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gation is composed of the herdsmen on the mount- grassy knoll, on every path through the valleys, or ain. A branch railroad, about four miles long, along the ridges. In ordinary life it is not custoruns on a ridge of the mountain to a promontory mary for girls and ladies to carry sticks or canes, called the Scheideck, from which an admirable but some of these become so fond of their long prospect may be had, ard where there is a hotel; alpenstocks that I have seen girls with these ironand from the Kaltbad, which was mentioned be- pointed sticks in their hands, walking about the fore, there is a pleasant rural walk toward the cities of Switzerland, where they were of no more other end of the Rigi range, to a place called the use than a third shoe. Kanzli, from which the most charming views, near It is not only in fine weather that life on this and distant, may be had.
mountain is to be enjoyed. The approach of a Never was there a mountain so well adapted to storm is a grand sight; great clouds gathering on boys and girls as the Rigi. Once arrived upon the crests of the higher peaks of the mountain the upper parts of this mountain, which stretches chains, and sweeping down in battle array upon far and wide, there is found every inducement hills, valleys, and plains. Even in the rain, the for scramble, walk, and climb, in places which are views have a strange and varied appearance which not at all dangerous. The Rothstock, the Kulm, is very attractive, and every change in the weather and other grassy peaks, can be ascended; long produces changes in the landscape, sometimes tramps can be taken through the valleys; the quite novel and unexpected, and almost always herdsmen's cottages and the monastery can be grand or beautiful. visited ; and all this in a mountain air which gives There is only one kind of weather in which the one strength, spirit, and appetite.
Rigi is not attractive. On my third day on the The young folk, as well as grown people, are to mountain I was sitting in the dining-room of the be seen rambling everywhere. One day, as I was hotel, taking my midday meal, with about a hunwalking toward a place from which there was a good dred other guests, when I heard a loud groan from view, I heard a step behind me, and directly I was one of the tables; then there was another and passed by a regular mountain climber. He was a another; and, directly, a chorus of groans arose tall young man, with a mighty stride. He wore a from every part of the long dining-room. Looking flannel shirt, with no coat or vest, but these hung about to see what was the matter, I noticed that at his back from a strap around his waist. On his everybody was staring out of the windows. When I powerful legs were knickerbockers and a pair of looked out I saw a sight that was worth seeing, and long red stockings, and in his hand he held one that was enough to make anybody groan who a long-pointed alpenstock. Up the mountain, knew what it meant. A great cloud was coming straight toward the highest point of the Kulm, he down out of the sky directly upon the Rigi. It was went, steadily and swiftly as a two-legged steam- heavy and gray, and its form was plainly defined engine. He was such a man as we would proba- in the clear air around it. When it had spread itbly meet on the snowy peaks of the Higher Alps, self above us, almost touching the roof of the if we should happen to be wandering there. house, we could see, below its far-reaching edges,
Shortly after this young athlete had passed, I the distant landscape still sparkling in the sunlight. saw, coming down the mountain, a lady and her Then it came down, and blotted us out from the little boy. The youngster, about six years old, view of all the world. To the people below, the who marched behind his mother, was equipped top of the Rigi was covered with a cloud, and to in true mountaineer style. His little coat hung at us there was nothing to be seen twenty feet from his little back; on his little legs he wore knicker- the window. Now there were no views, there were bockers and long stockings, and on his feet a no walks, there was no sitting out-of-doors, there pair of little hob-nailed shoes; in his hand he was nothing that one came to the Rigi sor. No carried a little alpenstock. His mother was a wonder that the people groaned. All their plans good walker, but she did not leave her boy behind. for outdoor pleasure had been brought to a sudden With strides as long as his little legs could make, end by this swiftly descending cloud, which those he followed her bravely down the hill, punching who were wise in such matters believed would not his sharp stick into the ground at every step, as if soon disappear. It was evidently the beginning of he wished to make the mountain feel that he was bad weather, and those who remained on the there. He was just as full of the spirit of the mountain-tops must live in the clouds for several Alpine climber, and enjoyed his tramp quite as days. When nothing was to be seen, and nothmuch, as the practiced mountaineer who was ing was to be done, it was a good time to leave the striding away toward the Kulm.
Rigi; and so, in company with a great many other Girls there were too, whole parties of them, visitors, for it was near the end of the season, and each with an alpenstock in her hand, on every people could not wait for better weather, as they
would have done a few weeks earlier, I took leave recollections, which no rain could ever wash away, of the mountain, knowing very well that the little of that interesting mountain, with its beautilocomotive could find its way down, cloud or no ful green slopes and peaks, its magnificent panocloud.
ramas, its happy boys and girls, its pleasant sumWe may not have such an experience as this, mer life, its picturesque glades, and herds, and but we shall leave the Rigi, carrying with us its railway to the top.
VOL. XIII.- 28.
(A Historical Biography.]
By HORACE E. SCUDDER.
perience the year before, what a terrible winter
campaign it would be. “To show you the state A TERRIBLE LESSON IN WAR.
of the regiment,” he writes to Lord Fairfax, “I
have sent you a report by which you will perceive HOWEVER keenly Washington may have felt what great deficiencies there are of men, arms, the defeat which he suffered at Great Meadows, tents, kettles, screws (which was a fatal want beno one blamed him for a misfortune which he fore), bayonets, cartouch-boxes, and everything had tried in so spirited a fashion to prevent. On else. Again, were our men ever so willing to go, the contrary, the House of Burgesses, then in for want of the proper necessaries of life they are session, after hearing an account of the en- unable to do it. The chief part are almost naked, gagement and reading the articles of capitulation, and scarcely a man has either shoes, stockings, or passed a vote of thanks to Colonel Washington a hat. These things the merchants will not credit and his officers “for their bravery and gallant de- them for. The country has made no provision ; fense of their country." In point of fact, the ex- they have not money themselves, and it can not be pedition had by no means been a failure. It had expected that the officers will engage for them built many miles of road; it had shown that the again, personally, having suffered greatly on this Virginian soldiers could fight, and it had made the head already; especially now, when we have all the French respect their enemy.
reason in the world to believe that they will desert To Washington it had been an initiation into whenever they have an opportunity. There is not military service. He had heard the bullets a man that has a blanket to secure him from cold whistling about him, and had known what it was or wet. Ammunition is a material object, and to lead men; he had encountered on a small scale that is to come from Williamsburg or wherever the the difficulties which beset commanders of armies; Governor can procure it. An account must be first he had stood for nine hours under fire from a su- sent of the quantity which is wanted; this, added perior force. Not all the hardships of the sharp to the carriage up, with the necessary tools that campaign could dampen his ardor. He knew that must be had, as well as the time for bringing them he was a soldier; he knew, too, that he was a com- round, will, I believe, advance us into that season, mander, and such knowledge is much more than when it is usual, in more moderate climates, to petty conceit.
retreat into winter-quarters, but here, with us, to He was to be put to the test in this matter in a begin a campaign !” new way. He went back to Alexandria, where his The argument of Washington's letter, of which regiment was quartered, and shortly after received this is a part, was unanswerable. It showed his word from Governor Dinwiddie to be in readiness clear, cool judgment, and the thoroughness with for a fresh movement. It had been resolved to send which he considered every detail in a scheme. The another expedition to attack Fort Duquesne, and Governor gave up his design, but it was not long Washington was bidden toat once fill up his regiment before he stumbled into a new folly. He had perto three hundred men and join the other forces at suaded the Burgesses to grant twenty thousand Wills Creek. Eager as the young colonel was for pounds for military operations, and had received service, he had not taken leave of his good sense. ten thousand more from England. So he set about He was something more than a fighter, and his enlarging the army to ten independent companies native judgment, as well as his hard-earned ex- of one hundred men each, proposing to place each perience, showed him the foolhardiness of such an company under command of a captain. He hoped adventure. It does not appear that he wrote to in this way to be rid of the jealousy which existed his superior officer, the Governor, remonstrating between the several officers, since there would be against the wild project, but he wrote to Lord 'none above the rank of captain. Fairfax, who had influence, giving his reasons why The plan was only inferior to one by which every
mpossible the enterprise was morally impossible.
soldier who enlisted should have been made capThey were without money, men, or provisions. tain, so that nobody need be inferior to anybody It would be impossible in any case to move before else. Washington not only saw the folly of the November, and he knew well enough, by his ex- proceeding from a military point of view, (for many
of his difficulties had arisen from the presence Everybody expected that the French would at once of independent companies in the field with his be driven out of the Ohio valley, and General Bradtroops,) but he resented the plan as at once reduc- dock was not the least confident. There was a ing him from the rank of colonel to that of cap- bustle in every quarter, and Alexandria was made tain. He had risen to the position which he held the headquarters from which troops, military stores by regular promotion for bravery and soldierly and provisions were to be sent forward, for they qualities. He could not be the football of a ca- could be brought up the river to that point in menpricious governor, and he resigned his commission. of-war and transports.
He was instantly wanted in another quarter. As soon as Braddock had arrived in the country, Governor Sharpe of Maryland had received a com- Washington had addressed him a letter of welcome, mission from the King, as Commander-in-chief of and now he was keenly intent on the General's all the forces in America engaged against the movements. From Mount Vernon he could see French. As soon as it was known that Washington the ships in the Potomac and hear the din of had resigned his commission as colonel of a Vir- preparation. He could not ride into town or to ginia regiment, Governor Sharpe sent to invite him Belvoir without being in the midst of the exciteto return to the service under his command. He ment. This was something very different from was to have command of a company, but to retain the poor, niggardly conduct of war which he had his rank as colonel Washington replied at once known in the colony. It was on a great scale; it that he could not think of accepting service upon was war carried on by His Majesty's troops, wellsuch terms. He was not to be cajoled into assum- clad, splendidly equipped and drilled under the ing a false position. He cared little for the title. lead of a veteran general. He longed to join What he wanted was the authority which goes with them. Here would be a chance such as he had the title. There was no pressing danger to the never had, to learn something of the art of war; country, and he was not so impatient to be in mil- but he held no commission now, and had not even itary service that he needed as a soldier to throw a company to offer. Nor was he willing to be a away the position which he had fairly won.
militia captain and subject to the orders of some There was one consideration which especially lieutenant in the regular army. determined Washington against serving either as He was considering how he might volunteer, captain of an independent coinpany in Virginia, when he received exactly the kind of invitation or as one of Governor Sharpe's captains, with the which he desired. He was a marked man now, complimentary title of colonel. By a 'regulation and it did not take long for word to reach General of government, all officers commissioned by the Braddock that the young Virginian colonel, who King took rank above officers commissioned by the had shown great spirit and ability in the recent governors of provinces. It seems that the English expedition, and was thoroughly familiar with the authorities were determined to make the colonies route they were to take, desired to serve under understand that their militia officers were always him, but not as a subordinate captain. There was inferior to the regular army officers who came over a way out of the difficulty, and the General at once from England.
invited Washington to join his military family as There was such an officer sent over shortly after aid-de-camp. this to take command of all the forces in the col Washington joyfully accepted. There was only onies. This was Major-General Edward Braddock. one drawback to his pleasure. His mother, as He had been in military service forty-five years soon as she heard of his decision, was filled with and he knew all the rules of war. He was a brave, alarm, and hurried to Mount Vernon to beg her hot-headed man, who knew to a nicety just how son to reconsider. No doubt they both rememtroops should be drawn up, how they should march bered how, at her earnest wish, he had abandoned and perform all the evolutions, how a captain his purpose to join the British navy, eight or nine should salute his superior officer, and how much years before. But these eight or nine years had pipeclay a soldier needed to keep his accouter- made a great difference. He was a man now, and, ments bright. He was a rigid disciplinarian, and without loss of respect for his mother, he was bound was called harsh and cruel, but that, very likely, to decide for himself. He would be a loser by the was because he demanded strict and instant step in many ways. There was no one to obedience.
whom he could intrust the management of his In February, 1755, General Braddock arrived affairs at Mount Vernon, and his attendance on in Virginia, with two regiments of regular troops General Braddock would involve him in considerfrom England. Governor Dinwiddie was delighted. able expense. Nor could he expect, as a mere He should have no more trouble with obstinate aid-de-camp, to advance his interests in the miliBurgesses and quarrelsome Virginia captains. tary profession. Nevertheless, Washington had