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the vouooétal, whose duty it was to examine carefully whether its provisions were inconsistent with any existing laws, or any main principle of the constitution. If it avowedly involved the repeal of another law, this latter was defended by publicly appointed cúvolkol, and any one else who might be disposed to aid them. The vouooétal were not concerned with the merits of the measure, and if they pronounced in its favour on technical grounds, their decision made it law (vóuov), and it was duly registered among the archives kept in the temple of Demeter (ěv Mntpów).

6. The vouooétal were appointed annually, from the Olkartai of the Heliastic court, at the third kupla ékk nola in each year. The manner of their election is uncertain, but it was probably by lot. In a case quoted by Demosthenes (in Timocr., p. 708, 27), they were 1001 in number, but the very specification of the exact number on that occasion makes it probable that it varied, in proportion to the amount and the importance of the business that was before them. The apóedpol presided in the court of the νομοθέται, as in the εκκλησία, and the vote was taken openly by χειροτονία. .

7. Besides the power thus given to individual citizens of introducing alterations in the law, there was a general review of the existing code of old laws at the first κυρία εκκλησία in each year (¿TT IXElpotovía vóuwv), and if any objection was then raised to any of them, the question was similarly referred to the νομοθέται. A second annual revision by the θεσμοθέται seems to be spoken of by Aeschines (in Ctes., p. 59, 12), though some writers think that this is identical with the other. It seems, however, more probable that it took place towards the close of their year of office; but the whole passage is obscure. If it was an independent revision, any questions arising out of it were equally referred to vouodéral, who seem in that case to have been specially appointed for the purpose.

8. In addition to all the precautions thus adopted against hasty and inconsistent legislation, a further safeguard was provided in the power given to prosecute the proposer of any law for introducing an illegal measure. This was called γραφή παρανόμων, and the proposer was liable to its penalties from the time that the measure passed the Senate till the expiration of a year from the date of its becoming vóuos. If this period were allowed to pass without an action being commenced, then by the statute of limitations (T podeo ulas vómą), the personal liability of the mover ceased ; but the same machinery could be brought to bear, as in the case of Leptines, for the abrogation of the law. The first step in the process was an affidavit on the part of the prosecutor that he meant to bring an action, corre

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sponding to the powuoola in an ordinary suit. In the case of the γραφή παρανόμων this was called υπωμοσία, a word commonly meaning an affidavit on which to ground an application for the postponement of a trial. The propriety of the name consists in the effect produced by the commencement of the γραφή παραvouwv, by which all further action in respect of the contemplated measure was suspended till the suit should be decided. And in many cases the result was the practical overthrow of a proposal, its mover not caring to proceed further in the face of the threatened action. In such a case he was said εάν τον νόμον εν Út Wuoolą. If he determined to contest the point, he met the υπωμοσία by an ανθυπωμοσία, an afhdavit that he meant to defend the action, and then it proceeded in due course to trial in the Heliastic court. If the prosecution was successful, the case being an åywy teuntós, he and the defendant respectively named what each considered an adequate penalty, and the court imposed whichever of the two it thought the more suitable. If the action failed, the measure assailed could be proceeded with from the exact point which it had reached when the 'mwuor la was sworn against it; but if it were already vóuos, the prosecutor seems, from the speech against Leptines, to have been bound to propose an alternative measure in its place. If the prosecutor failed to obtain one-fifth part of the votes, he was subject to a fine of a thousand drachmae, and incapable of exercising civic rights (&tiuos) till this was paid. In the case of the law of Leptines we find advocates appointed by the State (cúvdikol) to undertake its defence, of whom Leptines himself was probably one; but this would be because his measure was already law, and as such, under the protection of the State till sufficient cause was shown against it.

INDEX.

The numbers, except where otherwise signified, refer to the

Sections of the Speech.

'Αγχιστεία, 102.

Aorist and present contrasted
'Αγών θεματικός, 141.

87, 147, 167.
στεφανίτης, 141.

Apsephion, 1, 145.
τιμητός, Exe. ii. 8. Archebius, 60.
φυλλίτης, 141.

Areopagus, 157.
Αθροος, 138.

Aristodemus, 52.
"Ακυρος, 5.

Aristophon, 146.
"Αλλος χρόνος, ο, 16

Asyndeton, 151.
'Αμαθής, 119.

Attraction, 18, 35, 87, 97, 151.
'Αμφισβήτησις, with inf., 135. Athenians easily deceived, 3.
*Av, repetition of, 143. Athens, corn supply of, 31.
with inf., 109.

wills at, 102.
with part., 33.
with rel. and opt., 55.

Βουλή of 500, Exc. ii. 3.
'Αναγράφειν έν σανίδι, Exc. ii. 2. Bathippus, 145.
'Ανάκρισις, 98.

Bosporus, 33.
'Ανθυπωμοσία, Exe. ii. 8.

Byzantium, 60.
"Αντίγραφοι στήλαι, 36.
'Αντίδοσις, 30, 40, 130, Exc. 1.
11.

Γελωτοποιοί, 146.
'Απαγωγή, 156.

Γερουσία, 106.
"Απιστος passive, 22.

Γραμματεύς, 94.
'Από, 78.

Γραφή παρανόμων, 34, Ex. ii. 8.
Αρμοσταί, 68.

Γυμνασιαρχία, Exc. i. 4.
'Αρχιθεωρία, Εχο. 1. 4.

Gelarchus, 149.
'Αφαιρείν, 66.

Gelon, 161.
'Αφαιρείσθαι, 3, 66.

Gorgopas, 76.
'Αφορμή, 68.
Accusative, limiting, 14. Δε of apodosis, 80.
Acoris, 76.

Δεϊνα, 106.
Agesilaus, 76.

Δέον, γίγνεσθαι εις, 26, 41.
Antalcidas, 51, 60.

Διά, 58, 123.

Διαγράφεσθαι, 145.

Ηγεμόνες των συμμοριών,

Exc.
Διαδικασία, 147.

i. 8.
Διαχειροτονία, Exc. ii. 4. "Ήρμοστε, 66.
Διδόναι and δούναι, 5.

"Ήρωες επώνυμοι, 94, Exc. ii. 2.
Διείρηκα, 28.
Δίκαι, 147.

Four Hundred, The, 48.
Δοκιμασία, 83.

Funeral orations, 141.
Δυσχερής, 113.
Dative with passive verb, 80.
Deceleian war, 42.

Harmodius and Aristogeiton,

18, 69, 127, Exc. i. 1 and 9.
Deinias, 146.

Heracleides, 60.
Demophantus, 159.

Hermes' busts, 112.
Dion, 162.
Dionysius, 131, 161.

Hierum, 36.
Dionysius the younger, 162.
Diophantus, 137.

θαυμάσι ήλίκα, 41.
Draco, 158.

θεσμοθέται, 90, Exc. ii. 7.

Thasos, 59.
Εάν, 64.

Theban character, 109.
El euphemistic, 62, 113.

Themistocles, 73.
Εισαγγελία, 79.

Theodosia, 30.
Εισφορά, 18, Exc. 1., 1 and 5.

Thirty tyrants, the, 11, 149.
Είσφρεϊν, 53.

Thrasybulus, 48, 60, 68.
Έκπίπτειν, 54.

Thrasybulus of Syracuse, 161.
"Εκστήναι, 10.

Thrasyllus, 48.
'Έν, 93.
"Ένδείξις, 156, Exc. ii. 4. Ισηγορία, 16.
'Επαγγείλασθαι, 42.

Ισοτελείς, 29.
'Επισύρειν, 131.

Infinitive in limiting proposi-
'Επιφοραί, Exc. 1. 6.

tions, 18.
'Επιχειροτονία, Exc. ii. 4 and 7.

with άν, 109.
"Επιψηφίζειν, Exc. ii. 4.
'Επώνυμοι ήρωες, 94, Exc. ii. 2. Καθημένοι, 165.
Εστάναι, 37.

Καλώς ποιoύντες, 110.
Εστήξω, 37.

Κατασκευάζειν, 91.
Εστίασις, Exc. i. 4.

Κλεψύδρα, 27.
"Έτερος, 116.

Κρίσις, 107.
Εύθυναι, 147.

Callisthenes, 33.
Εν πάσχειν with acc., 47, 119. | Cephisodotus, 146.
Ευ ποιείν, αντ', 64.

Clearchus, 84.
Ευρέσθαι, 1.

Cnidus, 68.
Εύρήσθαι, 18.

Conjunctive, deliberative, 8,
Epaminondas, 105, 109.

117.
Epicerdes, 42.

Conon, 68.
Eubulus, 137.

Corinth, battle of, 52.
Evagoras, 68.

Ctesippus, 1, 75, 82.

Λαμπαδαρχία, Exc. i. 4. Προεδροι, Exc. ii., 4.
Λέγειν, 27.

Προθεσμία, 144, Exc. ii. 8.
Λειτουργίαι, 1, 19, Exc. i. Προξενία, 60.
Λόγον δούναι, 167.

Πρόξενος, 132.
Leodamas, 146.

Πρός, 25, 31, 164.
Leucon, 30.

adverbial, 112.
Lycidas, 131.

Προσήκει, 54, 119.
Lysimachus, 115.

Πρόσοδον γράφεσθαι, Exc. ii. 3.

Προτιθέναι λόγον, Exc. ii. 4.
Μάλιστα μέν, 25.

Προυπάρχειν, 46.
Μετοίκιον, 18, 130, Exc. 1. 1. Προωμοσία, Exc. ii. 8.
Μέτοικοι, Exc. 1. 1.

Parataxis, 9, 90.
Μή in prohibitions, 50.

Peisistratidae, 161.
reflected, 135.

Perfect, force of, 1.
Μή ου, 8.

Pollio, 77.
Μητρώον, Exc. ii. 5.

Polystratus, 84.

Praevaricator, 145.
Νή Δία, αλλά, 58.

Prohibitions, constructions in
ότι, 161.

123.
Νομοθέται, 92, 93, Exc. ii. 5
and 6.

Σίτησις, 107.
Naxos, battle of, 77.

Σιτοφύλακες, 32.

Σκαφηφορία, Exc. 1. 10.
Οικείν, intransitive, 49. Σκιαδηφορία, Exc. i. 10.
Ούτε .. τε, 76.

Σπουδαίος, 75.
Optative and conjunctive, 62. Στέρεσθαι, 51.

and fut. ind. 62, 133. | Συκοφαντία, 152.
Oratio obliqua, irregularities Συμμορία, Exc. i. 7 and 8.
in, 43, 158.

Σύνδικοι, 146, 152, Exc. ii. 5
Orchomenus, 109.

and 8.

Συντέλεια, 23, Exc. 1. 7 and 8.
Παρά, 26, 41, 46, 93, 110, 111, Συντριήραρχοι, Exc. i. 6.
138, 164.

Sicilian expedition, 42, 112,
Παραγράφειν, 98.

161, Exc. i. 6.
Παραγράφεσθαι νόμους, Exc. Solon, Exc. ii. 1.
ii. 2.

Strabax, 84.
Παρακρούσασθαι, 74.
Παρανόμων γραφή, 34, Exo. | Τέως, 91.
ii. 8.

Τι μαθών ; 127.
Παρεισφέρειν, 89.

Τιθέναι νόμον, 3, 55, Exc. ii. 4.
Περί adverbial, 32.

Τιθέσθαι νόμον, 3.
Περιεστηκότες, 165.

Τιμητός αγών, Exc. ii. 8.
Πλέθρον, 115.

Τριήραρχία, 18, Exc. i. 6 to 8.
Ποιείν, 126.

Τριήραρχοί, voluntary, Exc. 1.
Πολλου δεί, 20.

7.
Προβούλευμα, 4, Exc. ii. 3. Tachus, 76.

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