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fpicuous light.' Notwithstanding his professions to the contrary, it seems manifest that his real intentions are rather to give a false representation of the times in which Pole lived, than a true picture of Pole himself. With regard to the Cardinal, the inci. dents of his life are too few and inconsiderable to furnith matter for two biographical quartos. All that we learn 'of him is, that he was a man of good parts ; that in his youth he was sober and studious ; that he made a proficiency in the learning of those days, and, as he grew up lived in a degree of intimacy with the Literati of those times. In his public character, he was chiefly distinguished by his opposition to Henry the Eighth, against whom he wrote an abusive book, which recommended him to the favour of the Pope, who employed him in several idle commissions, in which he did no service ; and at last sent him hither, in Queen Mary's time, on a ridiculous errand, which was attended with a great deal of mischief.

This is the sum of Pole's character. But Pole was an enemy to the REFORMATION, and this circunstance gives the writer an opportunity of displaying his malicious zeal against that glorious event, which, in a great degree, rescued a brave and intelligent people from the shackles of religious bigotry and superstition. In vain does our Author attempt to blacken the character of the royal Reformer; we may admit it to have been, as in truth it was, odious and deteftable : but this does no prejudice to the Reformation. We can now, thank heaven, judge of it from its effects. We know the connection there is between religious and civil liberty: And there cannot be a stronger inftance of the advantages of the Reformation, than the publication of this book. The writer, ungrateful as he is, would not have dared to have attacked the established religion, did not the mild and tolerating principles of the Reformation assure him of impunity.

We are at a loss however to conceive what could encourage this Author, in such an enlightened age and country, to write in defence of the Pope's supremacy and infallibility, with other nonsenfical tenets of the Romish church. While the rest of Europe are wisely withdrawing themelves from the influence of the Whore of Babylon, does he hope to persuade the people of England to give the scarlet jilt a welcome reception? Is he enthufiaft enough to imagine that this is a favourable opportunity to graft religious on the stock of political innovations ? Does he conclude that Toryism, Jacobitism, and Popery, are so closely interwoven, as never to be feparable ?

Whatever his inducements may have been, we trust that his ends will fail of success. At the same time we must confess,


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that he is not deftitute of those talents which are calculated to impose on credulity and inattention. His ftile is forid, clear, and animated : his observations, tho' seldom just, are generally specious and artful; yet he wants that consummate art, which Horace speaks of, the ars celare artem; as we shall have occasion to exemplify hereafter. It is with reluctance, however, that we enter into any particular criticism on the works of an author, whom, notwithstanding his abilities, we consider as an object of contempt : an author, who writes in desence of the grosselt of all impositions, and the basest of all servility; and who consequently is a stranger to manly lense and dignity of thought, which are the issue of a liberal mind, polished by the hand of freedom. Such abject writers Thould be treated as the Romans used their rebellious slaves, who, though they had often bravely withstood the edge of their masters swords, wete nevertheless subdued by the fight of the scourge.

It may be necessary to premise, that this fame Mr. Thomas Fhilips has the presumption to require his readers to take all he says upon the credit of his bare affertion : for we do not rememhér that he condescends to quote any authority throughout, exa cept a treatise penned by Cardinal Pole, under the title of his Apology. · These memoirs, says Mr. Thomas Philips, the faithful messengers of his heart, afford an opportunity of making the most intimate acquaintance with him, and knowing him from himself. It remains however to prove that these memoirs. are the faithful messengers of his heart; till that is ascertained, we may be allowed to doubt whether a man's own account of himself is the best opportunity by which we can become intimately acquainted with him. But should even this be granted, we might still reasonably distrust his representation of others, against whom he stood in open opposition; and yet Mr. Philips does not scruple to quote this treatise of the Cardinal's, as the sole authority from whence he draws not only the most interesting transactions of the Reign of Henry the Eighth, but likewise his character of that Prince.

Mr. Philips could not even get through the preface without discovering his principles. After premising that there is an imperfect sketch of Pole's life, drawn by one Beccatelli, who was his secretary; and then paying some flattering compliments to the Englifi nation, in order to put his readers here into good humour, he presumes to conclude with saying, “He makes no doubt but they will discover in the Cardinal's history, not only every qualification of an all-accomplished churchman, but alsó, in the mcft exalted sense, the character of a nobleman of Great Britain.'


That they will find the Cardinal to have been an accomplished churchman, in Mr. Philips's sense of the word, we make no doubt; but we are persuaded that no unprejudiced observer will ever discover in Pole the exalted qualifications of a nobleman of Great Britain. Among the most effential properties of such a character, is the being zealous in the defence of the dignity of the crown and the honour of the kingdom, both which are debased and injured by an abject attachment to the preposterous and Navish tenets of the Roman church.

With the same precipitation Mr. Philips exposes his sentiments in the second page of his history. Speaking of the period at which it commences, he observes, that, . By the acquisitions of the Spaniards and Portugueze, a gate was opened to Chriftianity in the remotest parts of the East and West Indies ; at the same time that Luther in Germany, and Calvin in France, began to oppose the antient faith, and set aside those principles of belief and practice, the necessity of which was never more acknowledged, than fince their influence has ceased to be felt.'

The principles of belief here alluded to have indeed, thank heaven, in a great measure lost their influence, yet we do not find that the necessity of reviving them is any where acknowledged, unless among the shameless herd of Roman churchmen, who basely proftrate themselves to kiss the toe of a dotard, that they in their turns may become the objects of a senseless veneration, and live in luxury and indolence, by the spoils of industry and the perversion of true picty. Except among such, the necessity of these principles is so far from being acknowledged, that on the contrary even the most bigotted parts of Christendom find the necessity of withdrawing still farther from their influence. Hinc illæ lachrymæ ! As to the principles of practice, we do not know what practices Mr. Philips here refers to.

Does he mean the practices of the ghostly fathers with their sisters in the nunneries? Or does he mean their practices with one another in their own convents? Or does he mean the practice of roasting hereticks alive in Smithfield ? We wish Mr. Philips had explained himself: but he knows better than to come to particulars. Whatever practices are here intended, we will venture to say, that no truly rational, pious, and disinterested Christian acknowledges the necessity of them.

We come now to the history itself, which opens with the Cardinal's pedigree, as taken from the Herald's office. Reginald Pole received his birth at a castle which takes its name from the river Stour, two miles distant from Stourbridge, in Staffordshire. He was born in March, in the year 1500, which was the rgth of Henry the VIIth's reign, and the ninth of that



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Prince's age who succeeded him. His father, Sir Richard Pole, was son to Sir Geoffry Pole, knight, descended of ancient

gentry in Wales. A courtly behaviour, and great sweetness of dirposition joined to equal valour, which he shewed in Henry's wars with Scotland, recommended Sir Richard to that Prince's fa

He gave him large command in the country, from which they both derived their origin; created him Knight of the Garter, and appointed him chief gentleman of the bed-chamber, and governor to his eldest son, Arthur, Prince of Wales. These marks of distinction were still heightened by allying him to a person of the royal blood, Margaret, Countess of Salisbury, daughter to George, Duke of Clarence, Brother to Edward the IV th. and Sister to the young Earl of Warwick, who was sacrificed to the cruel and wicked policy of Henry VII. and Ferdinand of Aragon, father to Queen Catharine. This choice was intended by the wary Monarch, not only as a reward of his services, on whom it fell; but to quiet his own fears from a revival of the claim of the Plantagenets, by marrying the next in blood of that family to a person of an unambitious temper, and approved fidelity. From this marriage sprang four fons and a daughter ; Henry, the first born, Geoffry, Arthur, Reginald, and Ursula, who being all under age when their father died, were left to the guardianship of the Countess their mother.'

Mr. Philips then proceeds to pass many encomiums on the Cardinal, on account of his diligent application to his studies at the university of Padua, and the early figure he made in literature, which he displayed by collecting, during his stay at Padua, the various reading and emendations of Cicero's works, to which he added his own remarks, with an intent to publish a compleat copy of them, had not the exigencies of his country, as our author observes, required more lubstantial services than claffic learning could yield,

The propriety of these encomiums may fairly be admitted, Indeed historians agree in giving a favourable account of the cardinal's abilities and virtues: and he appears to have been qualified to have done honour to the highest station, had not a narrow and injurious bigotry perverted the use of those excellent accomplishments.

From Padua, our Author follows the hero of his tale to Rome, whither he went in the jubilee year, and was, we are told, most graciously received, which we are not inclined to dispute. This being about the time of Luther's defection, as Mr. Philips calls it, he takes an opportunity of venting his spleen against honest Martin, whom he thus characierizes : © Martin Luther had already began a defection from the fee


of Rome, which though inconsiderable at first, foon made that progress, to which so great a part of Germany, and other kingdoms and states, still bear witness. The tenets be advanced had not been known in any prior age of the Christian church ; or, if ever they were sct on foot, had never failed of being condemned, as repugnant to what antiquity had always he'd. And his doctrine, under the specious name of Reformation, allowed a great latitude both in belief and practice, and gave rise to a variety of jarring opinions, which though they produced endless changes, they wrought no amendment. The character of the teacher was, in every respect, answerable to his doctrine. He was an Apoftate Monk, who lived in an habitual violation of engagements confirmed by the most folemn vows. A turbulent and furious spirit appears through almost every page of his

works, which are numerous; and abound with such ribaldry and abuse, as decency and good sense equally disown. At length, being lot to every human sentiment, this distemper of his mind transported him so far, as to give us his Dialogues with the Spirit of Lies, and the arguments with which this initructor furnithed him against a capital article of the Catholic Religion. I should be wanting to the respect I owe the Reader, was I to put down what he relates of his execrable intimacies with these infernal inmates ; it being enough for my purpose, to have observed, that he acknowledges his conversion to one of them; and that he was his Master in a principal point of his Reformation.'

In thus attempting to blacken Luther, Mr. Philips acts in character; and in truth Luther's violence and impetuosity of temper, which are often sparks of integrity, have given his cool and crafty opponents some pretence of impeaching the decorum of his conduct. But when Mr. Philips talks of Luther's intimacies with infernal inmates, the circumstance is so laughable, that no man who was not at a great loss for defamatory maiter would have thought it worthy of serious animadversion.

After all, were we to allow Luther's conduct to have been as bad as his enemies would represent it, were we to admit him to have been as black as the infernal inmates with whom he is supposed to have been so familiar, yet how does this affect the principles of the Reformation ? Is it necessary that the author of an improved system should himself be perfe& in every respect ? Does not every man of sense separate the principles from the person? and would it not be almolt as fair to quarrel with the Revolution, because our great Deliverer had a hooked nose?

Mr. Philips, ever true to his end, takes this opportunity of casting a reflection on Henry VIII. whose zeal he tells us for the faith of his ancestors was exerted by a work, in which the principal errors which Luther had advanced, were rented : of which the king either was, or desired to be reputed the authar.


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