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fome happy spot, or the convenience of wood and water. They lived upon milk, and Aesh procured by the chace; for corn was scarcely known among them. What cloaths they wore, were skins of beasts, but a great part of their bodies was left always exposed to the injuries of the weather; all that was naked being painted with blue. This custom of painting was universal among them, either in order to strike terror into their enemies, or to defend the pores of the naked skin from the viciffitudes of the season.

- Their towns, if a collection of huts could deserve that name, were mostly built upon the coasts, in such places as strangers generally resorted to for the sake of commerce. The commodities exported, were chiefly hides and tin, and, probably, other spontaneous productions of the soil, which required no art in the preparation.

· Their government, like that of the ancient Gauls, confifted of several petty principalities, which seem to be the original governments of mankind, and deduced from the natural right of paternal dominion : but whether these little principalities descended by succession, or were elected by the consent of the people, is not recorded. Upon great or uncommon dangers, indeed, the chief commander of all their forces was chosen by common consent, in a general assembly, as Cæsar relates of Caflibelanus, upon his invasion.

The same was done upon their revolts against the Roman colonies, under Caractacus and their Queen Boadicea; for among them, women were admitted to their principalities, and general commands, by the right of fucceflion, merit, or nobility.

« Such were the customs of the ancient Britons, and the same may serve for a description of every other barbarous nation, of which we have any knowlege. Savage man, is an animal in almost every country the fame; and all the difference between nations, results from customs introduced by luxury, or cultivated by refinement. What the inh. bitant of Britain was at that time, the inhabitant of South America, or Cafraria, may be at this day. But there was one custom among the ancient inhabi. tants of this island, which seems peculiar to themselves, and is not to be found in the accounts of any other ancient or modern nation. The custom I mean,, was a community of wives, among certain numbers, and by common consent. Every man maricd, indeed, but one woman, who was always after, and alone, esteemed his wife: but, it was usual for five or fix, ten, twelve, or more, either brothers or friends, as they could agree, to hive all their wives in common. But this, though calculated for their mutual happiness, in fact proved their greatest disturb

ance ;

ance; and we have fome instances, in which this community of wives produced diffentions, jealousies, and death. Every woman's children, however, were the property of him who had married her; but all claimed a share in the care and defence of the whole society, since no man knew which were his own.'

The following passage is taken from one of the Letters imputed to the Editor. In speaking of the administration of Sir Robert Walpole, he gives an account of the project for licencing the Theatre ; a blow, says he, levelled at the little wit remaining, which has effectually banished all taste from the Stage, and from which it has never since recovered. When Walpole entered into power, he resolved to despise that set of under-rate Writers, who live by arraigning every Ministry, and diffeminate scandal and abuse. For a time he prosecuted that intention ; but at last found it necessary to employ a set of mean hirelings, to answer calumny with calumny. He wanted judgment to diftinguish genius; or none possessed of such a gift were mean enough to applaud his measures. From hence he took an im. placable aversion to the press, which so severely exposed his corruption, and branded his follies. But the Press alone was not the only scourge he had to fear; the Theatre joined all its ridicule, and he saw himself exposed as the object of scorn, as well as hatred. When licence once transgresses the rules of decency, it knows no bounds. Some of the pieces exhibited at that time, were not only severe, but immoral also. This was what the Minister held to; he brought in a bill to limit the number of play-houses; to subject all dramatic writings to the inspection of the Lord Chamberlain, whose license was to be obtained before any work could appear. Among those who undertook to oppose this bill, was the Earl of Chesterfield, who observed, that the laws already in being for keeping the Stage within due bounds, were every way fufficient. “ If, says he, our stageplayers at any time exceed those bounds, they ought to be prosecuted, and may be punished. A new law, therefore is, in the present instance, unnecessary; and every unnecessary law is dangerous. Wit, my Lords, is the property of those that have it ; and it is too often the only property they have. It is unjust therefore to rob a man at any rate of his posiesfions; but it is cruelty to spoil him, if already poor. If I'oets and Players are to be restrained, let them be restrained like other subjects ; let them be tried by their Peers, and let not a Lord Chamberlain be made the sovereign judge of wit. A power lodged in the hands of a single man to determine, without limitation or ap. peal, is a privilege unknown to our laws, and inconsistent with our conftitution.” The House applauded his wit and eloquence; and the question was carried against him.'

R 4


The Reader will see that this work promises more entertainment than those Histories which are divided into Question and Answer; it is, however, much to be doubted, whether' many of the reflections interperfed throughout thefe Letters, are not too far-fetched and refined, for the comprehension of schoolboys. It is also farther to be doubted, whether a simple narrative of facts, without the intermixture of political observations, and delineation of characters, would not be much more useful, if it were made equally engaging.


An Esay on the more common West-India Diseases; and the Reme

dies which that Country itse.f produces. To which are added, Some Hints on the Nianagement of Negrues. By a Physician in the West Indies Svo. IS. bd. Becket.


HE Writer of this judicious little treatise, probably in

, our American islands within the Tropic, for which it is properly calculated, and where it cannot fail of being very use

as no Physician, who had not refided for some time there, could have been sufficiently acquainted with the diseases peculiar to the Negroes in that climate, and with all the indigenous medical producions of it, to have given such full and particular directions. It is adapted, with a judicious plainness and simplicity, to the under finding of all Proprietors, Managers, and even Overseers of flaves ; being, as the Author Jay's in his preface, wholly divested of the parade of learning, and purposely written with as much shortneis as was consistent with perspicuity.'

Three or four of the sections are employed in directions for choofing Negroes; for the treatment of their infants; and on the proper dom tic regulations, particularly of new, or, as they are called, falt-water Negroes, and on the construction of a particular house for the reception of those that are fick. About thirty other fections are appropriated to other diseases, and chiefly such as the flaves are most liable to, with their proper regimen and remedies; a large proportion of which are of the growth of the climate, and fome of them considerably powerful.

In treating of the leprosy, which our Icarned and humane Writer laments, as too generally incurable, he says, page 54,

- I am, notwi hstanding, persuaded, that the antidote of the leproly is to be found in the West-Indies. What profit, what pleasure would accrue to the happy Discoverer!' And, in his 7.


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preface, he seems to think, a suitable encouragement for discoveries in the Materia Medica, a great Defideratum ; as if every art,' he adds, (with respect to their various premiums) was more necessary than phyfic, and every object more considerable than the health of the community. On this occasion we may reflect however, that the multitude, and many pretensions, of Noftrum-mongers, and imaginary Discoverers, would coit no little time and trouble to discuss properly ; and that the real Discoverers of a certain cure for any reputedly incurable disease, would be sure to find their account sufficiently, in the gratitude and munificence of their wealthiest Patients.

The conclufion of this treatise gives a catalogue of such Officinal Simples and Compositions, as have not medicines equiva. lent to be substituted for them, in the medical productions of that climate; mentioning also the small, but necessary, apparatus, for the exhibition or application of them : of all which our Author thinks no plantation should be unprovided.


A Treatije on Fevers in general, their Nature and Treatment. On

Fevers in particular, as the Intermitient and Rheumatic fcvers,
and their Cure, by Means absolutely new, &c. &c. By John
Hawkridge, Surgeon. 8vo. Is. Printed at York. Sold by


HIS pamphlet presents us an uncommon, yet considerable

proof, that a writer's practical notions in his business may be generally right, and his ideas distinct and rational, even while his expresion of them is very dcfective. It also thews, that where a person's experience and correspondence are much limited, he may suppose he is teaching his Readers, of the same profeffion, something new (which may be true with respect to a few of them) but of which many others could have informed him, before the birth, and even before the very conception, of his performance. Tais last assertion is clearly proved from his preface, which affures us that the frequent outcries and prejudices against the grand febrifuge [the Bark) first induced him to write and publish this treatise ;-and which prejudices he thinks to lie not in the medicine, but for want of knowing how to use it.' This is the ignorance then he determines to cure, by informing them, p. 27. & feq.--that they are to give in the intervals, between two fits of an intermitting fever, fix drachms of the Bark in substance, or ten in decoction, to a common adult patient; but to a lusty strong boned man, a good deal relaxed, one full ounce in fubitance, within the fame interval: and that, if the intermission is short, the fame quantity is to be taken, as if it was long.'

The publishing of this grand practical secret, then, as Mr. Hawkridge probably thought it, having been the avowed purpose of his treatise, he observes, verbatim.- If the least degree of self-interest had been moving, it might, with many of the secret-mongers, been kept close.' But we hope we shall occasion more pleasure than disappointment to a gentleman of his professed humanity, by assuring him this has by no means been an extensive secret for near forty years past : but that patients in London and its environs, and many thousand miles beyond them, have taken nearly the same quantities, in the same interval of an intermitting fever ; and have also repeated the like precautionary doses, (a term which has escaped Mr. H.) seven or eight days after, just as he advises them. So that these patients have been full as speedily and effectually cured in all those places, as his patients in Yorkshire, and probably before some of these last were born. But supposing this unknown to our Author, mankind are not the less obliged to him, for intending to let them into fo falutary a secret. We may add too, that this practice seems to have been full as cautiously exercised in those different places, by very generally, if not always, premising a vomit to the Bark, which our Author only advises

if the liver gives bile sharper than common, and hence vellicates the stomach so as to cast up its contents.'

His title-page, which we have contracted, and his introduction, gave us some expectation of his entering upon the rationale of the operation and efficacy of the Bark, and even of mercury, as he says, p. 6, I hope we shall cease to speak any longer of their specific uses, as their effects are no more occult, but manifest and self-evident,'-whence perhaps he thought it fuperfluous to enter upon such a disquisition, as could disclose no secret. Yet with regard to the Bark he says, in a note, p. 30, · It is well worth oblerving, if this valuable medicine doth not disturb the primæ via, but pass the lacteals, bread itself is not more friendly to our constitution. It is never known to vellicate any one secretion, during its whole abode in the mass of fluids.'

We confess we were at a loss to understand this vellication of a secretion : but we apprehend Mr. H. meant, that the Bark did not increase any fecretion by irritating the glands and ducts employed in the secretions and excretions. Yet we may observe, by the way, that although the Bark does not increase any sensible secretion or excretion by stimulation, as vomits, purges, diuretics, and fudorifics do, it is probable, that in consequence of its strengthening the tone, and promoting the oscil


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