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14. Animo vultuque.] It is not necessary to explain this as a hendiadis. 'Animus' denotes the frame of mind which inclines a person to the usual manifestations of grief, 'vultus,' its expression in the countenance. Domitian's assumed grief, showed itself not merely in his looks but in his general demean.


15. Securus jam odii.] 'Being now careless of his hatred.' Domitian was now free from the anxiety with which his hatred of Agricola had filled him. Consequently, being at ease in his mind, he could, in spite of his natural irascibility, so far control himself as to exhibit a show of sorrow. This he could not do as long as he was afraid.

16. Coheredem.] This probably implies that Agricola Diade the emperor heir to half his estate.

17. Piissimae.) A form disapproved by writers of the Augustan age. Cicero (Philip. XIII. 19) twits M. Antonius with having used it in reference to Lepidus.

18. Velut honore judicioque.) '(he was greatly pleased) as if it were a compliment and a free choice. Domitian in this instance followed the example of such emperors as Caligula and Nero, to the latter of whom Prasutagus, king of the Iceni, and husband of Boadicea, paid the same compliment with the same hope as Agricola, See Ann. XIV. 31. Comp. also Ann. XVI. II, where L. Vetus, one of Nero's victims, is advised magna ex parte Caesarem haeredem nuncupare, atque ita nepotibus de reliquo consulere. Domitian, who at first refused to receive any legacies from those who had children, would afterwards claim a deceased person's estate on the slightest evidence. See Suet. Dom. 9, 12. Pliny (Paneg. 43) speaks of the security of our wills’as one of the happy features of Trajan's reign. For judicio' comp. Suet. Octav. 66, where it is said of Augustus, that, though he refused to accept any legacy from strangers, amicorum tamen suprema judicia morosissime pensitavit.


CHAPTER XLIV, 1. Decentior.] ‘Decens' denotes grace and symmetry of figure. The French translator Louandre thus renders the passage; Sa taille était bien proportionnée sans être haute. Nihil metus in vultu.] So Orelli and Wex. The

One has nihil metus et impetus, which can hardly be the true reading, though Kritz adopts it. 'Metus' here, as elsewhere, denotes that which causes fear. Comp. Quintil. Instit. VI. 2, 21 metum duplicem intelligi volo, quem patimur, et quem facimus. Possibly a contrast may be intended between Agricola and Domitian whom Pliny (Paneg. 48) describes as 'visu terribilis.'

MSS. vary.

3. Gratia oris supererat.) 'A gracious expression predominated' (Cand B). Súperesse has a similar meaning ch. 45, omnia......superfuere honori tuo. Comp. also Germ. 6, ne ferrum quidem superest, and 26, superest ager.

4. Integrae aetatis.] A phrase answering to our expression “the prime of life.”

5. Quantum ad gloriam.). As regards glory.” Comp. Germ. ch. 21, quantum ad jus hospitis.

6. Impleverat.] • He had fully attained.' Comp. Ann. XIV. 54, uterque mensuram implevimus, and Plin. Epp. II. 1, 2, perfunctus est tertio consulatu ut summum fastigium privati hominis impleret.

7. Triumphalibus ornamentis.) See ch. 40, note 1.

8. Opibus nimiis non gaudebat.] 'Excessive wealth he did not possess. Kritz' interpretation; he did not set a value

on,' &c.

9. Speciosae.] Sc. sufficient wealth to make a handsome appearance.

10. Filia...superstitibus.] Wex reads filiae, uxori and connects them with the preceding 'speciosae contigerant.' His reason for so doing, that Agricola could not be pronounced happy because his daughter and wife survived him and were thus destined to see the evil days which he escaped, seems far-fetched. It must have been at least a comfort to him, as pointed out in the next chapter, to have had his wife by his side during his last illness.

II. Nam sicuti...ominabatur.] Ritter's emendation of this passage (which he accomplishes by substituting quondam for quod) appears to be the simplest, and we have (with Kritz) adopted it. We think too Kritz is right in reading hanc lucem for hac luce, as this is the regular construction with durare. There is, it must be admitted, considerable difficulty about the expression

durare ominabatur,' which may however be compared with a passage in Hist. I. 50, erant qui Vespasianum et arma Orientis augurarentur. It may too be justified by the fact that sperare, a similar word, is occasionally construed with the present infinitive. According to Dio, LXIX. 12 (and Plin. Paneg. 5, 94), Trajan's elevation was foretold two years before Agricola's death, and to this Tacitus perhaps refers in 'augurio.' Or we may render Trajanum' by our expression 'a Trajan.' 'Augurio votisque ominabatur' is equivalent to 'augurabatur et vehementer optabat.'

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12. Grande solatium tulit.] 'Solatium ferre' may be a similar expression to 'palmam ferre' (where ferre is for referre), in which case.solatium'must be rendered by 'compensation.' Or (as Wex takes it) it may mean, 'he brought us great consolation for his premature death,' &c. &c.

13. Spiramenta). Sc. ' pauses.'

14. Uno ictu.] So Caligula was said to have wished that the Roman people had one neck, that he might have destroyed them at a blow. Comp. Senec. de Ira, Ill. 19.

15. Rem publicam exhausit.] ‘Drained the life-blood of the state :' or 'exhausit' may be used as 'hausisse' in Hist. I. 41, 'to inflict a deadly wound,' jugulum ejus hausisse.





Non vidit etc.) There is a marked resemblance between this passage and Cic. de Orat. III. 2, Non vidit (L. Crassus) flagrantem bello Italiam, non ardentem invidia senatum, non sceleris nefarii principes civitatis reos.

Obsessam...senatum.] These words point to some one occurrence, of which we know nothing from any other source. It appears from Ann. XVI. 27, that Nero intimidated the senate in a similar fashion.

3. Consularium caedes.) Suetonius (Domit. x.) gives a list of these murders, with the frivolous causes which provoked them. Among them were Civica Cerialis, proconsul of Asia ; Sallustius Lucullus, governor of Britain ; Salvius Cocceianus, nephew of the Emperor Otho; Junius Rusticus; the younger Helvidius, &c. &c.

4. Nobilissimarum feminarum.] Among these were Gratilla, the wife of Arulenus Rusticus; Arria, the wife of Thrasea ; Faunia, his daughter, who twice accompanied her husband into exile, and was a third time banished on his account. See Plin. Epp. III. 11, VII. 19.

5. Una adhuc victoria censebatur.] 'As yet (at the time of Agricola’s death) by one and only one victory was Carus Metius distinguished.' 'Censeri' is equivalent to 'aestimari,' and its precise meaning is that Metius's power for mischief was as yet estimated by but one successful information. It is thus used Dial. 39, ejusmodi libri extant ut ipsi quoque qui egerunt non aliis magis orationibus censeantur, and Plin. Paneg. 15, quisquis paullo vetustior miles, hic te commilitone censetur. The name of the notorious "delator' Caius Metius meets us Plin. Epp. VII. 19, 5, VII. 27, 14, Juv. I. 35, Mart. XII. 25. 5.

6. Albanam arcem.] This was one of Domitian's country seats. It was under the Alban Mount, and was 17 miles from Rome. Tacitus, as also Juvenal, iv. 145, terms it'arx,' to imply that it was a kind of centre and stronghold of imperial tyranny. Dio, LXVII. I, describes it as the emperor's arpóroles. It was here that he convoked the 'pontifices' to pass sentence of death on the Vestal, Cornelia. See Plin. Epp. IV. II. Not till the emperor's later years were the counsels (sententia) of Messalinus (whom Juvenal, iv. 115, describes as Grande et conspicuum nostro quoque tempore monstrum) heard beyond its walls.

7. Massa Baebius.] See Hist. IV. 50, and Plin. Ep. III. 4, VI. 29, VII. 33. He was impeached by the province of Baetica where he had been procurator,

8. Nostrae... manus.] Sc. the hands of us senators, of whom Tacitus at this time was one.

9. Nos Maurici Rusticique, &c. &c.] Wex, to avoid the somewhat bold zeugma in the passage as it stands, reads from the margin of one of the Vatican MSS. Nos Mauricum Rusticumque divisimus. This is a mere conjecture. Understand after visus' some such word as 'perculit' or 'afflixit.' The zeugma seems not too harsh for Tacitus.

1o., Quum suspiria nostra subscriberentur.] When our sighs were made matter of accusation. Subscribere (properly 'to sign one's name under that of the plaintiff or accuser') is continually used by the best writers as equivalent to accusare, and 'indices' or accusatores' are also termed 'subscriptores.' Quintilian, XII. 8. 8, has the expression subscribere audita (to make what has been heard the subject of a charge).

11. Denotandis tot hominibus palloribus.] Comp. Ann. III. 53, In hac relatione subtrahi oculos meos melius fuit, ne denotantibus vobis ora ac metum singulorum ipse etiam viderem eos ac velut deprehenderem. Denotare pallores is to mark out with a view to destruction the men whose faces are beginning to turn pale; and the word 'denotare' answers to 'designare,' which is used in a similar way in Cic. Cat. I. 1. 2, notat et designat oculis ad caedem unumquemque postrum. It seems clear that denotare' may be thus understood, and therefore Wex’s conjecture, denotandis...pallore oribus (which, though probably Latin, strikes us as awkward) is needless. With this passage may be aptly compared Juvenal's description of Domitian's senate (Iv. 74), proceres, In quorum facie miserae magnaeque sedebat Pallor amicitiae.

12. Rubor...muniebat.] The natural redness of Domitian's countenance (of which Pliny, Paneg. 48, and Suetonius, Domit. 18, both speak) rendered him proof against the ordinary manifestation of the feeling of shame. Comp. also Hist. IV. 40, crebra oris confusio pro modestia accipiebatur.


13. Tu vero... mortis.) So Cic. de Orat. III. 3. Ego vero, te, Crasse, quum vitae flore, tum mortis opportunitate divino consilio et ortum et exstinctum esse arbitror.

14. Constans et libens.] With courage and cheerful

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15. Tamquam... donares.] 'As though to the best of thy power thou wert bestowing freedom from guilt on the emperor.' The phrase "pro virili portione' (“parte' and not 'portione' is the word used by writers of the Augustan age) occurs Hist. III. 20, and denotes all that a man can do singly. The expression 'innocentiam donares' seems intended to suggest that the emperor was not really innocent of Agricola's death.

16. Longae absentiae condicione.) 'By the necessity of a long absenoe.' Tacitus is speaking of his own absence from Rome.

17. Paucioribus lacrimis.) Sc. 'with too few tears.'

18. Compositus.] The reading of the MSS. is comploratus.' Compositus, however, is found in the margin of one of the Vatican MSS., and is read by all recent editors except Kritz. It seems a far more suitable word than comploratus,' which savours too much of the noisy lamentations which in the next chapter Tacitus deprecates. Comp. Hist. I. 47, Pisonem Verania uxor et frater...composuere, and Hor. Sat. I. 9, 28, omnes composui.

19. Desideravere aliquid.] 'Longed for something in vain.'


1. Ut sapientibus placet.) "As is believed by philosophers.

2. Infirmo desiderio.) 'Feeble regret,' 'infirmus' denoting what belongs to a morbid state of mind.

3. Lugeri...plangi.] The first word expresses the sentiment of grief, the second its outward manifestations.

4. Quam temporalibus laudibus.] Quam' is due to Ursinus, and is certainly required if 'temporalibus' (which is the reading of the MSS.) be retained. The notion of temporales laudes (transitory praises) is the laudatio funebris,' which would be soon forgotten. This, we believe, is what Tacitus had in his mind. He himself, as Pliny (Epp. II. 1. 6) tells us, pronounced a funeral éloge over Verginius Rufus. Lipsius (whom Ritter follows) substituted from conjecture 'immortalibus' for temporalibus ; but it would hardly have been in good taste Tacitus to apply such an epithet to the present work.

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