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tésemble polypes, they belong to another class of animals ; these Sea Pens Avating and swimming about freely in the sea; whereas corals, corallines, alcyonia, and all that order of beings, adhere firmly by their bases to fubmarine substances. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS OF VARIOUS NATURAL PHE


ON THE WEATHER, &c. Art. 4. An account of a remarkable Decrease of the River Eden, in

Cumberland. By William Milbourne, Esq; This phenomenon happened in the night, between the 28th and 29th of December, in the year 1762 ; during which this river suddenly sunk, at Armithwaite, at least two feet perpendicular: in which state the water continued till about eleveni o'clock of the morning of the 29th, when it began gradually to encrease till about one in the afternoon, by which time it had risen about a foot perpendicular. Art. 5. An account of the Rain fallen in a foot-Square at Norwich.

By Mr. W. Arderon. This account is continued from the year 1749 to 1762 ; amounting, on a medium, to 27 inches deep. Art. 7: An account of the late mild weather in Cornwall, [and] of the

quantity of rain fallen there in the year 1762. By the Rev. Mr. Borlace.

The mild weather bere spoken of, was in the winter of the year 1762. It is remarked that the winters in Cornwall are, in general, more mild than in other parts of this island. That of the year above-mentioned, it seems, was remarkably so ; it being as uncommonly severe in London and parts adjacent, as it proved mild in the West of England. The quantity of tain fallen that year on a foot square, rose to 29 inches 9 tenths, perpendicular height. This does not differ greatly from the quantity that fell at Norwich at a medium for the several years, of which we have an account in the last article. It is remarkable, however, that they estimate the quantity falling yearly at Paris, and its environs, at 19 inches only. In islands however, and near the fea-ccaft, it must necessarily be greater. Art. 12. An account of the Plague, at Aleppo. By Mr. Dawes,

Chaplain to the Factory. We have bere a most melancholy account of the deplorable situation, to which this unfortunate country has been reduced for many years past, by a succeffive visitation of the calamities of famine, plagues and earthquakes. Among other particulars, P2


which Mr. Dawes relates of these terrible disasters, we shall.felect the following:

* This unhappy country for six years past has been in a very terrible situation, afilicted during the greatest part of that time with many of the Almighty's fevereft scourges. Its troubles were ushered in by a very tharp winter in 175, which destroyed almost all the fruits of the earth. The cold was so

very intense, that the Mercury of Farenheit's thermometer, expofed a few minutes to the open air, funk entirely into the ball of the tube. Millions of olive-trees, that had withstood the severity of go winters, were blasted in this, and thousands of souls perifned merely through cold. The failure of a crop the succeeding harvest occafioned an universal scarcity, which in this country of indolence and oppresiion (where provision is only made from hand to mouth, and where, literally speaking, no man is secure of reaping what he has sown) soon introduced a famine with all its attendant miseries. The shocking accounts related to me on this subject would appear fabulous, were they not confirmed by numberless eye-witneffes, both Europeans and natives. In many places the inhabitants were driven to such extremities, that women were known to eat their own children, as soon as they expired in their arms, for want of nourishment.-Numbers of persons from the mountains and villages adjacent came daily to Aleppo, to offer their wives and children to sale for a few dollars, to procure a temporary fubfiftence for themselves; and hourly might be seen in our streets dogs and human creatures fcratching together on the fame dunghill, and quarrelling for a bone, or piece of carrion, to allay their hunger. A pestilence followed close to the heels of the famine, which lasted the greatest part of 1758, and is fupposed to have swept away 50 or 60,000 souls in this city and its environs.'

< Among many particulars relating to the prefent plague, that I have heard, the following anecdotes seem fomewhat extraordinary; and yet, as they are well attested, I have no reason to doubt of the truth of thein ; viz. Last year as well as this, there has been more than one instance of a woman's being delivered of an infected child, with the plague fores on its body, though tire mother herself has been entirely free from the distemper.

• A woman, that fuckled her own child of five months, was seized with a most severe plague, and died after a week's illness; but the child, though it fucked her, and lay in the same bed with her during her whole disorder, escaped the infection. A woman upwards of an hundred years of age was attacked with the plague, and recovered : her two grandchildren of 10 and 16 received the intection from her, and were both carried off by it. :

• While

" While the plague was making terrible ravage in the island of Cyprus, in the spring of 1760, a woman remarkably fanguine and corpulent, after losing her husband and two children, who died of the plague in her arms, made it her daily employment from a principle of charity to attend all her fick neighbours, that stood in need of her aslistance, and yet escaped the infection. Also a Greek lad made it his bufiness for many months to wait on the fick, to wash, dress and bury the dead, and yet he remained unhurt. . In that contagion ten men were said to die to one woman; but the persons, to whom it was almost universally fatal, were youths of both sexes. Many places were left fo bare of inhabitants, as not to have enough left, to gather in the fruits of the earth: it ceased entirely in July 60, and has not appeared in the island fince.'

Art. 14. Contains an account of an extraordinary degree of cold at Berlin, in the winter of the year 1762, in which Farenheit's thermometer descended to four degrees below o: while the barometer stood at 30.1; the like having never been ob-, served there before. Art. 15. An account of a remarkable darkness at Detroit in America.

By Mr. J. Stirling. This phenomenon being really extraordinary, we shall give it in the observer's own words.

•Tuesday laft, being the 19th instant, we had almost total darkness for the most of the day. I got up at day-break : about 10 minutes after I observed it got no lighter than before; the same darkness continued until 9 o'clock, when it cleared up a litile. We then, for the space of about a quarter of an hour, saw the body of the sun, which appeared as red as blood, and more than three times as large as usual. The air all this time, which was very dense, was of a dirty yellowish green colour. obliged to light candles to fee to dine, at one o'clock, notwithstanding the table was placed close by two large windows. About three the darkness became more horrible, which augmented until half past three, when the wind breczed up from the S. W. and brought on some drops of rain or rather sulphur, and dirt, for it appeared more like the latter than the former, both in smell and quality. I took a leaf of clean paper, and held it out in the rain, which rendered it black whenever the drops fell upon it; but, when held near the fire, turned to a yellow cotour, and when burned, it fizzed on the paper like wet powder. During this shower, the air was almost fuffocating with a ftrong hulphurous (mell; it cleared up a little after the rain. There were various conjectures about the cause of this natural incident. The Indians, and vulgar among the French, said, that P 3


I was

the English, which lately arrived from Niagara in the vessel, had brought the plague with them: others imagined it might have been occafioned by the burning of the woods : but I think it most probable, that it might have been occasioned by the eruption of some volcano, or fubterraneous fire, whereby the fulphurous matter may have been emitted in the air, and contained therein, until, meeting with some watery clouds, it has fallen down together with the rain.' Art. 23. Observations on electricity, and on a thunder-form. By

Mr. Bergman. This paper contains some observations tending to confirm Mr. Delaval's experiments on the island Chrystal, inserted in the preceding volumes of the Transactions. Art. 33. An account of an earthquake in Siberia. By Mons. Wey.

man. This earthquake, attended with the usual circumstances, was pretty extensive, and happened in November 1762, Art. 39. An account of an earthquake at Chattigaon. Translated

from the Persian. . By Mr. Gulfton. This earthquake happened in the region of Inamabad, on the 2d of April 1762, and is said by the Persian writer to have been attended with such terrible effects, that from the time of Adam until now, no one in that place hath heard of the like.

Art. 40, 41, and 42. Give a farther account of the above earthquake, and its effects on the lands belonging to our East India Company. Art. 49. An account of a remarkable meteor. By Mr. Samuel Dunn.

This meteor was a mock-sun, of equal altitude with the real fun; observed at Chelsea about 5 o'clock in the afternoon on the 6th of October 1762.

MEDICINE AND SURGERY, Art. 6. Obfervations upon the effects of electricity applied to a teta

nus, or muscular rigidity, of four months continuance. By Dr, Watson,

This paper contains the very uncommon case of a poor girl in the Foundling Hospital, who was reduced to the most mirerable situation, by the rigidity and contraction of her muscles ; in so much that her whole body was distorted in the most disagree able manner; her flesh appearing to the touch hard and dry, and much more like that of a dead animal than a living one, At the same time the poor creature was subject to violent convulsions, which added to the horrous of this locking spectacle. In these


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deplorable circumstances, having in vain applied such medicines
as were judged likely to relieve her, Dr. Watson conceived the
design of trying the effects of electricity, by which he had for-
merly afforded some temporary relief to paralytic patients. The
success of this trial was really surprising; the patient being able,
in less than three months, to move every muscle in her body at
will: her convulsions left her, she stood upright, walked, and eyen
ran about like other children of her age. In less than four
months she was in every respect perfectly recovered.
32. An account of the success of the bark of the willow, in the

cure of agues. By the Rev. Mr. Stone, .
The tree from which this bark is taken, is stiled by Ray, in
his Synopsis, Salix alba vulgaris, the common white willow. Of
its effects Mr. Stone speaks in the following manner :

I have continued to use it as a remedy for agues and intermitting disorders for five years successively and successfully. It bath been given I believe to fifty persons, and never failed in the cure, except in a few autumnal and quartan agues, with which the patients had been long and severely afflicted; these it reduced in a great degree, but did not wholly take them off; the patient, at the usual time for the return of his fit, felt some smattering of his distemper, which the incessant repetition of these powders could not conquer : it seemed as if their power could reach thus far and no farther, and I did suppose that it would not have long continued to reach so far, and that the diftemper would have soon returned with its pristine violence; but I did not stay to see the issue: I added one fifth part of the Peruvian bark to it, and with this small auxiliary it totally routed its adversary. It was found necessary likewise, in one or two obftinate cases, at other times of the year, to mix the same quantity of that bark with it; but these were cases where the patient went abroad imprudently, and caught cold, as a post-chaise boy did, who, being almost recovered from an inveterate tertian ague, would follow his bufiness, by which means he not only neglected his powders, but, meeting with bad weather, renewed his distemper.

One fifth part was the largest and indeed the only proportion of the quinquina made use of in this compofition, and this only upon extraordinary occasions : the patient was never prepared, either by vomiting, bleeding, purging, or any medicines of a fimilar intention, for the reception of this bark, but he entered upon it abruptly and immediately, and it was always given in powders, with any common vehicle, as water, tea, small beer, and such like. This was done purely to ascertain its effects; and that I might be assured the changes wrought in the patient



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