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cause they were disorderly; they | when it is the innovating maxims of doubled the wisdom of human in- visionary reformers, which cause the stitutions, because they disliked the temporal governors of the country control of their bad passions." to wield the sword of justice for the

· Let the scripture distributors and preservation of law and morality. self-interpreting men, weigh these is it not better to prevent crime than words well; let them remember the to punish it. The object of the cadying words of sir John Gates, that tholic clergy is, to instil the neceshe was a great reader of scripture, sity of adhering to the truths of the but it was only to be seditious; and gospel, and shunning the snares of if they have one grain of common vice; and it is a certain truth, that sense, or one spark of loyalty to the she is expressly forbidden by her reigning family, they will perceive own laws to inflict any corporal puthe evils their wild scheme must nisbment even on convict heretics, soon entail upon this country, and and on that, or any pretence whatconsider the foregoing words of the soever, to touch life or limb. Conreverend preacher as a warning for formably to this disposition, the them to desist. The resuls of the Rheimish annotators observe, io Titrials was, that several were convict- tus iii, 11. “Heretics be often incorediof constructive treason, and three rigible, yet the church of God ceas. of them suffered the vengeance of eth not, by all means possible, to the law on the 7th of this month. revoke them : therefore St. AugusFrom their behaviour, both before tia saith, Ep. 162, 'the beretic bimand after their conviction, they ap- self, though swelling with odious pear to have been religious enthusi- and detestable pride, and mad with

but will any one say that they the frowardness of wicked contena were martyrs to religious persecu- tion, as we admonish that he be tionWill the reviewer or his bi. avoided, lest he deceive the weakgotted associates dare to say, that, lings and little ones, so we refuse because the sheriff's chaplain attri- not by all means possible to seek his buted the unfortunate situation of amendment and reformation.'" And the unhappy culprits to their being the present pope, acting on the same influenced by ignorant teachers and genuine spirit of the church of erroneous notions of religion, they which he is the head, annulled the thereby became martyrs to the in-proceedings commenced by the intolerance of the church of England squisition of Ravenna against a jew, I am sure they dare not. True, the who had relapsed to judaism, afterreviewer may reply ; but the Der- embracing the catholic faith ; on by offenders suffered for crimes which occasion he thus expressed ayainst the state, net for dissenting himself,—"The divine law is not from the doctrines of the church men like the law of man; it carries with And so did the Lollards, under it mildness and persuasion. Persecattiolic sovereigns, who are honour-cution, exile, prisons, are the means ed by honest John Fox

as protestant employed by false prophets and false saibes andi martyrs to Romish into teachers. Let us pity the man who Jerance and cruelty. They preach. is deprived of the light, and who ed and practised rebellion, and were even wishes to be deprived of it; punished by the secular law as re- for the cause of his blindness may bels, after having previously been serve to promote the grand designs exhorted by the clergy to renounce of Providence." To these words.of, their dangerous opinions. Then the holy father, the “gentlemen" of why accuse the church of Rome of “The Protestant Union," and the holding persecuting principles, 7 reviewer in the British Critica will


be able to discover the genuinely blind to scripture evidence as to principles of Roman catholics; and, affirm that neither faith, nor repentif they will take the trouble to look ance, nor obedience to God's comover ihe bloody enactments which mandments, are conditions of salvadisgrace the statute-book, since the tion; yet this is the doctrine held by pretended reformation, and compare the calvinists. them with the penal acts passed un- Ist. -- According to them faith is der catholic suvereigns, they must nota condition of salvation, with rebe blind indeed if they do not dis- gard to the elect. Why may not cover that the practical tendency to faith or believing be the condition of persecute is on the side of protest- the covenant of grace?"-They anantism, and not on that of popery. swer,- .“ Because faith is promised But more of this in my next. in the covenant itself, and therefore,

cannot be the condition of it." --Q.. Mr. Foster's Speech, v. Rev. 20, q. 72. Faith is not required MR. GANDOLPHY, The further re- from the elect; it is given them : marks on the former gentleman's not merely offered, in this sense, that printed oration must be postponed, they may either accept of it or refuse

Wm. Eusebius Andrews. it; but so given that it cannot Somers'-Town, Nov. 24, 1817.

be refused., Believing, in short,

is not a free act of the believer. Sketch of Calvinistic Doctrines.

“ How then cone we by faith ?”. They say, “By the spirit working it

in us." ---Q. 30.9 10. “ Whether (Continued from p. 399.)

is the spirit of God, upon his first

entrance, actively or possibly receivCOVENANT OF GRACE.

ed ?" “ The soul, morally dead in The contracting parties in the co- sin, can be no more but a mere pasvenant of grace, according to the sive recipient.”-Q. 20. calvinists

are, on the one hand, God But faith is required from the rehimself, and on the other, Christ and probate as a condition; for Christ bis spiritual seed, the elect. Adam, not having fulfilled the condition of in the covenant of works, was the the covenant for them, they must federal head of all mankind; but themselves fulfil it personally ; yet Christ, in the covenant of grace, is they cannot. The elect alone can the federal head of none but the believe, as they alone also can be elect. By this covenant Christ has saved. “ Faith and holiness are the taken upon himself, with regard to fruits and effects of election.”-Q, his chosen race, the curse of penalty 20. q. 6. Therefore unbelief and incurred by Adam and his posterity, sin are the fruits and effects of

reprofor breaking the covenant of works. bation. The faith of the elect has He died for the elect, but for them been fore-ordained, as a means of alone. For them also he fulfilled the their salvation. The unbelief of the condition of the covenant of works, reprobate has been fore-ordained, as which is perfect, continual, and en- a means of their damnation. The tire obedience to the law. The elect calvinists say, that faith is the hand have not any condition to fulfil;, which apprehends, or seizes on they are saved by faith alone : and Christ; but the reprobate, by God's this very faith is not a condition with decree, have no hand to seize on regard to them. It may appear in-Christ, and yet are punished for not credible there should exist a de- believing in him, nomination of christians, so thorough- dly.--" Is repentance a condition of pardon ?" "No," answer the for them to fulfil it by faith, in the calvinists, " because this would be to surety; that is 10 say, it is sufficient : bring in works into the matter of our for them to believe in Christ, who justification."--Q. 33.q. 23. “Faith has fulfilled the law for them as well and repentance are graces given to- as for himself. A justified elect, for gether."-Q. 87. q. 15. and un- example, spends the Sunday ini dedoubtedly they are given in the same dauchery or idleness; in ibat case manner. The soul is “ a mere passive he has not fulfilled the law personal. recipient.” The repentance of the ly, or in his own persou; nevertheelect, like their faith, is promised to less, because he believes in Christ, them, not expected from them. No who has fulfilled all righteousness, wonder then if God forgives them he has kept the commandment:their sins, even before they repent. “Remember thou keep holy tlie “Repentance," say the calvinists, sabbath day" in the surety. Au “ doth not go before, but follows elect imitates David in his sin; in that. after the pardon of siu in justifica- case he has broken the commandtion."-Q. 36.Perseverance,q. 13.

ment. - Thou shalt not commit As to the reprobate, they can no adultery;" but he believes in Christ, more repent than they can believe; therefore he has kept that commandand they can do neither, because ment in the surety. This way of they have grace for neither; but keeping the commandments of God have been eternally and unchangea- is the only one which the calvinists bly fore-ordained io be deprived of believe to be indispensibly necessary both, that they might be punished for salvation; and they are sure they for the want of both.

will always keep them that way, be3dly,-- Obedience to the command- cause faith is promised to the elect ments of God, according to the cals in the covenant, and therefore they vinists, is no condition of salvation. cannot fail having faith. But it is It was a condition of it with

respect not promised in the covenant of to Christ; but, by virtue of the co- grace that the elect will always keep venant of grace, his obedience to the the law personally, consequently, will of bis father is imputed to the sometimes they keep it so, sometimes elect, as if they themselves had fül- only iu the surety. But, when they filled that condition. 66 What is to

happen to break the law, the transimpute Christ's righteousness unto gression is not imputed to them, nor

“ It is (they say) accounting is it punished; personal obedievce is or reckoning it to us, as if we had not required, and obedience in the obeyed the law, and satisfied justice surely still goes on, because faith is in our own persons, and dealing never lost. with us accordingly.”-Q. 33. q. 44. It njust therefore be understood, Are the elect then, in the doctrine of that when the elect, after justificathe calvinists, under no obligation at tion, choose to obey the commandall to obey the commandments of ments, they do it, not as an obligaGod? There are two ways of obey- tion, not as a law, not as a condition ing ihe commandments of God in the of life, but as a rule of life: as a calviuistic doctrine. The one is to mere direction, “ If Christ's active obey them personally, the other, to obedience be impuled to us, are we obey them in the surety Personal not loosed from any obligation to obedience is not of obligation with give obedience to the law in our own respect to the elect, when they have persons :” They answer, - We are once been justified, Christ takes that only loosed from an obligation to obligation from them; it is sufficient yield obedience to the law, as a co

us ?"

venant of works, but not loosed from obliged personally to keep the divine -obedience thereunte as a rule of life.” commands, in order to be saved. L. Q. 33. q. 4. 9. · The reader may ob- They believe that the elect enter into servé in this answer, that the word heaven, not by doing, but merely by obligation, in the first part of the believing. The way of keeping the sentence, is connected with the cove-law, agreeably to the covenant of -nant of works; and that it is omitted grace, is to believe. This is to keep in the second part, which speaks of it by the surety. "Adam, as a pubthe covenant of grace. For they do lic head, (say i bey) having failed in not answer, We are not loosed from his obedience, there could be no enthe obligation of obedience; but tering into life for him, or any of his * We are not loosed from obedience, natural seed, without keeping the as a rule of life.”. Indeed, were they commandments by the surety." "If to admit an obligation for the elect thou wilt enter into life, keep the to obey the law, they would also he commandments.”-Q. 20. q. 62. forced to admit a punishment, in case As to the reprobate, they can keep the obligation was net fulfilled: but the commandments, neither by doing there is no punishment under the co- nor by believing ; neither in their venant of grace. “ All demands of own persons, nor by the surety: they law and justice are answered (by are left to answer personally the deChrist) to the full.”-Q. 26. q. 26.'| mands of law and justice; bound to Therefore there is no law binding, obey the law, without power to obey no justice punishing the elect, when it, and then punished for not doing once justified; the commission and it; fore-ordained to be damned, and stain of sin still take place, but the fore-ordained to commit the sins for

guilt never does. Sin may still be wbich they shall be damned!! indulged and defile the soul, but the THE DEATH OF CHRIST. strength of sin is broken; because The calvinists, in contradiction to sin, not being imputed, is comunitted plain scripture, teach that Christ died with impunity, it cannot hurt.only for the elect. « For whom did “What is the consequence of an- Christ satisfy justice ?" 6 For the swering the demands of the law and elect only, and not for all mankind.” justice ?"

“ The law being satisfied, Q. 25. q. 33. And, in support of the strength of sin is broken." q. 27. this false doctrine they quote Joha

In explanation of our Saviour's x. 11, where Christ says, " That the answer to the young man,--" If thou good shepherd giveth his life for the wilt enter into life, keep the com- the sheep;" and Eph. v. 25, where mandments.” They give it to under- St. Paul declares, “ That Christ stand, that our Saviour here spoke loved the church, and gave himself ironically, and meant that, if the for it.” But Christ does not say, young man wished to go to heaven that “ he gives his life for the sheep by his own doings, iu a legal way, only." St. Paul does not say, that according to the covenant of works. Christ " loved the church, and gave in that case he must keep the con- himself for it only.These are admandiments. When one puts the ditions made by the calvinists, to. question to him,-"What shall I do, make scripture say what it says not. that I may inherit eternal life?".. St. Paul, on the contrary teaches, He answers, “ If thou wilt enter that Christ is the Saviour of all men, into life, by doing, keep the com- especially of those that believe.-1 mandments.'~Q. 12. q. 29. But Tim. iv. io. Which means that they do not think that our Saviour though he is indeed in a special man' seally meant that every ope was ner the Saviour of his church, be

cause he has already saved them from gospel, are only intended to show their sins, yet he is the Saviour of the intrinsic worth of the satisfac. mankind in general; because he died tjon of Christ, for the salvation of

for all. In the same sense St. John all, if it had been so designed."- Q. says, that Christ is "the propitia 44. q. 29. But, if such were the tion of our sins, and not for our sins true meaning of those passages, only, but for the sins of the whole which declare that Christ is the Sa. borld."-1 John. ii, 1, 2. But viour of all men, and that he died where scripture says the world, the for all men: in that case we might -calvinists understand the elect world. equally assert, that he died even for

For example. Behold the Lamb of satan and his angels; for 'there is God; behold him who taketh away

ap intrinsic worth in the death of The sins of the elect) world. Jo.. Christ” sutficient to satisfy for the

29. God sent his son into this sins of the deviis as well as for those - world, that the (elect) world through of men, “if it had been so designhim might be saved --с. ii. 17.--The ed." But that it was designed exfather sent the son to be the Saviour clusively for the posterity of Adam, of the elect) tvorld.-1 Jo. iv. 14. and extends, without exception, to I came not to judge the (elect) world, every individual of that posterity, but to save the elect) world.-Jo. is clearly taught by St. Paul. As xii. 47. But an elect world is 'an by the offence of one,'' says he, absurdity. For the elect, according judgment came upon all men to to sicripture, are those who have been condemnation, se by the righteous

separated from the world. The ness of one the free gift came upon elect are the same persons who, in all men unto justification of life. the canbnical epistles are denominat- Rom. v. 18. The free gift, thereed the saints, those who actually fore, is designed for all those upon compose the visible church of Christ; whom judgment had come unto connow, St. John, as well as St. Paul demnation, consequently not for the have just informed us, that Christ is elect only. We thus judge, that if the Saviour, not only of the elect one died for all, then were all dead; thus understood, but of all men of and that he died for all.--2 Cor.V. the whole world.

.14. Here St. Paul infers from Christ Indeed, it is evident from scrip- dying for all, that all men were dead ture, that although the application in Adam; .but this inference would of Christ's redemption he not gene. not be true; if Christ died only for ral, through the unbelief of men. the elect, he must have died for yet the redemption itself is so. He every one who died in Adam. came to save that which was lost. From these words of our Lord, Maith. xvii. 11. He tasted death I pray for you; I pray not for the for every man. Heb. viii. 9. He world. - Jo. xvii. 9. The calvinists

gave himself a ransom for every man. falsely infer, that Christ died only for i Tim.2.6. He is not willing that the elect, “the satisfaction and inany should perish. - Pet. iii. 9. Intercession of Christ," they say, " besbori, he died for all.--2 Cor. v. 15. ing of equal extent.”-Q, 25. q.89. But the calvinists pretend that these But Christ only means that he does declarations in scripture, which Hot.pray for the world, as such; or speak of an universal purchase or that he does not pray for the salvaredemption, are to be explained in a tien of any one who continues in the limited sense ; and, like the univer- world, as if he could be saved in it. sal offer of salvation made to every For the world, as such, stands in diatalure by the preacliiug of the rect opposition to God and to Christ.

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