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show, of feudal and aristocratic origin." And he proceeds accordingly, at some length, to trace it to the old feudal barons on the continent, and more particularly to the old Norman barons in England. Now, this--that there is any real resemblance between the Magna Charta of the aristocratic barons, and the first Constitution of our democratic Virginia, in this respect,-is what we say we cannot so clearly perceive. On the contrary, to our view there is rather a striking contrast between them. For in the first place, the English barons, as he himself argues, did not stipulate any thing for the people; but only for themselves alone. (This is not perhaps strictly true, but we are willing to give him the advantage of his own view on this point.) And, we add, they did not certainly stipulate any thing for themselves as individuals against the government, but rather for themselves as barons and so as a component part of the government, against the arbitrary encroachments of another part of the government, the king, whom they were for keeping within his proper bounds, if necessary even by force and arms. But in our Constitution of ’76, we do not see our fathers of the Convention stipulating any thing at all for themselves against the king or parliament, whose yoke they were throwing off, with any reservation of their rights, either as statesmen or as persons, but taking all power into their own hands, as representatives of the people, and for their benefit only. Nor can we see in the instrument, any care whatever to guard the rights of the people against the possible encroachments of the government they were creating for them. On the contrary, they appear to us to have proceeded with the most generous and lavish confidence that was ever displayed by any body of men, in any

similar case. Thus they confide all the power which they had assumed for the people to the House of Delegates, with only the check of a negative in the Senate, a congenial body derived from the same source-the people themselves. The truth is, that regarding the Constitution they were making as virtually the work of their constituents, and the creature of their will and choice, and to be administered under their eyes by delegates elected by themselves, they did not for a moment imagine that it ever would or could be abused. They left the two Houses, therefore, composing the Legislature, to exercise all the omnipotence of the British parliament, untrammelled by any restrictions but those which the Bill of Rights might seem to impose. Then as to any stipulation for a resort to force in any event, (which is what has gathered all that halo of glory about the heads of those old barons as they loom upon us through the mist of antiquity-) that was not in any of their thoughts; and they were quite satisfied to rest the rights and liberties of their constituents upon the judicial power of the courts to nullify any unconstitutional act—if they even thought of that. And, we may add, that they did not even reserve the right of alteration and amendment of the Constitution itself--for there is no appearance of that “ sardonic grin of death,” (as Mr. Randolph called it,) on its face, or in any feature of its frame. The fact is, they fondly flattered themselves that they had made a constitution that might last forever, and they stamped it accordingly with the seal of immortality,

-as if it were indeed divine. For the rest, we warmly commend this discourse of Mr. W. to the careful consideration of all students of our history, as containing a little something to doubt and question, but much more to approve and applaud.




Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution; or, Illustrations,

by Pen and Pencil, of the History, Scenery, Biography, Relics and Traditions of the War of Independence. By Benson J. Lossing. New York, Harper & Brothers.

This is the most pleasing number of this valuable and interesting work that we have seen; for it comes home to

field"—to our own State, and city; and furnishes us with many vivid recollections of revolutionary times and characters hereabouts that are truly refreshing. The letter-press is pleasantly written, and the cuts, (with some exceptions,) are nearly all that we could expect or wish in such things. We shall notice this work again. ·

our own

Various Intelligence.


We have frequently had occasion to notice the development of the Gold Mines of Virgiuia. Within the past three years several rich mines have been opened, and worked successfully in different sections of the State.

The attention of the World has been awakened to the importance of this branch of mining. Since the discovery of the Mineral wealth of California, thousands have flocked to that distant country, incurring great risks and deprivations in the hope of realizing their fortunes. A few have turned their attention to the same business nearer home, where success has generally attended their labours, while many of the sanguine wanderers, who ventured their all, returning, after a year's absence, broken in health and spirits, no richer than when they left.

We believe Com. Stockton was one of the first who introduced into Virginia effective machinery for reducing, on a large scale, the Quartz Rock, and demonstrating that a profitable business could be done in this branch of mining. Some three years since he purchased the tract of land in Fluvauna county, about sixty miles distant from this city, upon which was a rich and extensive Gold vein, where he erected a large mill and other works. The glowing accounts received from California, of the richness and extent of the auri ferous Quartz of that country, induced Com. Stockton to suspend, for a time, his mining operations in this State, and to send his experienced workmen, with complete outfit, machinery, &c., to test the newly discovered Gold veins in California.

We are informed by a friend, who conversed a short time since with one of the Company, that they were not successful, the results not meeting expectations : their operations were discontinued in that country, the workmen returned to this State and Com. Stockton has resumed his mining operations in Fluvanna county, on a larger scale than heretofore, having introduced improved machinery, and has good prospects of doing a profitable and permanent business.

There are several other Gold Mines in operation in this State, and are said to be doing well.

We have taken some paios to gain information on this subject, believing, as we do, that as the country becomes settled, and improved machinery introduced, this branch of mining in our State, at no very distant day, will produce an anoual amount of the precious metal, that will go far towards furnishing us with a solid basis for our currency.

The mines of Wm. M. Moseley & Co., and the Garnett Mining company, in Buckingham county, are perhaps paying larger dividends to the stockholders, on their outlay, than any other mines in this State.

We have seen specimens of the quartz from this vein, unequalled in richness by any auriferous quartz ever shown us. We were recently shown a large rock, weighing 108 lbs., with the gold visible all through it, with many other specimens which were taken from the Garnett vein at 90 feet from the surface; at which depth, the vein is from 16 to 20 feet wide, all carrying gold.

There are several shafts sunk upon the vein, and galleries opened some six hundred feet in length, where the mills of these two companies are situated near together and on the same veio.

Six miles from these mives, are two other mills, worked by Mr. Eldridge and Mr. Wiseman, which are said to be doing very well. - Richmond Whig.


The Appual Commencement of this institution was held in the Chemical Hall of the establishment, on Monday evening, the 15th ult., before a large and brilliant company, with the usual ceremonies, and apparently with great satisfaction to all present. The Address to the graduates by the Rev. Dr. Green, the President of Hampden Sidney College, was characteristically eloquent in some parts, and pleasantly humorous in others; and the Charge by Dr. Gibson, was, as usual, altogether handsome and becoming

The following is a list of the graduates :

Wm. W. S. Butler, of Portsmouth; Peter T. Coleman, of Cumberland; John B. Gardner, of Heprico; Charles A. Gilbert, of Amherst; Robert J. Grammer, of Dinwiddie ; Beverley Grigg, of Greensborough, Ala.; Burleigh C. Harrison, Richmond City; Owen Baylor Hill, Richmond City; Wm. N. Horseley, Amherst; John Keys, Washington County; Burgess M. Long, Chesterfield County ; Edwin S. McArthur, Chesterfield County; George A. Matthews, Columbus, Miss.; Thomas P. Marston, James City County ; Thomas B. Moon, Albemarle County; James H. Oley, Bedford County; Beverly S. Georg e Peachy, Williamsburg ; John F. Sinton, Henrico ; David Steel, Petersburg ; Wesley A. Trotter, Henry; Robert H. Turner, Louisa ; Jacksou W. Whitemore, Petersburg; Wm. L. Wood, Hanover, and Cyril G. Wyche, Henderson, N. C.

The gold medal for the best Thesis, was presented to Doctor B. Gregg, of Alabama, with great applause.

We are always gratified to witness the growing prosperity of this institution, which we regard as highly honorable to our City and State.


The death of this distinguished poet, which occurred at his residence, Sloperton Cottage, on the 26th of February last, has called forth many grateful tributes to his memory; and very properly. He was certainly a fine poet, and almost a great one. He was not, indeed, we suppose, quite equal to any very lofty or continuous flight; at least he had not those stores of mind, or those qualities of head and heart, which, according to Milton, are necessary for the production of an epic poem; but to any performance below that, it would appear that he was fully competent. His genius was lively and versatile, and his Muse was always ready with her wings for any excursion that seemed to promise pleasure or sport. His poems, accordingly, were once extremely popular, and are still read by many, as they deserve to be, for their various merits. His translation of Anacreon-(a juvenile production,) though not exactly true to the original, and rather Irish (or Mooreish) than Attic, is yet probably the best version of the old Teian that we have. His Lalla Rookh is a splendid tissue of dazzling images and sparkling conceits, with some passages of real power that seem to raise him above himself; though they still leave him far below the great masters of song—there sitting where he durst not soar." His Two-penny Post-Bag, and bis Fudge Family in Paris, in a lighter vein, are excellent jo their way; and above all his Irish Melodies, and other songs, though seldom heard at present, ought to embalm his memory in all tuneful hearts. Surely if he had left us nothing but his “ Last Rose of Summer," it should preserve his fame in all the odor of sweetness for many years.

We must add here, that Moore has some associations with our State, which we may recall with a certain degree of interest, if not with any great amount of pleasure. We allude to the fact that he once lighted on our soil for a few days,-having landed at Norfolk, on his way to Bermuda, in November, 1803. The place, however, as gay and joyous as it was, and ready enough to welcome him to share in all its amusements, did not

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