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in that gentleman's own words:- which they demonstrated in taking

666 And whereas six priests,' says measures for his destruction. la the petition of the lords and com- the course of these proceedings there mons, now in Newgate, are con- had been no less than three copferdemned to die, and by your ma- ences of both houses, in one of which jesty, have been reprieved ; they a message was delivered from the humbly pray your majesty to be king, stating that Goodman had been pleased that the said reprieve may condemned for being in orders of be taken off, and the said priests a priest merely, and was acquitted executed according to law.' On of the charge of perverting the king's. this the king, after many messages people in their belief.' Indeed the to the house in their favour, eventu. parliament never laid any other of, ally granted a warrant for their ex- fence to his charge, yet did they re. ecution, provided the parliament fuse the king's offer to banish him were not content with their banish- for life, with instant capital punishment. The remonstrance also of ment if he returned into the kingboth houses of 29th January, 1640, dom, still rigorously insisting on his closes with a demand, that Good-being presently hanged.' man the priest be left to the justice “This remarkable, and we might: of the law,' to this the king an- indeed say this unparalleled instance . swered, “ concerning John Good of the continued perseverance of man the priest, I will let you know bigotted and unchristian zeal, actu.. the reason why I reprieved him, ating a large deliberative assembly aud it is, that (as I am informed) nei of legislators in pursuing to the very ther queen Elizabeth vor my father gates of death, one whose offence did ever avow that any priest, in was confined to mere difference in their times, was executed merely for religious opinion, is rendered still religion, which to me seems to be more remarkable by the following this particular case; yet seeing I petition of their victim to the suam prest by both houses to give way preme executivc magistrate who had to his execution, because I will avoid vainly endeavoured to save him from. the inconveniency of giving so great the fate which was impending over a. discontent to my people, as I con- him. ceive this mercy may produce; there. 66 . To the king's most excellent fore I remit this particular cause to majesty, the humble petition of Johu both the houses, but I desire them Goodman, condemned, humbly shewto take into consideration the incon- eth. veniences, as I conceive, may upon

60. That whereas your petitioner. this occasion fall upon my subjects hath been informed of a great disand other protestants abroad, espe- content in many of your majesties cially since it may appear to other subjects, at the gracious mercy your states to be a severity. Which hav-majesty was freely pleased to shew ing thus represented, I think myself unto your petitioner, by suspending discharged from all ill consequences

the sentence of death pronounced that may ensue from the execution against your petitioner, for being a of this person. That this unfortu-romish priest. nate man only escaped the execu- "" These are humbly to beseech: tion of his sentence by being for- your majesty, rather to remit your gotten amidst the more important petitioner to their mercy, that are objects which were daily claiming discontented, than to let him live the attention of his persecutors, is the subject of so great discontent, evident from the extraordinary zeal l in your people against your majesty;

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for it hath pleased God to give me moiety of the intolerant and unchris. the grace, to desire with the pro- tian practices of the parliamentaphet, that if this storm be raised for rians towards the professors of pomy sake, I may be cast into the sea, pery in England alone would fill a that others may avoid the tempest. a large volume; what has been

6.This is, most sacred sovereign, said shews the merciful temper of the petition of him that should es- those times towards them, and I teem his blood well shed, to cement shall now remove the scene to ano. the breach between your majesty ther part of the kingdom. and your subjects upon this occasion. 66. Ha. Festor.

RELIGIOUS LIBERTY IN SCOTLAND. "6JOHN GOODMAN.' The councils of Laud, arch“ This man had most probably taken bishop of Canterbury, by whom neither the oath of allegiance nor Charles was principally directed in of supremacy, yet I question whe- ecclesiastical affairs, aided by his ther many persons who had been own sincere attachment to its disciduly sworn to both these obligations, pline, induced that monarch to atwould have acted in a manner so tempt the introduction of the Lifully evincing their loyalty to their turgy and Canons of the Church of king and their desire to preserve England into Scotland, which cir(even by the sacrifice of their lives) cumstance occasioned the memorathe peace of a country, whose laws ble league and covenant that afterantecedent to the commission of the wards led to the overthrow of both slightest moral offence had not cast monarchy and episcopacy in Great them off (as in this case they had) Britain. As this ill-fated measure as utterly unworthy their protection. has been considered one of the heaYet a catholic, we are told, cannot viest crimes committed by the unforpossibly be a good subject! What tunate Charles, and ranked by the I would simply ask the maintainers patriarchs and tribes of the reformaof this doctrine would they have tion a most diabolical act of tyranny termed the persecuted but submis- and despotism, I shall here shew sive Goodman ?"

that this prince acted in virtue of With these testimonies of the un- his supreme prerogative of Head of paralleled bigotry which marked the the true reformed church of England, ferocious transactions of the leading granted unto him 'in the person of demagogues of those days, ought we his predecessors, by and with the not to blush that men are to be found consent of the councils of the nation, in this enlightened age, who profess and consequently that it could not to be the friends of civil and reli-be an act of tyranny, though it might gious liberty, boasting of these san- be an imprudent one, unless it was guinary deeds of their ancestors, and accompanied with despotic proceedstyling them glorious struggles for ings, which does not appear to have liberty of conscience ? Surely, if been the case. When the two houses they were animated with a sense of of parliament in 1534 conferred upon true patriotism, their cheeks would Henry the title of the only supreme tinge with shame at the recital of head on earth of the church of Engthese facts, and they would feel more land, they consequently granted to inclined to throw the veil of oblivion him and his successors a power over su'ch unhallowed dealings, than visit and repress, reform, restrain, or hold them up, as they now do, as amend all errors, heresies, abuses, worthy the praise and admiration of and enormities, which fell under any the people!' To enumerate even a spiritual authority or jurisdiction; . ORTHOD, JOUR. VOL. V.


66 to

and in 1543, it was further enact- / and by being corrupted, may mar all ed, that nothing should be taught the tree: and that there be some contrary to the king's instructions, fault finders with the order of the under pain of death. This parlia- clergie, which so may make a slanment too, after confirming the act of der to myself and the church, whose the six articles, granted liberty to overlooker God hath inade me, whose the king to change this act or any negligence cannot be excused, if

any proviso in it. So that, says Mr. schisms or errors heretical were sufEchard, “it brought the reformers fered. Thus much I must say, that wholly to depend on the king's mer- some faults and negligences may cy for their lives; since he could now grow and be, as in all other great chain up or let loose the act of the changes it hapneth, and what vocasix articles upon then at his plea- tion without ?

All which, if

you, sure." Thus, under pretence of my lords of the clergie, do not amend, emancipating the nation from the I minde to depose you, looke you chains of a supposed spiritual slatherefore well to your charges......I very, since by the first article of see many over-bold with God AlMagna Charta, the church was de- mighty, making too many subtil scanclared to be free, the legislators es- nings of his holy will, as lawyers do tablished an unheard-of system of ar- with human testaments : the

prebitrary and despotic power, by grant- sumption is so great as I may not ing to the reigning monarch a control suffer it, (yet minde I do not hereby over the conscience of every indivi. animate romanists, which what ene. dual in the realm. Such was the au- mies they be to mine estate is suffici. thority granted to the first head of ently known) nor tolerate new fanthe English church ; nor were the glednesse. I mean to guide them pretensions of the she pope Eliza- both by God's true rule,” &c. beth, or the obsequiousness of her The reader will here see that this parliaments, less conspicuous in re- lady, whose reign has been denomi. trenching the liberty of the subject nated by the patriots of Westminster, than those of her brutal father.-By no longer since than the 13th of the records of her reign we are in- last February, a bright period of our formed that she established a commis- history, and her conduct recommendsion, consisting of forty-four mem-ed by them, in an address to the rebers, any three of whom were autho- gent, as worthy his imitation, rised to exercise the power of the sumed an exclusive right of governwhole, which extended over the entire ing the consciences of her subjects in kingdom, and over all orders of men, spirituals, without any demur on the without being subject to any control. part of her parliament, and can we Thus the lives and property of her then be surprised that either James, subjects were placed at the disposal or his son Charles, her successors, of her supremacyship, and how far should assert the same prerogative, she carried her notions of the au- especially as the English parliaments thority conferred by it, will best be of the latter sovereign were conseen by the following extract of a stantly complaining to him, as one speech she delivered to both houses of the great grievances of the nation, of parliament on the 29th of March, of the innovations daily made in the 1585:--"My lords, and ye of the true religion, and the consequent lower house..... One matter toucheth dangers of the church? If the conme so neere, as I may not overskip : duct of the strugglers for liberty-ofreligion, the ground on which all conscience meritorious and other matters ought to take roote, praise-worthy in petitioning the king



to strangle, banish, mulct, and im• was directed in his councils by men prison, the professors of popery, for who were better practised in the the preservation of true religion and the pleasures of a court than in the a young parliament church; how art of governing. Hehad tosustain can the sanie individuals, who extol the factious turbulence of disconthese proceedings of their patriotic tented demagogues; and because he ancestors, condemn Charles, for thought to silence their clamours by merely desiring to introduce the doc- coercing a few of the riogleaders, trines and discipline of this church and had recourse to extraordinary among the Scots, uninfluenced by measures to raise supplies for the nepains and penalties. --Episcopacy, it cessities of the state, which his pare is to be observed, was not then abo. liament refused to grant him, his lished in Scotland; and it does not memory is cursed as the tyrant and appear that the introduction of the oppressor of his country, and his liturgy and canons of the church of whole family partake of a share England was accompanied by any in the odium. - So inconsistent, of the bloody laws passed against po- so blind, so infatuated is a nation pery. Had Charles indeed imitated which has swerved from the princi. the conduct of his maiden prede- ples of truth and integrity. If cessor; had he established a similar Charles was a tyrant, it arose from commission in Scotland to that form the new prerogative granted by the ed by Elizabeth in England ; had he reformation, and not from any dessent the halter and the faggot into potic propensities of his mind. It the former kingdom along with his was the system then, and not the proclamations; had he roasted a few sovereign; it was the bigotry and of the refractory ringleaders, the blindness of the people, and not the same as Elizabeth did the puritans capriciousness of the monarch, which of her days, episcopacy might still drenched the nation with the best have flourished in North Britain, and blood of her people, and overturned . Charles have died a natural death : a constitution under which our cabut it was otherwise ordained. The tholic forefathers enjoyed the bles. unpitying Elizabeth, who spared sings of true liberty during the space not the blood of her subjects, was of several centuries. assisted in her councils by the most Echard says, that one of the main crasty politicians and abandoned causes which occasioned the failure villains, who kept the people in con- of the introduction of the English tinual alarm with sham popish plots, liturgy into Scotland and fomented in order to cover their avaricious the rebellion, was the improper exerand mercenary designs in plundering cise of a veto on the part of the the property of the church, and per. crown in the appointment of the secuting the papists yet her reign Scottish prelates. - As some of the is hailed as a glorious era by modern present cabinet ministers are using patriots, and her principal advi-their utmost influence at Rome to sers, Cecil and Walsingham, two as obtain a similar power over the un. great miscreants as ever disgraced spotted hierarchy of Catholic Irethe human form, are termed by the land, in which they are seconded by modern apostle of reform, Major a few misguided sycophants of the Cartwright, the “great, honest and catholic body, I shall here insert independent counsellors,” of this that historiani's account of the evil queen. - The compassionate Charles, consequences arising from court inwho was more desirous of sparing trigue in spiritual concerns, in the than spilling the blood of his people, I hope it may work conviction on the

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minds of some at least of those de projected veto on the catholic preJuded individuals of our body, who lacy in Ireland. -- The candidate are desirous of surrendering the in- would not be selected, as he now is, dependence of the church of Christ for his zeal and devotion to the prininto the hands of government.-Alciples of his church, but for the deluding to the activity of the puritan gree of interest he could bring to his party to bring the episcopalian esta patrons. Thus corruption and weakblishment into contempt among the

ness would soon worm itself into people, Mr. Echard says, 67 The that hitherto spotless race of die bishops gave frequent advantages to vines; divisions would ensue, and their adversaries, particularly by jealousies arise; the esteem of the the want of harmony and union people would be lost by the negliamong themselves; which chiefly gence of the shepherd; and the flock proceeded from the different mea- would become an easy prey to the sures taken by the father and the devouring wolves.-Religion abanson in their promotion, king James doned, the people would become viand king Charles. It had been the tiated, and we should have to mourn custom of the former, when a

the destruction of the catholic church bishopric fell void, to appoint the of Ireland and the remaining liberarchbishop of St. Andrew's to con- ties of the people in the nineteenth vene the rest of the bishops, who no-century, as the episcopalians of Enga minated three or four of the best land and Scotland lamented the qualified men in the nation, out of overthrow of theirs in the sevenwhich list the king fixed upon one, teenth. May the vetoists take a whom he preferred to the dignity. lesson from past times, aud retract By which means, the most worthy the dangerous opinions they have ima men were advanced during his reign. bibed on this all important subject. ....But Charles unhappily followed another method, and without any TERMS OF THE COVENANT-RESULT consultation with the bishops, pre

PROPOSITIONS. ferred men according to their in

If the wishes of Charles to restore terest at court.... These new bishops dignity and splendour to public worwere far short of the wisdom and ship occasioned his fanatic enemies experience of the elder, and none to accuse him of encouraging popery, was generally esteemed qualified for the appearance of the proclamation the office......Now these, having no in 1637, in favour of the new liturgy, obligations to the old bishops for failed not to enkindle their passions, their preferments, became independ which soon broke out into open tuent of their seniors, and kept up a

mult and rebellion. Seditious assoseparate correspondence among them- ciations were formed throughout selves; and happening to gain an io. Scotland, in wbich fanaticism was timacy with archbishop Laud, it oc- mingled with faction, and private incasioned him to procure to himself a terest with republican fury; the most power from the king to prescribe impious and infiammatory barangues rules to the old bishops, which they were delivered from the pulpits never well approved or countenanc- against those who favoured the new ed, These bishops, not knowing service, and the wbole kingdom was the wisest use of their power, or thius agitated to a degree of mad, the true temper of the people, gra- In this state of things was the dually lost the esteem of the nation, famous league and covenant formed, and that upon several accounts.”- which breathed the most acrimonious The same would be the effect of the and determined hostility against pos




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