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• SCENE 1.—“No kind of traffic,” &c. kind of traffic, no knowledge of letters, no OUR readers are aware that there is in the intelligence of numbers, no name of magistrate British Museum a copy of the Essays of Mon- nor of politic superiority; no use of service, of taigne' translated by Florio, having the auto- riches, or of poverty; no contracts, no succes graph WILLM SHAKSPERE. We subjoin a passage sions, no dividences; no occupation, but idle ; from that volume which shows how familiar no respect of kindred, but common; no apparel, Shakspere was with its contents.
It is an
but natural; no manuring of lands; no use of extract from the thirtieth chapter of the first wine, corn, or metal. The very words that book, describing an imaginary nation of canni- import lying, falsehood, treason, dissimulation, bals :
covetousness, envy, detraction, and pardon, were “Me seemeth that what in those nations we never heard amongst them. How dissonant see by experience doth not only exceed all the would he find his imaginary commonwealth pictures wherewith licentious poesy bath proudly from this perfection !" embellished the golden age, and all her quaint inventions to fain a happy condition of man,
5 SCENE II.—“ Were I in England now," &c. but also the conception and desire of philo- ! It was usual for the Master of the Revels to sophy. They could not imagine a genuitie so license all public shows; and in 1632 there is pure and simple as we see it by experience ; nor an entry in the office-book of Sir Henry Herbert, ever believe our society might be maintained ' "to James Seale to show a strange fish for half a with so little art and human combination. It year.” The engraving below represents a show is a nation, would I answer Plato, that hath no of the same period.
• SCENE II.—“ The picture of Nobody.” dently means no more than straight lines. The NOBODY was a gentleman who figured on ancient passage is explained by the fact of the allusion signs; and, in the anonymous comedy of 'No- being to an artificial maze, sometimes conbody and Somebody,' printed before 1600, he is structed of straight lines (forth-rights), somerepresented as above.
times of circles (meanders). The engraving
exhibits a maze of forth-rights. 7 SCENE III. “ Here's a maze trod, indeed,
Through forth-rights and meanders !”
8 SCENE III.
• SCENE III.—“ Enter Ariel like a harpy." Deu-lapp'd like bulls.”
This circumstance is of course taken from the The engraving above exhibits a sketch re- Æneid' of Virgil. Those who maintain that cently made from a Tyrolese peasant. It is not Shakspere could not read the original send him strange that such an extraordinary appearance to Phaer's translation :of the goitre should in Shakspere's time be
“ Fast to meate we fall. considered as a marvel to be reckoned with But sodenly from down the hills with grisly fall to syght, the phoenix and the unicorn, and with “men The harpies come, and beating wings with great boys out
thei shright, whose heads stood in their breasts."
And at our meate they snatch, and with their clawes, * &e. ACT IV.
Now is the
10 SCENE I.—"Come, hang them on this line.” italics. On the contrary, the tree, in connection MR. HUNTER, in his ‘Disquisition on The with a grove, is printed thus,-Line-grove. Tempest,' has a special heading, “the line- 2nd. Mr. Hunter furnishes no example of the grove." He invites the friend to whom he word line, as applied to a tree, being used withaddresses the Disquisition to accompany him out the adjunct of tree or grove-line-tree, lineto the “cell of Prospero, and to the grove or grove. The quotation which he gives from berry of line-trees by which it was enclosed or Elisha Cole is clear in this matter :—“Lineprotected from the weather.” He adds, “if you tree (tilia), a tall tree, with broad leaves and look for the very word line-grove in any verbal fine flowers.” The other quotation which he index to Shakespeare you will not find it: for gives from Gerard would, if correctly printed, the modern editors, in their discretion, have exhibit the same thing :-". The female line,' chosen to alter the line in which it occurs, and says Gerard, or linden-tree, waxeth very great,'” we now read
&c. But Gerard wrote,
The female line or * In the lime-grove which weather-fends your cell.'".
linden tree waxeth,” &c.; and the word tree as The editors, then, have substituted the more
much belongs to line as to linden.
3rd. Mr. Hunter quotes "some clumsy joking recent name of the tree for the more ancient : but the change had taken place earlier than the about the line, among the clowns as they steal days of the commentators." In Dryden's altera- through the line-grove with the murderous tion of “The Tempest' (edit. of 1676) we have intent;” and he quotes as follows, omitting the above passage, with lime-grove. The effect certain words, which we shall presently give :
“ Ste. Mistress line, is not this my jerkin? of the change, Mr. Hunter says, is this :
jerkin under the line. “When Prospero says to Ariel, who comes in
Trin. We steal by line and level," &c. bringing the glittering apparel, 'Come hang Now the passage really stands thus :them on this line,' he means on one of the
“ Ste. Mistress line, is not this my jerkin? line-trees near his cell, which could hardly
jerkin under the line: now, jerkin, you are like have been mistaken if the word of the original
to lose your hair, and prove a bald jerkin. copies, line-grove, had been allowed to keep its Trin. We steal by line and level," &c. place. But the ear having long been familiar Is not the “clumsy joking” about lose your with lime-grove, the word suggested not the hair, and bald jerkin, of some importance in branches of a tree so called, but a cord-line, getting at the meaning? Steevens has observed and accordingly, when the play is represented, that “the lines on which clothes are hung are such a line is actually drawn across the stage, usually made of twisted horse-hair.” But they and the glittering apparel is hung upon it. were especially so made in Shakspere's day. In Anything more remote from poetry than this a woodcut of twelve distinct figures of trades can scarcely be imagined.”
and callings of the time of James I. (see Smith's This, we admit, is exceedingly ingenious; and Cries of London,' p. 15), and of which there is we were at first disposed, with many others, to a copy in the British Museum, we have the cry receive the theory with an implicit belief. A of “Buy a hair-line!” The “clumsy joking” careful examination of the matter has, however, would be intelligible to an audience accustomed convinced us that the poet had no such inten- to a hair-line. It is not intelligible according tion of hanging the clothes on a line-tree; that to Mr. Hunter's assertion that the word suga clothes-line was destined to this office; and gested a “cord-line." that the players are right in stretching up a 4th. Is it likely that Shakspere would have clothes line. Our reasons are as follow :- made these drunken fellows so knowing in the
1st. When Prospero says “hang them on this peculiarities of trees as to distinguish a line-tree line,”—when Stephano gives his jokes of “mis- from an elm-tree, or a plane-tree? Is it contress line,” and “now is the jerkin under the ceivable that the trees in Prospero's island were line,"—the word “line” has no characteristic so young that clothes could be hung upon their mode of printing, neither with a capital, nor in lower branches ? Are the branches of a line.
Now is the
tree of such a form as to hang clothes upon its place,” the passages in the fourth Act referthem, and to remove them easily? Had not ring to line must have been associated with the the clowns a distinct image in their minds of line-grove of the fifth Act. The poet, we are an old-clothes shop ?
atisfied, had no such association in his mind. “We know what belongs to a frippery." Here is a picture of “a frippery,” from a print
W dated 1587, with its clothes hung in “line and level.” Is not the joke "we steal by line and level" applicable only to a stretched line ?—or is it meaningless? It has the highest approbation of King Stephano.
Lastly, with reference to the clothes-line, when Mr. Hunter says “ Anything more remote from poetry than this can scarcely be imagined,” we answer that the entire scene was intended to be the antagonist of poetry. All the scenes in which Trinculo and Stephano are tricked by Ariel are essentially ludicrous, and, to a certain extent, gross. The "pool" through which they were hunted had none of the poetical attributes about it. It was, compared with a fountain or a lake, as the hair-line to the line-tree. Mr. Hunter contends that, “if the word of the original, line-grove, had been allowed to keep
1 SCENE I.—“ Ye elres of hills.”
Whole wools and forests I remove, I make the mous
tains shake, The invocation of Medea, in Ovid's ‘Metamor
And even the earth itself to groan and fearfully to phoses,' was no doubt familiar to Shakspere quake. when he wrote this passage, and he has used
I call up dead men from their graves, and thee, O lightseveral expressions which we find in Golding's
I darken oft, though beaten brass abate thy peril soon. translation. We subjoin the passage from Our sorcery dims the morning fair, and darks the san at that translation, which Farmer quotes as one of his proofs that Shakspere did not know
The flaming breath of fiery bulls ye quenched for my
sake, the original. The evidence in this as in every And caused their unwieldy necks the bended yoke to other case only goes to show that he knew the translation :
Among the earth-bred brothers you a mortal war did set,
And brought asleep the dragon fell, whose eyes were “Ye airs and winds, ye elves of hills, of brooks, of woods
never shut." alone, of standing lakes, and of the night, approach ye every i 12 SCENE I.—“Where the bee sucks," &c. Through help of whom (the crooked banks much won- There are probably more persons familiar dering at the thing)
with this song in association with the music of I have compelled streams to run clear backward to their
Dr. Arne than as readers of Shakspere. The spring. By charms I make the calm sea rough, and make the first line is invariably sung, rough sea plain,
“Where the bee sucks, there iurk 1." And cover all the sky with clouds, and chase them thence again.
It is perfectly clear that lurk is not the word By charms I raise and lay the winds, and burst the viper's which Ariel would have used; and it is equally
jaw; And from the bowels of the earth both stones and trees
clear that the poet meant to convey the notion do draw.
of a being not wholly ethereal; who required