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credit with both, by pretending greater interest than he hath in either : and in these, and the like kinds, it often falls out, that somewhat is produced of nothing; for ries are sufficient to breed opinion, and opinion brings on substance. In military commanders and soldiers, vainglory is an essential point; for as iron sharpens iron, so by glory one courage sharpeneth another. In cases of great enterprise upon charge and adventure, a composition of glorious natures doth put life into business; and those that are of solid and sober natures have more of the ballast than of the sail. In fame of learning the flight will be slow without some feathers of ostentation : “Qui de contemnenda gloria libros scribunt, nomen suum inscribunt.” Socrates, Aristotle, Galen, were men full of ostentation : certainly, vainglory heipeth to perpetuate a man's memory; and virtue was never so beholden tó human nature, as it received its due, at the second hand. Neither had the fame of Cicero, Seneca, Plinius Secundus, borne her age so well, if it had not been joined with some vanity in themselves; like unto varnish, that makes ceilings not only shine but last. But all this while, when I speak of vainglory, I mean not of that property that Tacitus doth attribute to Mucianus, “Omnium, quæ dixer at feceratque, arte quajam ostentator:” for that proceeds not of vanity, but of natural magnanimity and discretion ; and, in some persons, is not only comely, but gracious : for excusations, ces

sions, modesty itself, well governed, are but arts of ostentation; and amongst those arts there is none better than that which Plinius Secundus speakech of, which is to be liberal of praise and commendation to others, in that wherein a man's self hath any perfection : for, saith Pliny, very wittingly, “In commending another you do yourself right;" for he that you commend is either superior to you in that you commend, or inferior; if he be inferior, if he be to be commended, you much more; if he be superior, if he be not to be commended, you much less. Vainglorious men are the scorn of wise men, the admiration of fools, the idols of parasites, and the slaves of their own vaunts.

OF HONOUR AND REPUTATION,

The winning of honour is but the reveal ing of a man's virtue and worth without disadvantage; for some in their actions do woo and affect honour and reputation; which sort of men are commonly mnch talked of, but inwardly little admired : and some, contrariwise, darken their virtue in the show of it; so as they be undervalued in opinion. If a man perform that which hath not been attempted before, or attempted and given over, or hath been achieved, but not with so good circumstance, he shall purchase more honour than by affecting a matter of greater difficulty

or virtue wherein he is but a follower. If a man so temper his actions, as in some we of them he doth content every faction or i umbination of people, the music will be the iuller. A inan is an ill husband of his honour that entereth into any action, the failing wherein may disgrace him more than the carrying of it through can honour him. Honour that is gained and broken upon another hath the quickest reflection, like diamonds cut with fascets; and, therefore, let a man contend to excel any competitors of his honour, in outshooting them, if he can, in their own bow. Discreet followers and servants help much to reputation : “Omnis fama a domésticis emanat.” Envy, which is the canker of honour, is best distinguished by declaring a man's self in his ends, rather to seek merit than fame; and by attributing a man's successes rather to divine Providence and felicity than to his own virtue or policy. The true marshalling of the degrees of sovereign honour are these : in the first place are “conditores imperiorum,” founders of states and commonwealths; such as were Romulus, Cyrus, Cæsar, Ottoman, Ismael : in the second place are “legislatores,” lawgivers; which are also called second founders, or "perpetui principes,” because they govern by their ordinances after they are gone; such were Lycurgus, Solon, Justinian, Edgar, Alphonsus of Castile, the wise, that made the “ Siete patridas :” in the third place are " liberatores," or "salvatores ;” such

as compound the long miseries of civil wars, or deliver their countries from servitude of strangers or tyrants; as Augustus Cæsar, Vespasianus, Aurelianus, Theodoricus, king Henry the Seventh of England, king Henry the Fourth of France: in the fourth place are “propagatores,” or “propugnatores imperii,” such as in honourable wars enlarge their territories, or make noble defence against invaders : and, in the last place, are "patres patriæ," which reign justly, and make the times good wherein they live; both which last kinds need no examples, they are in such number. Degrees of honour in subjects are, first,"participes curarum,” those upon whom princes do discharge the greatest weight of their affairs; their right hands, as we may call them: the next are “duces belli,” great leaders; such as are princes’ lieutenants, and do them notable services in the wars: the third are “gratiosi,” favourites ; such as exceed not this scantling, to be solace to the sovereign, and harmless to the people : and the fourth “negotiis pares ;” such as have great places under princes, and execute their places with sufficiency. There is an honour, likewise, which may be ranked amongst the greatest, which happeneth rarely; that is, of such as sacrifice themselves to death or danger for the good of their country; as was M. Regulus, and the two Decii.

OF JUDICATURE. JUDGES ought to remember that their office is “jus dicere,” and not “jus dare;” to interpret law, and not to make law, or give law; else will it be like the authority claimed by the church of Rome, which, under pretext of exposition of scripture, doth not stick to add and alter; and to pronounce that which they do not find, and by show of antiquity to introduce novelty. Judges ought to be more learned than witty, more reverend than plausible, and more advised than confident. Above all things, integrity is their portion and proper virtue. “Cursed (saith the law) is he that removeth the landmark.” The mislayer of a mere stone is to blame; but it is the unjust, judge that is the capital remover of landmarks, when he defineth amiss of land and property. One foul sentence doth more hurt than many foul examples; for these do but corrupt the stream, the other corrupteth the fountain : so saith Solomon, “Fons turbatus, et vena corrupta est justus cadens in causa sua coram adversario." The office of judges may have reference unto the parties that sue, unto the advocates that plead, unto the clerks and ministers of justice underneath them, and to the sovereign or state above them.

First, for the causes or parties that sue. There be (saith the scripture) “that turn judgment into wormwood; and surely there

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