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modity of navigable rivers, or the discommodity of their overflowing; too far off from great cities, which may hinder business; or too near them, which lurcheth all provisions, and maketh every thing dear; where a man hath a great living laid together, and where he is scanted; all which, as it is impossible perhaps to find together, so it is good to know them, and think of them, that a man may many as he can; and, if he have several dwellings, that he sort them so, that what he wanteth in the one, he may find in the other. Lucullus answered Pompey well, who, when he saw his stately galleries and rooms su large and lightsome, in one of his louses, said, “Surely an excellent place for summe, but how do you in wiater?” Lucullus answered, “Why, do you not think me as wise as some fools are, that ever change their abode towards the winter?"
To pass fron. the seat to the house itself, we will do as Cicero Joth in the orator's art, who writes books De Oratore, and a book he entitles Orator; whereof the former delivers the precepts of the art, and the latter the perfection. "We will therefore describe a princely palace, making a brief model thereof. for it is strange to see, now, in Europe, such huge buildings as the Vatican and the Escurial, and some others be, and yet scarce a very fair room iu them.
First, therefore, ļ say, you cannot have a perfect palace, except you have two several
sides; a side for the banquet, as is spoken of in the book of Esther, and a side for the household; the one for feasts and triumphs, and the other for dwelling. I understand both these sides to be not only returns, but parts of the front; and to be uniform without, though severally partitioned within ; and to be on both sides of a great and stately tower in the midst of the front, that, as it were, joineth them together on either hand. I would have, on the side of the banquet in front, one only goodly room above stairs, of some forty foot high ; and under it a room · for a dressing, or preparing place, at times of triumphs. On the other side, which is the household side, I wish it divided at the first into a hall and a chapel, (with a partition between,) both of good state and bigness; and those not to go all the length, but to have at the farther end a winter and a summer parlour, both fair; and under these rooms a fair and large cellar sunk under ground; and likewise some privy kitchens, with butteries and pantries, and the like. As for the tower, 1 would have it two stories, of eighteen foot high apiece above the two wings; and goodly leads
upon the top, railed with statues interposed; and the same tower to be divided into rooms, as shall be thought fit. The stairs, likewise, to the upper rooms, let them be upon a fair and open newel, and finely railed in with images of wood cast into a brass colour; and a very fair landing-place at the top. But this
to be, if you do not point any of the lower rooms for a diving place of servants; for, otherwise, you shall have the servants' dinner after your own : for the steam of it will come up as in a tunnel; and so much for the front : only I understand the height of the first stairs to be sixteen foot, which is the height of the lower room.
Beyond this front is there to be a fair court, but three sides of it of a far lower building than the front; and in all the four corners of that court fai. staircases, cast into turrets on the outside, and not within the row of buildings themselves : but those towers are not to be of the height of the front, but rather proportionable to the lower building:
Let the court not be paved, for that striketh up a great heat in summer, and much cold in winter: but only some side alleys with a cross, and the quarters to graze, being kept shorn, but not too near shorn. The row of return on the banquet side, let it be all stately galleries: in which galleries let there be three or five fine cupolas in the length of it, placed at equal distance, and fine coloured windows of several works : household side, chambers of presence and ordinary entertainments, with some bed-chambers : and let all three sides te a double house, without thorough lights on the sides, that you may have rooms from the sun, both for forenoon and afternoon. Cast it also, that you may have rooms both for summer and winter; shady for summer and warm
for winter. You shall have sometimes fair houses so full of glass, that one cannot tell where to become to be out of the sun or cold. For embowed windows, I hold them of good use; (in cities, indeed, upright do better, in respect of uniformity towards the street;) for they be pretty retiring places for conference; and, besides, they keep both the wind and sun off; for that which would strike almost through the room doth scarce pass the window : but let them be but few, four in the court, on the sides only.
Beyond this court, let there be an inward court, of the same square and height, which is to be environed with the garden on all sides; and in the inside, cloistered on all sides upon decent and beautiful arches, as bigh as the first story : on the under story, towards the garden, let it be turned to a grotio, or place of shade, or estivation; and only have opening and windows towards the gasden, and be level upon the floor, no whit sunk under ground, to avoid all dampishness: and let there be a fountain, or some fair work of statues, in the midst of the court, and to be paved as the other court was. These buildings to be for privy lodgings on both sides, and the end for privy galleries : whereof you must foresee that one of them be for an infirmary, if the prince or any special person should be sick, with chambers, bed-chamber, "antecamera,” and “recamera,” joining to it: this upon the second story. Upon the ground story, a fair
gallery, open, upon pillars ; and upon the third story likewise, an open gallery upon pillars, to take the prospect and freshness of the garden. At both corners of the farther side, by way of return, let there be two delicate or rich cabinets, daintily paved, richly hanged, glazed with crystalline glass, ard a rich cupola in the midst; and all other elegancy that may be thought upon. In the upper gallery too, I wish that there may be, if the place will yield it, some fountains running in divers places from the wall, with some fine avoidances. And thus much for the model of the palace; save that you must have, before you come to the front, three courts; a green court piain, with a wall about it; a second couit of the same, but more garnished with little turrets, or rather embellishments, upon the wall ; and a third court, to make a square with tue front, but not to be built, nor yet enclosed with a naked wall, but enclosed with terraces leaded aloft, and fairly garnished on the three sides; and cloistered on the inside with pillars, and not with arches below. As for offices, let them stand at distance, with some low gallories to pass from them to the palace itself.
God Almighty first planted a garden; and, indeed, it is the purest of human pleasures ; it is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of