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is like precious odours, most fragrant where they are incensed or crushed : for prosperity doth best discover vice, but adversity doth best discover virtue.

OF SIMULATION AND DISSIMULATION. DissiMULATION is but a faint kind of policy or wisdom; for it asketh a strong wit and a strong heart to know when to tell truth, and to do it: therefore it is the weaker sort of politicians that are the greatest dissemblers.

Tacitus saith, “Livia sorted well with the arts of her husband and dissimulation of her son; attributing arts or policy to Augustus, and dissimulation to Tiberius :” and again, when Maciarius encourageth Vespasian to take arms against Vitellius, he saith, “We rise not against the piercing judgment of Augustus, nor the extreme caution or closeness of Tiberius :" these properties of arts, or policy, and dissimulation and closeness, are indeed habits and faculties several, and to be distinguished; for if a man have that penetration of judgment as he can discern what things are to be laid open, and what to be secreted, and what to be showed at half lights, and to whom and when, (which indeed are arts of state, and arts of life, as Tacitus well calleth them,) to him a habit of dissimulation is a hinderance and a poorness. But if a man cannot attain to that judgment, then it is left to him generally to be

close, and a dissembler; for where a man cannot choose or vary in particulars, there it is good to take the safest and wariest way in general, like the going softly by one that cannot well see. Certainly the ablest men that ever were have had all an openness and frankness of dealing, and a name of certainty and veracity: but then they were like horses well managed, for they could tell passing well when to stop or turn; and at such times, when they thought the case indeed required dissimulation, if then they used it, it came to pass that the former opinion spread abroad, of their good faith and clearness of dealing, made them almost invisible.

There be three degrees of this hiding and veiling of a man's self; the first, closeness, reservation, and secreey, when a man leaveth himself without observation, or without hold to be taken, what he is; the second, dissimulation in the negative, when a man lets fall signs and arguments, that he is not that he is; and the third, simulation in the affirmative, when a man industriously and expressly feigns and pretends to be that he is not.

For the first of these, secrecy, it is indeed the virtue of a confessor; and assuredly the secreman heareth many confessione ; for who will open himself to a blab or a babhier ? But if a man be thought secret, it inviteth discovery, as the more close air sucketh in the more open; and, as in confessing, the revealing is not for worldly use, but for the ease of

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a man's heart, so secret men come to the knowledge of many things in that kind; while men rather discharge their minds than impart their minds. In few words, mysteries are due to secrecy. Besides (to say truth) nakedness is uncomely, as well in mind as in body; and it addeth no small reverence to men's manners

and actions, if they be not altogether open.) - As for talkers and futile persons, they are com

monly vain, and credulous withal: for he that talketh what he knoweth will also talk what he knoweth not; therefore set it down, that a babit of secrecy is both politic and moral : - and in this part it is good, that a man's face give his tongue leave to speak; for the discov*ery of a man's self, by the tracts of his coun

tenance, is a great weakness and betraying, by how m’ich it is many times more marked and believe than a man's words.

For the second, which is dissimulation, it follow:th many times upon secrecy by, a necessity; so that he that will be secret must be a dissembler in some degree: for men are too cynning to suffer a man to keep an indifferent carriage between both, and to be secret, without swaying the balance on either side. They will so beset a man with questions, and draw him on, and pick it out of him, that, without an absurd silence, he must show an inclination one way; or, if he do not, they will gather as much by his silence as by his speech. As for equivocations, or oraculous speeches, they cannot hold out long. So that no man


can be secret, except he give himself a little scope of dissimulation, which is, as it were, b;it the skirts or train of secrecy.

But for the third degree, which is simulation and false profession, that I hold more culpable, and less politic, except it be in great and rare matters: and, therefore, a general ,custom of simulation (which is this last degree) is a vice rising either of a natural falseness, or fearfulness, or of a mind that hath some main faults ; which, because a must needs disguise, it maketh him practise simulation in cther things, lest his hand should be out of use,

The advantages of simulation and dissimulation are three: first, to lay asleep opposition, and to surprise; for where a man's intentions are published, it is an alarm to call up all that are against them; the second is, to reserve to & man's self a fair retreat; for if a man engage himself by a manifest declaration, he laust go through, or take a fall: the third is, The better to discover the mind of another; tor to him that opens himself men will hardly show themselves averse; but will (fair) let Lim go on, and turn their freedom of speech w freedom of thought; and therefore it is a good shrewd proverb of the Spaniard, “Tell à lie and find a troth," as if there were no way oil discovery but by simulation. There be also three disadvantages to set it even; the first, that simulation and dissimulation commonly Carry with them a show of fearfulness, wbich

in any business doth spoil the feathers of round flying up to the mark; the second, that it puzzleth and perplexeth the conceits of many, that perhaps would otherwise cooperate with him, and makes a man walk almost alone to his own ends; the third and greatest is, that it depriveth a man of one of the most principal instruments for action, which is trust and belief. The best composition and temperature is, to have openness in fame and opinion; secrecy in habit; dissimulation in seasonable use, and a power to feigr., if there be no remedy.


The joys of parents are secret, and so are their griefs and fears; they cannot utter the one, nor they will not utter the rther. Children sweeten labours, but they make misfortunes more bitter; they increase the cares of life, but they mitigate the remembrance of death. The perpetuity by generation is common to beasts; but memory, merit, and noble works are proper to men: and surely a man shall see the noblest works and foundations have proceeded from childless men, which have sought to express the images of their minds, where those of their bodies have failed; so the care of posterity is most in them that have no posterity. They that are the first raisers of their houses are most indulgent

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