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6. " Essay for the Press." 1712, 8vo. p. 8.

7.

"Mr. Asgill's Defence upon his Expulsion." | culed. 1712, 8vo. p. 87.

8. "Mr. Asgill's Extract of the several Acts of Parliament for settling the Succession of the Crown." 1714, 8vo. p. 24. Published also with another titlepage: "Mr. Asgill's Apology."

9. "The Pretender's Declaration abstracted." 1714, 8vo. p. 46.

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History of Three Pretenders." 1714, 8vo. 10. "Succession of the House of Hanover vindicated." 1714, 8vo. p. 75.

11. "Pretender's Declaration englished." 1715, 8vo. p. 24.

1716,

12. Pretender's Declaration transposed." 8vo. p. 19.

13. "A Question upon Divorce." 1717, 8vo. p. 20. 14. "An Abstract of the Public Funds." 1716, 4to. p. 32.

15. Essay on the Nature of the Kingdom of God within us.' 1718, 8vo. p. 24.

""

LINES ON THE EARL OF CRAWFORD. These lines on the Earl of Crawford occur in a volume of poems by W. Bewick, B.A., the second edition of which was printed at Newcastle-on-Tyne

Published also with a new title-page: in 1752. I have copied them in case the editor

may think them worthy of insertion in "N. & Q." They may perhaps be interesting to the noble author of Lives of the Lindsays.

16. "The complicated Question divided upon the Bill relating to Peerage." 1719, 8vo. p. 18.

17. "Brief Answer to a brief State of the Question between the printed and painted Calicoes and the Woollen and Silk Manufactures." 1719, 8vo. p. 22.

18. "The British Merchant; or a Review of the Trade of Great Britain." Published in Numbers. No. I., Nov. 10, 1719.

19. "Computation of the Advantages saved to the Public by the South Sea Scheme." 1721, 8vo. p. 24.

20. "Extract of the Act passed 11 Geo. I., for the Relief of Insolvent Debtors; with Remarks, and a Postscript concerning Taxes." 1729, 8vo. p. 32.

21. "The Metamorphosis of Man. Part I." 2nd edit. 1729, 8vo. p. 288.

22. "

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Asgill upon Woolston." 8vo. 1730, p. 36. 23. Essay upon Charity." 8vo. 1731, p. 18. 24. "Mr. Asgill's Case." Broadside, N. D. Folio. 25. "Mr. Holland's Answer to Mr. Asgill's Case replied to." Broadside folio. N. D.

of Asgill's style, Dr. Davenant is severely ridiJAMES CROSSLEY.

The last two were issued in 1707, and were replied to in two broadsides: Reasons humbly offered by Mr. Holland against Mr. Asgill; and Mr. Holland's Answer to Mr. Asgill's Case.

Of the Tracts enumerated only Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. are included in the 8vo. with the title: A Collection of Tracts written by John Asgill, Esq. 1715, 8vo.

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Mr. Asgill's Congratulatory Letter to the Lord Bishop of Sarum (Burnet), 1713, 8vo., is not written by him.

The two best imitations of Asgill's style which I have seen are, A Letter to the People, to be left for them at the Bookseller's; with a Word or Two of the Bandbox Plot. 1712, 8vo. p. 15. Written by Tom. Burnet. And that in the Examiner, vol iii. No. 6., probably by Oldisworth.

To the list of Asgill's writings may, I think, also be added, though his name does not appear to it, Dr. Davenant's Prophecies, 1713, 8vo.; in the introduction to which, which bears all the marks

"ON THE RIGHT HONOURABLE JOHN EARL OF CRAWFORD, AND HIS VALOUR AT THE BATTLE OF GROTZKA.

"Descended from a family as good

As Scotland boasts, and from right ancient blood:
You are the ornament of all your race,

The splendour, and the glory, and their praise:
What courage you have shown, illustrious Scot!
In future ages will not be forgot :
When wicked infidels came crowding on
With horsetails mov'd, and crescents of the moon ;
With frightful regiments of foot and horse,
In dreadful numbers, and with mighty force;
With proud Bashaws, by Sultan's high command,
With flaming scimiters in nervous hand,
In Hungar plains against the Christian host,
At Grotzka, when the fatal day was lost,
You stood undaunted in the bloody field,
Withstood their fury, and disdain'd to yield,
Amidst the clouds of smoke, when bullets shower'd,
Amidst loud thunders, when dread cannons roar'd,
You with a courage like a Lindsay fought,
Shunn'd not the enemy, but danger sought;
Till crowding numbers overpowering you,
And fainting with your wounds, you weary grew;
When wounded much, and ready to be kill'd,
Amidst your foes, they forced you off the field.

Who can the hero blame, when he has done
His best in battle, and is left alone :
Whose noble courage had sustain'd the test,
By crowding numbers of the foe opprest,
Choked in his blood, wounds flaming in his breast.
Thus when the news came spreading through the main,
The dismal news of noble Crawford slain
When such unhappy tidings touch'd our ears
How pallid were our looks, with sudden fears.
How much did we suspect the doubtful truth,
Believing we had lost the warlike youth;
Whose peerless loss would Britons nearly touch,
The loss of one whom George affects so much :
Which to his country had much dearer been,
Than if a thousand others had been slain.
But Providence the wounded much did save,
And back again our noble Crawford gave;
But not without returning deadly blows,
And that with justice on his wicked foes.
Such was the courage of our British lord;
He pistol'd or he cut them down with sword,
And had but others equal courage shown,
The day which fatal was had been their own."

E. II.A.

SIR HENRY WOTTON'S LETTER TO MILTON.

Most lovers of Comus have often read with interest Sir H. Wotton's "Letter to Milton," which is in many editions prefixed. The initials M. B. refer to Michael Brainthwaite, who succeeded Wotton at Venice; and S. refers to the young Lord Scudamore, whose father resided at Paris as ambassador for King Charles I. Todd rightly suggests, from an old MS. note, that H. must have been John Hales of Eton (the "memorable"), and not Samuel Hartlib, as Thomas Warton had supposed.

It is strange that I too possess a copy of the third edition of Wotton's Reliquia (London, 1672), with many MS. notes in an old and scholarlike hand.

In said volume, H. is likewise filled up Hales; and we know that Wotton speaks of Hales as a Bibliotheca Ambulans (Rel., p. 475.); that he rejoiced when Archbishop Laud preferred him to a prebendaryship of Windsor (Ib. p. 369.); that they lived together on most intimate terms; and that, finally, Hales attended Wotton in his dying moments (Walton's Life of Sir H. W. ad calcem). Indeed (unless I mistake) Samuel Hartlib had not settled in England at this time, so that we may put him out of the question for ever.

To me the mysterious part of Wotton's "Letter to Milton," seems to lie in the initials "R" and "the late Rs poems." And I should be very glad

to know how far Thomas Warton's observations upon them could stand the lynx-eyed scrutiny of MR. CROSSLEY, or some of your other correspondents. Why the first R. must necessarily mean John Rouse of the Bodleian (though Milton did honour him at a later period with some Latin verses), or the second R. Thomas Randolph, the adopted son of Ben. Jonson, I am unable to perceive.

Warton is wrong in saying that it appears from his monument, which he had seen in Blatherwycke Church, Northamptonshire, that Randolph had died on the 17th of March, 1634. His monument contains no date whatsoever. I visited the abovementioned church on the 17th of June ult., with the express purpose of seeing the last restingplace, or the last memorial, of one who, however unfortunate himself, was, in Warton's note at all events, associated with Milton's Comus, and send the inscription verbatim.

Wood tells us that Randolph died in March 1634, at the house of William Stafford of Blatherwycke, and that he was buried on the 17th day of the same month "in an ile joining to B. Church, among the Stafford family." In this he is followed by the Biographia Britannica, from whence, as well as from Wood, I learn that the author of the inscription was Randolph's friend Peter Hanstead of Cambridge. The tablet on which it is written is of white marble, erected at the expense of Sir

Christopher Hatton, and attached to one of the pillars; and the inscription is given, but not very accurately, in Bridge's Northamptonshire (vol. ii. p. 280., Oxford, 1791, fol.). I transcribed for myself as follows:

"Memoriæ Sacrum Thome Randolphi (dum inter pauciores) Fælicissimi et facillimi ingenii Juvenis necnon majora promittentis si fata virum non invidissent sæculo.

Here sleepe thirteene
Together in one tombe,

And all these greate, yet quarrell not for rome:
The Muses and ye Graces teares did meete
And grav'd these letters on ye churlish sheete,
Who having wept their fountaines drye
Through the conduit of the eye,
For their freind who here does lye,
Crept into his grave and dyed,
And soe the Riddle is untyed.

For wch this Church, proud yt the Fates bequeath
Unto her ever honour'd trust

Soe much and that soe precious dust, Hath crown'd her Temples with an Iuye wreath, Wch should have Laurelle beene But yt the grieved plant to see him dead Tooke pet and withered.

Cujus cineres brevi hac (qua potuit) imortalitate donat Christopherus Hatton, Miles de Balneo et Musarū amator, illius vero (quem deflemus) supplendâ carminibus quæ marmoris et æris scandalum manebunt perpetuum." RT.

Warmington.

FOLK LORE.

Cure for the Ague. About a mile from Berkhampstead, in Hertfordshire, on a spot where two roads cross each other, are a few oak trees called cross oaks. Here aguish patients used to resort, and peg a lock of their hair into one of these oaks, then, by a sudden wrench, transfer the lock from their heads to the tree, and return home with the full conviction that the ague had departed with the severed lock. Persons now living affirm they have often seen hair thus left pegged into the oak, for one of these trees only was endowed with the healing power. The frequency of failure, however, to cure the disease, and the unpleasantness of the operation, have entirely destroyed the popular faith in this remedy; but that expedients quite as absurd and superstitious, and even more disgusting, are still practised to remove diseases, is fully proved by several instances recorded in "N. &Q."

And here I must express, what will be considered by some of its readers an extraordinary opinion, that education alone has not, and will not, expel superstition. It may change its character, but it will not rid the mind of its baneful in

fluence. Superstition, I believe, may be proved to be perfectly independent of education, as it exists almost equally among the highly educated and the most ignorant, while persons from both these classes may be found equally free from its degrading trammels. A work designed to illustrate this fact or opinion would be extremely interesting and instructive, and I shall be glad to hear that some able person has entered on such an undertaking. The folk lore of " N. & Q." will be very useful, and may be made more so towards the accomplishment of this object, if instances of superstitious notions and practices among the higher classes, and they abound, be also included. I am prepared to contribute some instances, and I shall do it the more readily when a definite and useful object is known to be in view. W. H. K.

Weather Prophecy (Vol. v., p. 534.).-I have heard the very same prophecy in Sweden, where it is said never to fail. This summer the oak has come out before the ash in Aberdeenshire, which I beg thus to place on record. G. J. R. G.

Ellen Castle, Aberdeenshire.

PRINTER'S ERRORS IN THE INSEPARABLE PARTICLES IN SHAKSPEARE.

Among the most frequent causes of obscurity in the text of the old editions, this stands pre-eminent. The instances are many and manifold. Two passages in the play of King Lear have occurred to me, which need, I think, only be pointed out to carry conviction even to the most rigid stickler for the integrity of the old copies.

In Act II. Sc. 1., where Edmund misrepresents to his father his encounter with his brother Edgar, he says: "Full suddenly he fled." On which Gloucester exclaims:

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Theobald proposed to read, "a new and trimmed bride." And Dr. Richardson, in his excellent Dictionary, suggests that untrimmed was a mere correader of our early drama is so much indebted, ruption of entrimmed. MR. DYCE, to whom every informs me that he hastily fell into the views of the commentators regarding the meaning of untrimmed, but that he is now convinced it is here simply an error of the printer for uptrimmed; a mistake easily made at press. Trimmed up, and decked up, were the current phrases applied to a bride dressed for her nuptials. We have both phrases in Romeo and Juliet: Capulet says to the nurse,

"Go waken Juliet, go and trim her up.” He had previously said to his wife:

"Go thou to Juliet, help to deck her up,” It is satisfactory, by such a simple and undoubted correction, to get rid of heaps of idle babble and verbiage about a word that the poetcertainly never wrote, and certainly never conceived, with the meaning that some of the commentators would give to it. This will be evident from a passage in his eighteenth sonnet : "And every fair from fair sometimes declines, By chance, on Nature's changing course, untrimm'd.” S. W. SINGER.

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DR. CUMMING ON ROMANS VIII.

I cannot pretend to any acquaintance with Dr. Cumming's works, which appear to be at present very popular, and am therefore unable to say

whether a passage in one of them, which has just been brought under my notice, be a fair sample of the whole; but it is, at all events, so curious in a literary point of view as to deserve some public notice.

The volume is entitled, Voices of the Night, Seventh Thousand, 1852; and the subject of the sermon or chapter in which the passage occurs is, "Nature's Travail and Expectancy" (Rom. viii. 19-22.). On this, then, Dr. Cumming discourses as follows (pp. 158–9.) :

"The celebrated German poet and philosopher Goethe, who lived and died a sceptic, and whose testimony, therefore, was not meant to confirm that of the Bible, has said, 'When I stand all alone at night in open nature, I feel as though nature were a spirit, and begged redemption of me.' .. And again, he says, 'Often, often have I had the sensation as if nature, in wailing sadness, entreated something of me; so that not to understand what she longed for, has cut me to the very heart.'. But I present another witness-that of a great and good man. Martin Luther says: Albeit the creature hath not speech such as we have, it hath a language still, which God the Holy Spirit heareth and understandeth. How nature groaneth for the wrong it must endure from those who so misuse and abuse it!' Here we have the sceptic Goethe and the eminent Christian Luther concurring in the same thing. And the poet who is supposed to tread nearest to the inspired, says very beautifully:

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To begin with the latter part of this extract. The reader may perhaps ask, Who is "the poet who is supposed to tread nearest to the inspired?" I cannot tell who may have been in Dr. Cumming's mind; but the verses were really written by an excellent friend of mine, quite unknown to the world as a poet; and are to be found at p. 298. of a translation of Olshausen On the Epistle to the Romans, which was published by Messrs. Clark, of Edinburgh, in 1849. I do not think that Dr. Cumming has improved them by substituting the words in Italics for those which I have restored within brackets, or by his changes in the punctuation, one of which turns the substantive yearning into a participle, while another makes an adjective

of the adverb still. And I am unable to imagine how he can have been led to attribute them to any celebrated writer, since the translator of Olshausen very sufficiently intimates that they are of his own composition.

Next, I have to remark that for the quotations from "the sceptic Goethe and the eminent Christian Luther," as also for another quotation from the latter (p. 145.), and for very much besides, Dr. Cumming is indebted to Olshausen, whose name he never condescends to mention, although at pp. 134-5. he parades a host of other commentators, including Chrysostom, Jerome, Theodoret, and almost all the ancient fathers, with scarcely a single exception."

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Lastly, the words which are fathered on Goethe are not his. Olshausen (Germ. iii. 314., Eng. 284.) gives a reference to Goethe's Briefwechsel mit einem Kinde, and introduces them as something which "Bettina writes." Dr. Cumming would seem never to have heard of the Correspondence, and to have mistaken Bettina for a creature of the poet's imagination; but, if so, was it quite fair to tell his hearers and readers that the words supposed to be put into her mouth were the expression of Goethe's personal feeling? J. C. ROBERTSON. Bekesbourne.

PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSMUTATION OF SPECIES.

I think it is high time that experiments, conducted on scientific principles, should be made on the transmutation of species in the vegetable kingdom. The fact of such transmutation, if not cer tain, appears to be the only solution of several remarkable phenomena already brought to light. It is now a matter of fact, capable of easy experiment, that if oats be sown in the spring, and be kept topped during the summer and autumn (without wounding the leaves), a crop of rye makes its appearance at the close of the summer of the following year. An analogous fact, equally well known, though not so significant, is the seeds of an immense number of flowers and trees invariably give birth to varieties apparently distinct from their parent plants. (For instance, the dahlia, laburnum, and fuchsia.) But the fact I wish to introduce to your pages is one quite as remarkable as the first I have mentioned. It is this. If a stock of yellow laburnum (Cytisus laburnum) be grafted upon the common purple laburnum (Cytisus Alpinus), the resulting tree frequently bears three distinct species of Cytisus, viz.:

I. And abundantly, the purple laburnum.
II. More sparely, the yellow laburnum.

III. Still more sparingly, a beautiful plant, known by the name of the purple Cytisus, but specifically distinct, and in appearance totally different from a laburnum.

I beg to give you three references as a voucher of the fact. Mr. Cowdrey, the florist, who has large nursery gardens at Edgbaston, near Birmingham, has one specimen, with the history of which he is personally acquainted: no graft of the purple Cytisus has touched this tree. Mr. Holcombe of Valentines, near Ilford, has another specimen ; and in my father's plantations at Kingsheath, near Birmingham, there are four trees of purple laburnum grafted on stocks of yellow laburnum; and of these, two have put forth the purple Cytisus in

abundance.

Let no one imagine that the purple Cytisus is merely a variety of the purple laburnum. It is, as I have said, specifically distinct. Its flowers do not grow in racemes, as in the two laburnums, but are on short footstalks all along the branch, with a very peculiar and small foliage springing from the same points of the branch. This fact can leave the problem of changes of species into species no longer of doubtful solution. Perhaps this note may lead to others of more scientific research. Surely a series of well-digested experiments would not merely confirm the facts already known, but lead to a rationale of the presumed transmutation. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Minor Notes.

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Apuleius on Mesmerism.—I transcribe the folowing passage, which I have just met with in Apuleius, as a very early allusion to Mesmerism: Quin et illud mecum reputo, posse animum humanum, præsertim puerilem et simplicem seu carminum avocamento, sive odɔrum delenimento, soporari, et ad oblivionem præsentium externari; et paulisper remota corporis memoriâ, redigi ac redire ad naturam suam, quæ est immortalis scilicet et divina: atque ita, veluti quodam sopore, futura rerum præsagire."- Apuleius, Apol. 475. Delph. ed. RECHABITE. The Domiciliary Clause. In 1547 a proclamation was issued by Henry VIII., "that all women should not meet together to babble and talk, and that all men should keep their wives in their houses." ALIQUIS. Transmission of Ancient Usages. -To the derivation of certain customs and usages from the East via Gades or Cadiz, as in the case of the address "uncle" in Andalusia and Cornwall, and the clouted cream in Syria and Cornwall, may be added the use, in the same county, of a lock without wards actually now to be seen sculptured on the great temple of Karnac, in Egypt, too plainly to be mistaken. The principle is similar to that in one of Bramah's locks. Mr. Trevelyan some years ago brought this fact to the notice of the Royal Institution. The principle is not easily explained without an engraving. The voyages of Hamilcar

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and others to this part of England for tin is in this way remarkably corroborated, independently of that resemblance in domestic implements, and those of personal use, both in ancient and modern times, which may be traced in the antiquities collected in the British Museum. C. REDDING.

Inscription on an Oak Chest.—I copy the following inscription from the lid of an old oak chest, measuring four feet eight inches and a half long, and two feet three inches and a half broad. The words are taken from Isaiah, chap. i. ver. 16, 17.:

"1.5.9.1.

CEASE.TO.DO.EVILL. LEARNE.TO.DO.GOOD SEKE.TO.DO.RIGHT. RELIVE.THE. POORE"

The letters, it may be observed, are formed by brass-headed nails driven into the wood, in exactly the same manner as trunkmakers do at the present day, to ornament their boxes. It is the property of the Coopers' Company, and, from the spirit of the legend, I should say that it was formerly used to hold the documents relating to the various charities of which the Company are trustees. A. W.

Kilburn.

The Raising of Charles I.'s Standard at Nottingham. — The frontispiece to Cattermole's Civil War represents a forlorn group of men, women, and children, watching the fixing into the ground of a large flag, which a soldier is seeking to strengthen by stakes driven round the base of the flagstaff. Surely this is not a correct delineation of that event? Rushworth, it is true, says the standard was fixed in an open field at the back side of the castle wall; but the common opinion, that its position was rather the summit of one of the old turrets of the castle, receives confirmation from a source little known to the public, viz. the memoranda of the antiquary, John Aubrey. In a letter sent to him by Sherrington Talbot (of Laycock?), who was present at the "raising," the writer says that he saw the flag "lying horizontally on the tower; this horizontal position being occasioned by the tempest which, it need hardly be added, cast the standard down almost as soon as erected. J. W.

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Queries.

REMARKABLE EXPERIMENTS.

A living man, lying on a bench, extended as a corpse, can be lifted with ease by the forefingers of two persons standing on each side, provided the lifters and the liftee inhale at the moment the effort is being made. If the liftee do not inhale, he cannot be moved off the bench at all; but the inhalation of the lifters, although not essential, seems to give additional power.

The fact is undeniable. I have never met with

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