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toleration to which they had been Star-chamber, and the presence of strangers, since the era of 66 evan- | the lord deputy.”—Another cause, gelical liberty;" but the clamours of in which religion was concerned, the puritan party, noticed in my last, was the perfidy of the protestant gocompelled this prince to recal bis in- vernors, in cajoling the Irish pardulgent deputy, Lord Falkland, and liament to grant subsidies to the entrust The administration of the king, and after obtaining the money, kindom to two lords justices, name- withholding from the people the proly, viscount Ely and the earl of mised benefits stipulated in return. Cork. Of these two protestant | It must here be observed that the statesmen, Leland, the Irish histo | Irish parliament consisted mostly of rian, says, “ They, without waiting catholic noblemen and gentlemen, for the king's instructions, fell at and as the refractory disposition of once with great sererity on the re- the protestant parliament of Engcusants, and soun extended the most lanc prevented the king from sucrigorons erecution of the penal laws ceeding in gaining the necessary supto every part of the kingdom.- plies from the puritan members, he These merciful deputies were suc
had recourse to his Frish catholic ceeded by the earl of Strafford, then subjects, and the readiness with ford Wentworth, who took upou
which they complied with his de. him the charge of government in
mands will be best related by the 1633, and held it until a short pe
insertion of the following letter riod of his death, which happened from the Privy Counsellors, memby decapitation on the 12th of May, bers of the Irish house of commons, 1641. The transactions of this go
to secretary Windebank, in 1639, vernor are thus spoken of by Mr.
taken from lord Strafford's State W. Parnell, in his Historical Apo-Letters, vol. 2, fol. 397: logy for the Irish Catholics. "Ano, “SIR,-The happy resolution, this ther material cause of the rebellion, liament, and the observable circum
day taken in the commons house of par(says Mr. P.) which had no connec
stances which occurred therein to our tion with religion, was lord Straf- view, who have the honour to serve his ford's resumption of the plan for majesty as his privy council here; and confiscating the province of Con- who, as members of the house of comnaught. The unfortunate landed mons, were present, and co-operating in proprietors had already twice pur- such inward joy and contentment, in
that resolution; have rendered to us chased their titles from the crown, the apprehension of the entire affecyet Strafford did not hesitate to out
tions and great loyalty of this people, rage every feeling of humanity, and abundantly testified thereby, as every rule of justice, by subverting.esteem it our duties to hasten the glad them a third time. This transac-advertisement thereof to his sacred ma. tion may not perhaps be the most in- jesty. famous that ever occurred, but cer
“After the proposal of such acts of tainly the most infamous act of
grace and advantage to the subject, as op
we conceived most fit to lead, in order pression that was ever perpetrated to the propounding of the subsidies, six by a plea of law, under the sanction subsidies were demanded for his 'maof juries. It is uncomfortable to jesty: whereupon divers members of dwell on so abominable an outrage, the house spake thereunto; some of the it is sufficient to observe, that it was
natives declaring that; as six were grant: in part carried by violence by fined the last parliament towards enabling ing the sheriffs, imprisoning jurors, for the occasions of this crown, and
the king to pay the debts contracted and fining them to the amount of for the better settlement of the reve. £4000 each, by the terrors of the nues: so, at this time, six or more, are
it to be given; it being apparent, that unable they are, without too much presthe peace and safety of the kingdom sure to them to advance more at this are become so nearly concerned. time; they humbly besought that, by
Some also of the natives shewing the lord lieutenant's interposition to his divers precedents in ancient times, and, majesty, four subsidies might be acamong these, some whereby the king, cepted from them at this time; yet, by a mandare from himself alone, with with declaration made by them, with as out a parliament, caused monies and much demonstration of loyalty as ever goods to be taken in Ireland, from nation or people expressed towards a merchants and others, towards defray. king, that, if more than these four ing. the charges of his. expeditions should be requisite, and the occasions of against the Scots, for the defence of his the war continue, they will be ready to kingdom; and those having enlarged grant more, and to lay down their perthemselves in that point, mentioned the sons, lives and estates, at his majesty's abundant piety and clemency of his feet, to further his royal design for cormajesty, in being so indulgent to his rection of the disordered factions in subjects, as to decline that example of Scotland, and reducing them to a right his progenitors, and to require aid of understanding of themselves, and for his subjects in a parliamentary way;
the defence and safety of his majesty's some of them said, that his majesty kingdoms and people. And they ear. should have a 'fee simple of subsidies nestly Hesired us, of the council then in their estates on like occasions, for present, that immediately after the the honour of his person, and safety of rising of the house, we would represent his kingdoms: it was fit to be done, this from the house to the lord lieutethough it were leaving themselves no- nant; which they did with general aca thing besides hose and doublet. Some clamations and signs of joy and conof them with much earnestness, after tentment, even to the throwing up of forward expressions of readiness to their hats, and lifting up their hands. wards advancing the business, con
“The question being then put, for cluded, that, as his majesty is the best the granting of four subsidies, with of kings, so this people should strive to such a declaration to be made besides be ranked among the best of subjects.
the act of subsidies; it was unanimous.
ly assented to by the whole house; Thus, every of them seeming, in a manner, to contend one with another, tive voice which we mention for the
There being found iherein not one negawho should shew most affection and forwardness to comply with his ma
glory of his majesty, that hath so good jesty's occasions, and all of them ex.
and loyal subjects, and for the honour pressing, even with passion, how much
and government of this nation,
“ And because no words are able they abhor and detest the Scotch covenanters, and how readily every mau's where with this people did, in this par
fully to set forth the cheerfulness, hand ought to be laid to his sword, to assist the king in reducing of them' by ticular, manifest their sense of his maforce to the obedience and loyalty of jesty's occasions, their desire to further subjects; they desired that themselves
his majesty's royal intentions, and their and others of this nation might have intire affections to the honour of his the honour to be employed in this ex
person; and all with most lively expedition, and declared, with very great wards him; we of his council could
pressions of their duty and loyalty todemonstration of cheerful affections, have wished, if it had been possible, that their hearts contained mines of sub sidies for his majesty; that twenty sub
that his majesty had been in his own sidies, if their abilities were equal with person an eye witness of this day's cartheir desires, were too little to be given have heen of far more value in his royal
riage, which we humbly conceive would to so sacred a majesty, from whose princely clemency, by the minis estimation, than twenty subsidies." tration of the lords lieutenant, so many
These demonstrations of sincere and so gracious favours are continually loyalty were accompanied with a rederived unto them.
monstrance of real grievances,among " - In the end, considering the pre-which the persecutions they had sent condition of the kingdom, and how | suffered on account of their religion ORTHOD. JOUR. VOL. V.
were not the least; and they soli. | Carte) as appears from a multitude cited the enactment of certain laws, of depositions taken befuse Dr. U. for the security of toleration, pro-Jones, and other commissioners, perty, and justice. The king ac- prevailed universally among the recepted the grants, and promised bels, and was chiefly insisted upon that these laws should be asseuted to; by them as one of the principal reabut the puritan faction, alarmed ai sonings of their taking arms." the unshaken fidelity of the catho. Enough has been said to prove, that lics to the throne, by the basest and so far from the Irish people living in most treacherous arts, contrived to a state of peace previous to their risrender the designs of the monarching, they were smarting under the abortive, and to foment what they basest persecutions, and every encalled a popish rebellion. At the gine was set to work by their merci. head of this detestable party were less enemies to infuriate their minds, the two lords-chief-justices, Borlase and urge them to deeds of vengeand Parsons, who succeeded lord ance. Thus instigated and alarmed Strafford, and revived the persecu. for the safety of their lives as well tions against the catholics with un- as their consciences, some few of the relenting cruelty, disseminating, at catholics in the north did take themthe same time, throughout the king- selves to arms, and committed viodom, the different petitions present- lences, at all times to be deplored, ed by their faction to the English but not to the extent asserted by the parliament, calling for the extirpa- writers before quoted. tion of the popish religion, and the lives and estates of the professors PROTESTANTS, AND NOT CATHOLICS, thereof. The intolerant and dis- THE PROMOTERS OF THE MASSACRE. graceful terms of the Scotch cove- Notwithstanding the unqualified nant, entered into by the puritans of assertions of Rapin, Echard, and that country,and afterwards assented other writers, that the insurrection to by their brethren in England, was sudden, general, surprising, and have been before stated ; to alarm prodigious, and that nothing less the Irish people, as to the designs of was intended than cutting the throats the covenanters, it is stated in of all the English protestants throughCarte's Life of the Duke of Or. out the whole kingdom, it is a fact, mond, that “ a letter was intercept- incontestibly proved by unimpeached coming from Scotland to one able testimony, that the rising was Freeman, of Antrim, giving an ac- at first confined to the province of count that a covenanting army was Ulster, and that few or no English ready to come for Ireland, under protestants were destroyed at its the command of general Lesley, to commencement, or during its contiextirpate the roman catholics of Ul- nuance. It is a farther fact, that ster, and leave the Scots sole pos- upon intelligence being received of sessors of that province; and that the commotion, the greater part of to this end, a resolution had been the catholic nobility and gentry taken in their private meetings and proferred their services to quell the councils, to lay heavy fines upon insurrection, yet their offer was not such as would not appear at their only rejected, but they were them. kirks, for the first and second Sun- selves soon obliged to stand upon day; and on failure the third, TO their own defence against the cruel HANG, without mercy, all such as villanies of the two puritan chiefwere obstinate AT THEIR OWN justices, one of whom, Parsons, DOORS. This notion, (adds Mr had declared at a public entertain. ment, that " within a twelvemonth, `signed to inevitable ruin.” And no catholic should be seen in Ire-, well did these mercenaries play their land.” That I may not be accused of parts. The Irish parliament having dealing in vague assertions in refut- sent deputies over to England to ob ing the vile falsehoods advanced by tain the consent of the king to some the before-quoted historians, I shall bills which had been passed by the confine myself to authenticated do- two houses for the removal of grievcuments, which are the best tests in ances, his majesty expressly comfavour of a legitimate cause. In the manded the lords-justices by letter first place, however, let the reader " to suffer that parliament to sit unbear in mind, that for a considera- til his majesty should think fit to ble time previous to the actual rising determine the same;" but, in order of the Irish people, which is stated to prevent these bills from passing to have happened on the 23d of Oc-into laws, the lords-justices caused tober, 1641, the puritan leaders in that parliament to be adjourned for the English parliament, those staunch three months against the declared strugglers for liberty of conscience, wish of its members, and that too had been át variance with Charles, but a few days before the arrival of principally on account of the lenity the deputies from England with the shewn to his catholic subjects, and royal assent; nor would they perthey had, by the most infamous in- mit proclamation to be made, altrigues, perverted the public mind, though urgently solicited so to do, infiaming it to a degree of phrenzy of the gracious intentions of the soat the supposed bloody principles of vereign to remove every subject of popery, notwithstanding they were complaint. On the contrary, they constantly assailing the monarch were determined to drive the catho. with remonstrances to induce him to lics, who were looked upon by them spill the blood of innocent catholics. already as rebels, by the most cruel During their contentions with the measures, into a state of insurrecsovereign, they could not be igno- tion. - Accordingly we find in rant of the faithful and steady loy. Carte's Collection of Letters the alty of the Irish catholics to him, following order from these lordsalthough a protestant, and therefore justices and the privy council to the they were determined to have their earl of Ormonde, then lieutenantrevenge. Iustigated by this diabo- general of the army, dated at the lical spirit, the faction kept up a castle of Dublin, 23d of February, correspondence with the puritan 1641 : lord.justices, Parson and Borlase, “ It is resolved, that it is fit that who, accordingly, by their own his lordship do endeavour with his authority, commanded many things majesty's said forces to wound, kill, contrary to the express direction of and destroy, by all the ways and the king, for the purpose not only means he may, all the said rebels, to exasperate the Irish catholics, but and their adherents and relievers, to render thein desperate.-" The and burn, spoil, waste, consume, favourite object both of the Irish go destroy, and demolish, all the places, vernment and the English parlia- towns, and houses, where the said ment,” says Leland, was the ut- rebels are, or have been relieved ter extirmination of all the catholic and harboured, and all the corne inhabitants of Ireland. Their es- and hay there, and KILL and DEtates were already marked out, and STROY ALL THE MEN there inhabiting allotted to the conquerors; so that ABLE TO BEAR ARMS." they and their posterity were con
we find from the same Collection, I their clamourous and deluded assothe said lord-justices issued further ciates, may declaim against the orders to the earl of Ormonde, di- Bourbons, and the jesuits, and the recting him to march with 3000 foot inquisition, but let them produce an and 500 horse s to such places be instance of such cold blooded pertween the Boyne and the sea as his fidy and inhumanity on the part of lordship should think fit; and burn the catholic rulers of a nation toand destroy the rebels of the pale, wards the protestant inhabitants, WITHOUT EXCEPTING OF ANY. That indisputably verified as the above those, who should offer to come in, facts, before they again launch out should be in no other manner taken in groundless accusations against the in than as PRISONERS taken by the blood-thirsty propensities of papists. power and strength of his majesty's Let the former remember, that he army. That, if any of them came can be no friend to liberty of conto the army, it should be the sole science who would restrain his DIERS, that seized on them, before neighbour in the exercise of it by they had access to his lordship ; and despotic power; and let the biblical that they should be denied access to bigot, who is ever and anon quoting
That no difference scripture, reflect on our Saviour's should be made between the noble- admonition to the elders who demen that were rebels and other re- nounced the adultress woman-let bels; but that their houses and him that is without sin cast the first goods should be dealt with as those stone at her. of other rebels.".How these or. Goaded by these and “numberders were executed may be gathered less other acts of perfidiousness and from Dr. Nalson, a protestant di-barbarity,” can we think it “survine, who, in his Historical Collece prising” that the Irish were in the tions, assures us, that “the severi- end roused to commit reprisals on ties of the provost-marshals, and the their inhuman persecutors ? barbarism of the soldiers to the not rather a matter of surprise that Irish, were such, that he heard a they bore the nefarious practices of relation of his own, who was a cap- their despotic rulers with such patain in that service, relate, that no tience and forbearance ? Would manner of compassion or discrimi. protestants have been so quiet u:nation was shewed either to age or der catholic governors ? Did the sex, but that the little children were German lutherans or the French cal. promiscuously sufferers with the vinists display such patient sufferguilty; and that, if any, who had ing under Charles V.or the Bourbons, some grains of compassion, repre- as the Irish catholics under puritan hended the soldiers for this unchris intolerance ?' Had, in fact, the putian inhumanity, they would scorn. ritans in Scotland and England a fully reply, 'Why, nits will be lice!' twentieth part of the grievances to and so would dispatch them.” God complain of against Charles and his of heaven! are these the men, or, I ministers, which the Irish catholics should rather say, barbarians, to re- had against them? See what Dr. proach papists with cruelty Are Warner, who was by no means dethese the noble strugglers for li- sirous of favouring the Irish, says of berty of conscience ? Are these the the rebellion :
66 The arbitrary deeds of their ancestors so extolled power exercised by these lord jusby modern reformers and biblical tices; their illegal exertion of it by bigots, as worthy of imitation ? bringing people to the rack to draw Mr. Cobbett and Mr. Ralib, and all | confessions from them; their send,