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"corps of all the persecutors that , by those who profess to be the most “have and shall shed so much blood liberal, the most wise, and the most “of the just : of the prophets, apos- enlightened of all human beings? “tles, and other martyrs, froin the What must tliey think of men, who “ beginning of the world to the end. with hypocritical professions of veThe protestants foolishly expound neration for the blessings of civil and it of Rome, for that they put her religious freedom, distort and falsi“retics to death, and allow of their fy the principles of their unoffending “punishment in other countries; neighbours for the purpose of keep" but their blood is not called the ing them in a state of political sla. " blood of saints, no more than the very ?-Satisfied with the present “ blood of thieves, inan-killers, and degraded and credulous state of the “other malefactors; for the shed- public mind, and the little danger

ding of which, by order of justice, of detection from the lamentable no commonwealth shall answer.'

apathy of the catholic body, the The reader will here see the base leading members of which seem raness of the reviewer in misquoting ther to prefer submission to the lash this passage, but that which follows of their calumniators than detection is still more glaringly disgraceful.

of their falsehoods, after treating his British Critic.- .-" That though readers with an extract frɔm the o the Son of God rebuked his dis works of St. Augustin, as the words “ciples for proposing to invoke fire of the annotators, the reviewer ex

from heaven, against the Samari. claims — “We would now put it

tans, as Elias had done, yet that“ fairly to the conscience of every “ Elias's act was not reprehended, “candid advocate of emancipation, 6. nor the church, nor christian "whether all the persecuting dog. “princes blamed for putting heretics“ mas, which the church of Rome sito death.” Luke ix. 55.

ever held in the plenitude of her Rheims Testament.

power, are not revived, at the utC. tice, nor all rigorous punishment

s most extent; and revived, at a 6 of sinners is here forbidden, nor

time, when a revival also of its “ Elias's fact reprehended, nor the power is confidently expected."“ church or christian princes blam. To this tribunal, impartially inform66 ed for putting heretics to death : ed, no catholic will hesitate to leave but that none of these should be the decision of his case.--In fact, “ done for desire of our particular his only hope, his sole desire, is to " revenge, or without discretion, place the question of his emancipa" and regard of their amendment, tion in the hands of the candid and un" and example to others. Therefore prejudiced protestant. In his present "St. Peter used his power upon state, excluded from any share in the “Ananias and Saphira, when he legislative functions of the nation, he “ stroke them both down to death cannot expect to arrive at his long" for defrauding the church,” -Luke wished for deliverance from civil ix. 55.

thraldom, but through the liberality Protestant reader, do you not and justice of upright protestants. blush at the gross injustice and dis- To them therefore I appeal, in my ingenuity of this hireling of the animadversions on the cowardly and press? Is the cause of protestan-fagitious attempts of bigotry to tism come to such a pass, that it thwart their judgment, and if my must be defended by perversion, and remarks savour somewbat of sevesupported by falsehood? What must rity, I most solemnly assure them, foreigners think of our country, when it is to the hated system of intoler they find such practices resorted to auce which misguided zealots are en.

66 Not jus

deavouring to perpetuate, not to the advantage to be derived from its exeindividuals, against which they are cution, to enter into a minute detail directed. Following the precepts of of the various instances in which this that church in whose defence I write, writ (de hæretic comburendo) has been nothing from my pen is dictated with carried into effect. Suffice is to a spirit contrary to the sublime max. state, that from the best investigaims of christian charity and the love tion I have been enabled to make, of truth: would to God the adver-|(though I should premise, that in saries of emancipation could say the this instance, I lay no claim to misame. The reviewer in this charge nute accuracy) the number of those of reviving all the persecuting dog who have fallen victims of this hormas of the church of Rome, did not rid, though legal instrument of perforget to throw out a hint of their secution, appears to be as follows. practical tendency; a subject often “ During the reign of Henry IV. a referred to by protestant writers, but person of the name of Bradley, for little understood by their readers.- denying the doctrine of transubstanIn the first misquoted article, the re- tiation. In that of Henry V. Clayviewer has ipsinuated a direct accu- don, a Lollard, and Sir John Oldcassation against Rome in putting pro- tle, Lord Cobham, who being contestants to death; it is a circum- demned for heresy, escaped from stance, however, which ought to be the tower, and was afterwards exegenerally known in this country, and cuted for a rebellion, and his body is no less remarkable than true, that burned in fulfilment of his former during the plenitude of the papal sentence. In the reign of Henry VI. power, and even to this moment, eight persons, chiefly, if not entirely, not a single individual has suffered condemned for what was then termdeath in Rome for the crime of he- ed Lollardy. resy.--So much for Rome herself; “In the one and twenty years of and as to her ALLOWING their pu- Edward IV. we find but one instauce nishment in other countries, let us of the execution of this sentence; examine the history of our own, in whilst in little more than the same illustration of this imputed sanction period of time, the number was inof church dominion. The authority creased to ten, in the reign of Henry which I shall quote in proof that the VII. a proof this, it should seem, Roman catholic church, either in that the prevalence of persecution deher dogmas or her disposition, pended in a great measure on the does not possess the spirit of perse - personal character of the prince, cution, is that of a protestant gentle and of his prelates, or on some other nan, who seems to have derived his cause, perfectly extraneous to that information from Fox's Acts and Mo- to which it is generally referred the numents, Hume's History of England, unexampled intolerance of the caand Burnet's History of the Reforma- tholic religion. tion, all unquestionabe testimonies In the first twenty-three years of with_the adversaries of popery.- Henry VIII. thirty heretics were comMr. Brown, of the Inner Temple, in mitted to the flanies. The errors imhis “ Historical Account of the Laws puted to them, consisted in denying against the Catholics," 1813, makes the doctrines of transubstantiation, the following observations, in the first and of intercession to the saints, in chapter of his work, " On the Laws reading the scriptures in English, against Heretics in general: maintaining the principles of Lu

" It would be a disgusting task, ther, and other similar deviations far from compensated by any real from those tenets and ceremonies

which the Romish church ordains. culprit, for the crime of heresy, reIn the last fifteen years of this corded in the first twenty-three years reign, the number was angmented to of Henry VIII.'s reign; and the only forty-four. Of these, sixteen were notice of ecclesiastical punishment anabaptists; one suffered for deny- mentioned by this annalist in that ing the king's supremacy, and the period is, that on

66 the 11th of greater part of the remainder, for op- February, 1526, four merchants of posing or for non-compliance with the Stilyard did penance at Paul's the law of the six articles. From cross, and an Augustin friar, called these statements (observes Mr. B.) Dr. Barnes, bore a fagot." -Howe. it will appear that his únchristian ver, when Harry threw off all spiriprocedure was so far from deriving tual subjection to the pope, and Tom its rigour from the influence of the Cranmer, " a most revered bishop, Romish Clergy, called into action by and a venerable reformer” became the mandatory bulls of the pope, that his right hand man and the primate AFTER the reformation, as it is not of England, the pages of Stow are unfrequently termed, in 1533, the chiefly occupied in noting the imolaaverage number of offenders com- tion of victiais for conscience sake. mitted to the flames, by virtue of the But admitting the account of Mr. writ de hæretico comburendo, was

Brown to be literally true, what a CONSIDERABLY MORE THAN complete and triumphant refutation DOUBLED.' And, were I to take dves it afford to the infamous accuinto account those catholics (amount- sation set up by bigotry of the pering to between thirty and forty) who secuting principles of the Roman ca. were hung, ostensibly on convictions tholic clergy. The catholic religion founded on the NÈW statutes of was planted in this island by St. Autreason, but, in reality, for their gustin in 597, and the first instance adherence to the long-established, which oar adversaries are able to adfaith of the kingdom, this average duce of the crime of heresy being puwould be 'encreased to nearly a

nished with death, is in the year 1401. FIVE-FOLD proportion.”

-Thus, during a space of EIGHT Such is the statement of this re- HUNDRED YEARS, in which the spectable protestant historian; and catholic religion reigned uncontrolled, although, as a catholic writer, I am and her ministers were invested with disposed to question the veracity of the plenitude of power, not a drop of his authorities, as 10 the number of blood was shed in support of her spiindividuals suffering for heresy under ritual rights, nor a temporal law catholic sovereigns, yet I am ready passed to punish those who dogmato admit that he has, in this detail, tised her doctrines.--We see, howe. exhibited a degree of candour which ver, in that period, the most virtuous must ever reflect the highest honour sovereigns, those who venerated and on his literary character, and is well practised her precepts, the Alfreds worthy the initation of ihe reviewer and the Edwards, framing laws for in the British Critic, and his bigot- the government of the people, found ted compeers of the English press. ed upon the basis of civil liberty, I have said that I doubt the accu- and to the former we are indebted for racy of Mr. Brown's testimonies, that glorious bulwark of Englishmen, and the reason for my so doing is, that the trial by jury. We also see a caon examining a quarto edition of tholic primate animating and directing Stow's Annals of England, printed catholic barons to demand a restorain 1601, I cannot find the infliction tion of those rights which had been of the sentence of death on a single wrested from them by our Norman ORTHOD. JOUR. Vol. V.

3 İ


conquerors, from the hands of a ty- 'rebel Tyler; nevertheless, the seeds rant, and to this patriotic and honest, of sedition having once been sown, prelate are we chiefly beholden for repeated acts of conspiracy succeed. that great charter of our liberties, ed each other rebellion followed which have rendered England so re- rebellion, and it was found necessary nowned among other nations. — And at last to have recaurse to the strong WHY was it thought expedient at arm of power, for the preservation of last to pass a law, inticting the pa. the constitution, and the protection nishment of death on those who were property. Accordingly, twentyguilty of heresy? This is a question six years after Wickliff began to which the adversaries of popery never spread his seditious doctrines, that dare meet, but run from the point, is to say, in the second year of Henry whenever it is proposed to them. IV. Stow writes, “a parliament But let the truth be spoken, and was holden at London, after the falsehood put to the blush. About feasts of the Epiphany, in which the year 1375, John Wickliff began parliament a statute was enacted for to commence reformer, and to Lollards, that wheresoever they preach new doctrines, contrary to were known to preach their false those held by the church of Rome, and corrupt doctrine (so termed at The clergy of course opposed his in- that time) they should be taken and novations by ecclesiastical censures, delivered to ibe bishop of the dio but so far were they from requiring cese, before whom, if they would any interposition of the temporal presume stoutly to defend their erpower, or the inflction of corporeal roneous opinions, they should be punishment, that he continued to dis- degraded, and committed to the seminate his doctrines with impuni- SECULAR jurisdiction to be executed, ty, till death seized him in 1385, which law was first put in practice and sent him to justify his deeds be- upon a priest, named Wil, Sawtrey, fore the Supreme Judge of mankind. which was burnt in Smithheld, in Wickliff, however, like all arch.


presence of many a man.” Now herelics, did not confine his new this historian completely contrapositions to the supposed errors of dicts ihe insinuation of the reviewer, the church, but he trenched on the that Rome allows the punishment authority of the state, and among

of heretics in other countries ;" for other seditious things, taught that it is here plainly shewn, that it was kings and magistrates, as well as the SECULAR power that passed popes and bishops, if guilty of a sin- the law, and the bishops were only gle mortal sin, were equally to be empowered to reclaim them from despoiled of all their rights and pre. their erroneous ideas; but in the rogatives. The etfects of these per- event of their remaining obstinate, nicious principles soon assumed a they were to be degraded (by which ‘most formidable and destructive it would seem to be limited to ecform. A levelling spirit of equali- clesiastics), and then delivered over ty sprung up amongst the niultitude, to the civil authorities, to be dealt which caused them to commit the with as the law in that case had most lawless and outrageous excesses. provided. Lollardism was a comIn a word, the mob rose in formida- pound of heresy and sedition, the ble numbers, under Wat Tyler and innovating spirit of which threatJohn Ball, and threatened the very ened destruction to the state, as well existence of the government.

as the confiscation of property. "Through the intrepidity of the lord Surely then to provide for the 'mayor of London, this rebellion was safety of the throne, and the stabisubdued by his slaying the chief | lity of the laws, was equally as in

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cumbent on the ministry of that to be rather to teach their misguided day, as it is on those of the present. followers doctrines which should How inconsistent must it be then to square with their own vicious ways. charge men with the spirit of re- and inclinations, than qualify them , ligious persecution, for doing that for the important duties of good subwhich themselves approve of for jects and citizens. their own personal safety. The pre- agents who had caused men'to sent year has witnessed the lanient. mistake good for evil,' and give them, able effects of tumultuary excesses, improper notions of their duties to aud a commission has lately been their God, and the community in sitting at Derby for the trial of a which they lived. The object of number of individuals, under a true religion, as it respected society, charge of high treason. At the was to promote, industry and pru. opening of the commission, the dence in the lower, and mercy and judges, as is customary on such oc- forbearance in the higher classes. casions, 'repaired to church to hear But the ignorant teachers to whom divine service, and a discource from be alluded, inculcated notions of rethe high sheriff's chaplain. The ligion consistent only with the grasubstance of this oration, with the tification of depraved habits. To the editor's opinion, I shall now lay be extension of this lamentable evil . fore the reader, froni The Courier, of must be ascribed the misfortunes. the 16th of October last :-" The into which those deluded beings had public will not fail to remark, that fallen, who now awaited the adju! many of the accused persons were

dication of the laws of their country. comfortably off in life; that they Every man acquainted with the were not driven to take up arms present state of society, knew that the against the government by want principal and most fruitful source of of subsistence, a plea usually set up crime was an utter ignorance of a without foundation, Neither will | future state, and to an idea that the public fail to notice the sermon death would rid the offender against preached yesterday to the court. It divine and human laws, of present 'is there said, truly, we are per- and future sufferings. To the pre-: suaded, that some persons in the valence of this barbarous notion-: lower class have been led, step by notion but too industriously diffused step, to commit the crimes of treason by the ignorant and the irreligious aud sedition, by religious sects, teacber of religion, must be referred which, under pretence of liberty of the untimely fate of many wretched conscience, destroy all conscience, beings, who forfeited their lives to all ties of moral duty in those who their country for the most heinous listen to them, and who, when thus offences; and who, in their last prepared for mischief, plunge into moments, had nothing to hope or the most atrocious crimes. He as- depend upon, but that the word of cribed most of the misfortunes-and God and his promises were not true. misconduct, which had unhappily Faetion and rebellion must go hand visited the condition and characa in hand with atheism and infidelity. terized the demeanour of some of the Sceptics, in their duty towards God, lower classes of the community, inwould ill incline to the observance, the disturbed districts, either to of their duty to society. Men bem their utter ignorance of religious came atheists because they viprinciples, or to a superstitious and cious; they questioned the truths of depraved faith, inculcated by illi- christianity because they hated the terate and immoral public teacher's practice of christian virtues; and of the gospel; whose object seemed 1 d.conversa, they became rebels be-.

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