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which you, of all men, will be the last to object to; I meant a motive of Charity towards yourself.

I am much a stranger to your person, and, what it may perhaps be scarce decent for me to profess to you, even to your writings. All I know of yourself is, what your book tells me, that you are diftinguished by an honourable place and office in the university of Dublin: and what I have heard of your writings, makes me think favourably of a private Scholar, who, they say, employs himself in such works of learning and taste, as are proper to instill a reverence into young minds for the best models of ancient eloquence. While you are thus creditably ftationed, and thus usefully employed, I could not but feel some concern for the hurt you were likely to do yourself, by engaging in so warm and so unnecessary an opposition to a Writer, as you characterize him, of distinguished eminence. Time was, when even with us on this side the water, the novelty of this Writer's pofitions, and the envy, which ever attends fuperíor merit, difpored some warm persons to open, and profecute with many hard words, the unpopular cry against him, of his being a bold and "paradoxical Writer. But repection and experience have quieted this alarm. Men of fense and judgment now confider his paradoxes as very harmless, nay as very fober and certain truths'; and even vie with each other in their zeal of building upon them, as the surest bafis on which a juft and rational vindication of our common religion can be raised. This is the present state of things with us, and especially, they say, in the universities of this kingdom.

• It was, therefore, not without fome surprize, and, as I faid, with much real concern, that I found a Gentleman of learning and education revive, at such a juncture, that stale and worn-out topic, and disgrace himself hy propagating this clamour, of I know not what paradoxical boldness, now long out of date, in the much-approved writings of this great Prelate. Nos was the dishonour to yourself the only circumstance to be lamented. You were striving, with all your might, to infuse prejudices into the minds of many ingenious and virtuous young men; whom you would furely be sorry to mislead; and who would owe you little thanks for prepoffefling them with unfavourable sentiments of such a man and Writer as the Bifhop of Gloucester, they will find, is generaly efteemed to be.

« These, then, were the confiderations which induced me to cmploy an hour two of leiture in giving your book a free exaszination. I have done it in as few words as possible, and in a manner which no reasonable and candid man, I persuade myself, will disapprove. I know what apologies may be requisite to the


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learned Bishop for a Stranger's engaging in this officious task. But to you, Sir, I make none: it is enough if any benefits to yourself or others may be derived from it.'

Such is the regard which this Writer thinks is due from one Scholar to another. In what school he has learned his good breeding, few of our Readers need be told : that he is an apt Scholar, and zealous for the honour of his Master, is abundantly evident.-We can by no means, however, see the juftice of treating poor Dr. Leland in this unmerciful manner. It is very poffible, or rather, highly probable, he never heard that all men of sense and judgment on this side the water had acknowleged the Bishop of Gloucester as their only rightful literary Sovereign, “and vied with each other in their zeal of building upon his paradoxes, as the surest basis, on which a just and rational vindication of our common religion can be raised.' Nay, supposing the Doctor to have heard this, and even supposing it to be true, we cannot see any obligation the university of Dublin, or the Gentlemen of Ireland, are under to acknows lege the learned Prelate's authority; they deserve rather, it should seem, to be highly commended for their noble independent spirit, in refusing to call any man on earth, MASTER.

But we shall conclude this article with a fair challenge to this Letter-Writer, as the only way of answering his arrogant and presumptuous assertions: if he will condescend to produce a list of those men of sense and judgment, who vye with each other in building upon the Bishop's paradoxes, we will engage to produce a list of men of sense and judgment, who are in very different sentiments ; and appeal to the impartial public, which of the two lists is the most respectable.

The Modern Part of an Universal Hisory, from the earliest Account

of Time. Compiled from original Writers. By the Authors of the ancient Part. Vol. XLII. Svo. 5s. Osborne, &c.

AVING at length quitted the American quarter of the


now returned to Europe, and have given us, in their usual fugitive manner, the History of Hungary, and of the modern (or as it is still called, the Roman, tho' in fact the German) Empire; the latter being branched out into the History of the Imperial Cities, of the kingdom of Bohemia, the Ele&orates of Saxony, Bavaria, Palatine, Hanover, Brandenburgh, the Arch-dutchy of Austria, and the Dutchies of Mecklenburgh. To these are added, the Sequel to the Histories of Spain, Portugal, France, Germany, Sweden, and Turkey; "continued down to the present times.

We have so frequently given our sentiments of this work, with ample specimens from various parts of it, that we might readily be excused from troubling ourselves, or the public, with any farther extracts; but having, in turning over the present volume, met with the following particulars relating to the fuccession, and various claims, to the Russian empire, we imagine they may afford some information to many of our Readers.

Charles-Leopold, Duke of Mecklenburgh-Schwerin, being desirous of strengthening himself by an alliance with Peter the · Great, Czar of Muscovy, obtained in marriage Catherine, the niece of that Prince; she being daughter to the Czar John, Perer's elder brother. The Duke hoped, by the aid of his new · ally, to gain the ascendancy over his subjects, with whom he was unhappily involved in the most fatal discord: but his views were entirely frustrated, and the match proved by no means anfwerable to his wishes. The Czar had lent him 3000 Russian troops, which he quartered upon his Nobility; and this, together with the league into which the Duke entered with Russia and Sweden, (but which was entirely overturned by the death of his Swedish Majesty) had rendered him excessively unpopular in the eyes of all the German Princes, who could never forgive his calling foreign troops into the Empire.

• The King * of Great Britain was his profeflod enemy, as being a Member of the Lower Saxony; and the Regent of France was connected with George. The new government of Sweden adopted a plan entirely different from that of the late King; and the Czar, notwithstanding his recent family connection with the Duke, became very cold in his cause. To compleat his misfortunes, the Emperor took upon him finally to decide the long-depending caufe between the Duke and his Nobility, in favour of the latter, and committed the execution of his sentence to the King of Great Britain, as Elector of Hano

At the same time, Christian-Lewis, the younger brother of Duke Charles-Leopold, was made Administrator of the dutchy, a scanty part of its revenues being allotted for the maintenance of Duke Charles-Leopold. This Prince had a spirit too great to submit to his fortune, which was thus, perhaps, unjustly depressed. Unhappily for him, his resentment was now chiefly directed against his wife's uncle, Peter the Great of Mulcovy, who he thought had betrayed him, by not fufficiently sup

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porting him against his Nobility. His complaints were far from being ill founded; for it is certain, that Peter had led him into those measures that rendered all the empire his enemies, and then withdrew from his assistance. The Duke could not bring his spirit to submit so far as even to crave his protection, or aid, to recover his dominions; but he loudly accused Peter, for having most scandalously with-held from him the portion which had been ftipulated for his wife when he married her; and which Peter ungenerously alleged he had already paid, by the aslistance he had afforded him against his subjects. These altercations with a Prince of Peter's power, served but the more to depress Leopold, who being now, in a manner, an exile from his own dominions, lived with a splendor little suitable to his income, sometimes at Dantzic, and sometimes at Wismar. In the mean while, his brother, the Administrator, was supported by the Hanoverian troops, who acted as an army of execution; and the Duke, soured by his repeated misfortunes, comprehended even his wife in the aversion he 'had conceived for the Russians, by openly mal-treating and abusing her. Upon the death of Peter II. of Ruffia, great doubts arose concerning the succession to that empire.

• The eldest daughter of the Empress Catharine, by Czar Peter the Great, was Dutchess of Holstein ; and had the succefsion been limited, for the satisfaction of the Ruffians, to the pofterity of Peter, she had, undoubtedly, the prior right of fucceflion; but she was then dead, and her son no more than ten years of age : a circumstance which rendered his government incompatible with the good of Russia, and therefore he was, for that time, set aside, and the Russian Nobility threw their eyes back towards the posterity of Czar John, Peter's elder brother. It is evident, that, upon this occasion, the Russians had not the smallest regard to hereditary right, provided they were governed by any one of the Imperial blood. Some of them were for forming their empire into a republic, but all of them agreed in setting aside the succession of the Dutchess of Mecklenburgh, though the was the eldest daughter of Czar John, and raising to their throne her younger sister Anne Iwanowna, Dutchess of Courland, Their true reason for this was, the aversion they had to all foreign connections, and their dread of being involved: in the Duke of Mecklenburgh's affairs in Germany. To colour the injustice done to the Dutchess of Mecklenburgh, it was given out, that the late Emperor, Peter II. who was invested with the power of nominating his own fucceffor, had passed by the Dutchess of Mecklenburgh, in favour of her younger sister.

· The Dutchess of Mecklenburgh, though she was sensible of, and protested against, the wrong that was done her, was de

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stitute of all the means to assert her right; and she was forced quietly to submit to see her younger sister mount the throne of Ruffia. The Ruflian Nobility and Senate, upon this occasion, discovered the strongest dispositions to limit the Imperial authority; and before the Empress took poffeffion of her new dignity, they obliged her to sign a kind of a capitulation, which, in fact, threw the government into their own hands. The Empress herfelf, being a woman of sense and spirit, knew the invalidity of her own title, as well as of the Senate's proceedings; but the wisely dissembled both. With regard to the latter, it soon appeared that the new-modelled government was no better than an aristocracy, which was likely to prove more oppressive to the people than the power of the Crown itself had ever been. Such of the Nobility as had been excluded by the new capitulation from the government, readily joined with the Empress in annulla ing the capitulation; and all the meafures she took for that purpale, were so prudent and so vigorous, that in a few days after her succession, the became as ablolute as any of her predecessors had been.

• She next applied herself towards supplying the defects of her own title; but this she found to be a difficult and hazardous at. tempt. The Russians hated the Germans beyond any other peoe ple, and of all the Germans, none was so disagreeable to them, as Duke Leopold of Mecklenburgh. Though he lived upon very bad terms with his wife, yet he began now to consider himfelf as a very powerful Prince in her right. The Czarina was no stranger to his bad treatment of her sister, and the aversion the Ruffians had to his person; notwithstanding which, she refolved to declare the Duke's daughter, the only child he had by his Dutchefs, her successor in the empire. Many reasons of State, however, concurred for excluding the Duke from all bencfit that could arise from this high destination of his daughter. It was easy to foresee, that if the Duke fhould once obtain a footing in Russia, he could soon raise a party that might give great trouble to the Government. To prevent so undesirable an cvent, the Empress privately communicated to her fifter the Dutchess, her intentions; which were, that her niece, the Princess of Mecklenburgh, should be educated at her court, that the Ruffians might be accustomed to look upon her as her fuccessor in the empire ; and that, if the Dutchess polibly could escape from her husband, she should accompany her daughter to Petersburgh. The Dutchess, who was thoroughly dillatisfied with creatment she met with from her husband, agreed to this proposal; and she and her daughter effected their escape from the Duke into Russia, where they were received with all


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