resemblance is the reason for the name, columbarwhich the old wolf established her little orphan ium, meaning pigeon-house. These holes are asylum. In the course of our rambles we shall each about a foot square, and deep enough to hold pass this, and those who choose may go in. from two to four of the earthen pots or stone boxes
In nearly all the palaces and villas of the nobles in which the ashes were kept; and this building in and about Rome, there are collections of paint- contained six hundred of these urns. Each pigeonings and sculptures, some of them very large and hole was owned by a family, whose name we can filling many halls and rooms. We shall try to see inscribed on a marble tablet over the opening. visit as many of these as we can, for nearly every Sometimes it is stated who is buried inside ; and one of them contains some famous pieces of an- on some of them various particulars are given, such tique sculpture or some of the great paintings of as when and how the little vaults were bought. the masters of the Middle Ages. In one of these, It is very curious and interesting to walk about the Spada palace, there stands, in an outer hall, a this room and read the names and ages of persons tall statue of the Roman general Pompey, which is who were thus conveniently buried some eighteen believed to be the very statue at the feet of which centuries ago. Many of the jars and boxes still Julius Cæsar was assassinated by Brutus and the remain, and some of them contain fragments and other conspirators. In the Rospigliosi gallery is cinders. There are other columbaria in Rome, Guido's famous Aurora, which is a fresco covering but this is the best, and the only one we need visit. nearly all the ceiling of a large room. We all are Just outside the Porta Maggiore, one of the familiar with engravings and copies of this picture, principal gates of the city, is a very odd specimen but we shall find it rather difficult to look as long as of a burial-place which we all shall wish to see. we wish at the original without making our necks It is the tomb of a baker, built by himself in the ache by bending our heads backward as we gaze days of the Roman republic, some time before the at the ceiling. To obviate this obstacle to the beginning of the Christian era. It is a stone edi. fice, as large as a little house, and constructed in hundred years before Christ, and we shall find the the form of a baker's oven. This ancient maker Campagna very interesting, with its vast expanse of bread, whose name was Marcus Vergilius Eury- of green pastures, on which we see herds of the saces, was probably a very good baker, and he fine Roman oxen, with their enormous horns, did not wish this fact forgotten after his death. sometimes nearly a yard long; herdsmen wanderAll around his tomb are small sculptured figures ing about with their focks of sheep and goats at representing bakers attending to different parts of their heels; gentle hills covered with wild flowers; their business, some grinding grain, others knead- and over all, stretching far away, long lines of ing, and making up loaves of bread, and others stone arches, the remains of ancient Roman aquebaking it. There is also on it an inscription in ducts, some of which are in so good condition that Latin, stating that this is the monument of the they are still used to bring water to the city. said Eurysaces, and that he was not only a purveyor But the catacombs we are to visit are but little of bread, but a city official. In order that no one more than a mile from the city walls, and we soon should miss seeing this inscription, it is repeated reach them. At a small building we find guides, on several sides of the monument. The desire for who give each one of us a lighted taper. Then fame on the part of the builder of this oven-tomb we form in line, and go down a long flight of stone has surely been gratified, for his monument has steps to the doleful depths of this under-ground stood about two thousand years, and I have no labyrinth. We find ourselves at first in a long doubt that the good baker is still inside of it. passage a little higher than our heads and so
The Roman catacombs are very famous, and we narrow that we can touch each side of it by stretchall know that they are a vast collection of subter- ing out our arms. It is simply dug out of the ranean passages and apartments running in many soft rock and earth, and in each of its walls are directions under-ground, some far under the others, cavities, one above the other, in which once rested and forming labyrinths in which any one would the bodies of the early Christians. Some of these certainly be lost who should venture into them were in marble boxes, or sarcophagi, and others without a guide. These are situated in the vast more rudely buried. But very few of them are plain, which surrounds Rome, and is called the here now. Many of the sculptured marbles have Campagna; and some of these catacombs are said been taken to the Roman Museums, and thousands to extend so far that parts of them are under the of the bones of the early Christians have been carcity. They were the burial-places of the early ried away as relics, and buried in churches all Christians, and in them they also used to hold over Europe. In a line, each holding his pale religious services, when they were so persecuted light, we follow our guides through the long pasthat they could not worship openly. We shall visit sages of this dreary place. Occasionally, as I have the catacombs of Callistus, which is the largest said, are little chambers and chapels, but the one; and to reach it we go out over the famous catacombs consist for the most part of these narAppian Way, a great military road built by the row earth corridors, absolutely pitch-dark, and Romans, where for part of the distance our car- turning and winding in every imaginable way. riage wheels roll over the very stones on which the It is necessary that those at the end of our line Roman chariots used to be driven; and as these should not lag behind, for if they were to lose chariots had no springs, their occupants must sight of the main body they would never, of themhave been greatly jolted, although the road is even selves, be able to find it again. One passage looks now as good as many modern paved streets. just like another, and there are so many of them There is a line of heavy curbstones on each side, to the right and the left, that it would be imand the narrowness of the road and the marks of possible for an inexperienced person to know when the ancient wheels upon the stones show how much he should go ahead and when he should turn. wider are our modern vehicles than were the char- But we all keep together, and after a long underiots of old. A drive out on this Appian Way must ground walk, we at last come out into the dayhave been a melancholy pleasure to the ancient light, in a spot at some distance from that where Romans, for it was lined on each side by miles of we went in. We have gone through but a small tombs, many of them very handsome edifices like part of these great catacombs ; but it has been small castles, and temples, with pillars and statu- quite enough. ary. Remains of these tombs are still seen on each There are other kinds of burial-places in Rome, side of the road, and portions of some of them are but we shall visit no more of them, though in good preservation; and on marble slabs, and they give us ideas in regard to the manners and over little porticoes, we can read the names of customs of by-gone people which we could get in many persons who were buried here. We can go no other way. out for miles on this road, which was made three In the busy and lively streets of modern Rome