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unreasonable and impatient desires : and how far the fatal force by which he is drawn aside, may be imputed to some acquired imperfection in his structure. And then if, by any rule of conduct, we can prevenť that alteration taking place, it will be allowed, that Providence has not formed men of such materials, as necessarily impel them to illicit actions. Our curious Author tells us soon after- It is not designed to deny that we are liable, without great care, to be biassed by some internal feelings, but adds, we may bend what we cannot break, and prune the luxuriances of what we cannot [perhaps in many cases what we should not] eradicate ; and so blend the jarring ingredients of a faulty frame, as to become happy to ourselves, and profitable to others.'

His first morally physiological discussion of this Enquiry begins with contemplating the blood; and such (he observes) is the nature of this fluid, that sobriety in every animal indulgence, and temperance in every intellectual purfuít, will leave it in that state, for the most part, which is best calculated for the happiness of the individual: as there is no moral necessity for a strict fimilarity in the dispositions of different men, a diversity of them being more conducive to the good of the whole; while all mercy and pity, or all fortitude and resolution, would probably be subversive of that universal scheme of harmony, which was meant to spring from this apparent discord.' He mentions the notion Hippocrates hints of making men wiser, by amending or altering their blood; which, within proper bounds, he supposes may not be entirely chimerical :' and which reminded us of the Galactophagi, a nation subsisting solely on milk, whom Homer characterizes as a blameless people. This naturally led Dr. Collignon to mention the transfusion of the blood, as nowise foreign to the scheme of improving mens morals, by changing it: and having already shewn, how habitual temperance might so regulate its vital motion, as to mitigate a propensity to illicit actions, he piously concludes this section with recommending the use of reason, fortified by religion, as the most efficacious instrument to curb its painful and dangerous commotions; arguing from the visibly tyrannical effects of false religion and enthusiasm, to the placid and benign influence of the rational and true.

In the section on the Fibres, after many other merely phyfiological observations, Dr. Collignon says, in the character of a medical Moralist, As in fact, too long and close an attention of the mind, has a tendency to dry up and overbrace the body; shall we say here, that Providence has thus given a check to that insatiable thirst of knowlege, which might have been prejudicial, either in feeding our pride, or destroying our health? Or that he has thus made social intercourse, as absolutely necessary, as it is natural and decent, among indigent fellowcreatures ? This at least we must say, that we are hereby cautioned to guard against all peevith discontent and moroseness, by a moderation in our pursuits of intellectual improvement: since the wiseft [the most fcientific] have not always been the worthiest of men.' Such pretty, and not improbable, suggestions afford us an idea of much benignity, and a kind of natural politeness in the mind, and in the manners, of the Gentleman who conceived them.

As the universal Bath we live in (as Dr. Collignon not improperly terms the air) has a necessary influence on the state of the fibres, he supposes, that from the influence of different clia mates, we may partly account for the various stature and make, for the diversity of genius, and in some measure for the bent of the virtues and vices of their inhabitants, as far as they flow from an indulgence of constitutional pronenefs.

In his fection-Of the Nerves—which he calls a boundless Ocean, a deep unfathomable Abyss, there is more curiosity than argument; though we think there is something very probable in the reflection which supposes, the different state of nerves in different men to be no inconsiderable source of that variety of characters to be met with in the world. The conclusion of this Efsay may suggeft, that the greatest indulgence our Author allows to his own, is particularly to the Auditory nerves; for after a pretty, declamatory, panegyric of Music, he adds, And, perhaps, this enjoyed in moderation, by attuning the passions, and calming any little tendency to irregularity in the blood, may be the most wholsome indulgence that man can partake of here below.'

We pass over his section on the Temperance and Ages of Men, &c. as containing little new or material. In that on Education and Fashion, after fome just and moral, tho' scarcely any new reflections, on both, he fays pertinently. As far as conftitutional proneness is really apparent, let it by all means be kept under ; at no rate encouraged or inflained. And this attempt, if set on foot in the ductile age, when pliant Nature almost bends to Instruction's hand, will be found a matter of no great difficulty. The carrying the eye of Attention, in more advanced states, to scenes and prospects widely differing from what the mind would brood upon within, has been often practised with success. A tendency to amorous foftness and sybaritic luxury, may not improbably be overcome by the severer purfuits of mathematical investigations: while too thoughtful a mind, and one of too serious a turn, muft walk abroad over Rev. Nov. 1764.

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Imiling

smiling Nature, and expatiate among the brightest scenes of laughing Creation.

The subject of the Paffions is too trite, to hope for any novelty in Dř. Collignon's section on them. It is not void, however, of elegant expression, but rather a little too verbose ; and, to use a metaphor of his own, it seems to impose flowers for fruit, on its Readers. But the following conclusion has more Nrength and pertinence.

Upon the whole then, what have we found in those three capital parts of our composition, the Blood, the Fibres, and the Nerves, which can justly be deemed the Artificers of our Misery, or the unavoidable Corrupters of our Innocence? Have we not on the contrary seen the assertion verified, “That God hath made men upright, but they have fought out many inventions.” Have we not seen, that he (man) often yields himself a willing captive to the dominion of favourite paflions ? That he knowingly supplies his Enemy with strength and ammunition, to be employed against himself? And that he first dismisses his Guards, and then complains of inability to ward off danger? Or if by more prudent conduct, and serious reflection, he keeps clear of such a shameful overthrow, yet does he not suffer the force of Example, of Custom, and of Fashion, to mislead him into great inconveniences ? - So that if we will confess the truth, we Thall be forced to own, that we bring on ourselves much the greatest part of those mischiefs, which we are so fond of attributing to the influence of our Bodies.'

These facts seem to us as true as the reflections are moral, and we shall rejoice to find such a conclusion always attended with its utmoft operation and influence : since it may be apprehended, that if the tenet, of Vice being wholly insuperable and inevitable, from the very nature and constitution of our bodies, should prevail, we shall, as a consequence, be very apt to depreciate the merit of every virtue, and of goodness itself; supposing them also the inevitable effects of a happier organization, of better blood, nerves, and fibres. This will have but too obvious a tendency to extinguish the rational and religious tenet of our free agency, without which, as being incapable of option, we are rather in the condition of puppets than of men; and can be no proper, no warrantable objects of judgment or admonition, of reward or punishment. From the inexplicable union of that principle and substance which compound the living man, we find it a daily experienced truth, that they reciprocally affect cach other, but the unperishable part was certainly intended, in general, to preside; and for such deviations as greatly depend on each particular Involucrum of the Soul, the all-perfect

Creator

Creator of both will certainly make all just, and even benign allowances. We have not a single natural paffion, that was not given to be duly gratified; but to regulate the degree and means of such gratification, Reason was conferred on us, and the use we make of this divine talent, will probably determine the quality of our separate condition.

K.

The Providential History of Mankind opened, by the Key of the

Knowledge of Good and Evil. Applied to the Holy Scriptures. By the Rev. James Stronge, A. M. of the Diocese of Armagh. 8vo. 6s. Dodsley.

HERE are few tasks so disagreeable as that of a Reviewer.

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toil through, without the prospect of any other recompence, but the feverest censure and groffest abuse from Authors and their friends. Every Author looks upon his work with the affection and tenderness of a parent; and for this we can make favourable allowances : but it is very unreasonable, surely, to expect that we should shew marks of affection to every deformed, ugly brat, that comes in our way; and very hard that we should be abused for want of such affection. Such, however, is the lot of a Reviewer ; when a performance does not meet with that success which the Author and his Bookfeller expected, all the blame is instantly thrown on the poor Critic, who is vilified, abused, and calumniated without mercy, and represented not only as void of taste and judgment, but as a mere savage, utterly destitute of the common principles of humanity. As we are conscious, however, that we are not altogether useless members of the republic of Letters, we shall endeavour to bear our affictions with Christian patience and fortitude.

We were naturally led into this train of reflection, afrer Jabouring through the work now before us, which has afforded us neither entertainment nor instruction. The Author is a declared Enemy to REASON in matters of religion; and his principal design through the whole of his performance, is to guard us against the use of this carnal weapon in the defunce of Christianity; at least, this is a subject which he so frequently touches upon, that he seems to have had it principally in view.

“We must, says he, take the sword of the spirit, which is the word of God, as the only weapon that can decide our Controversy with all heretical opp sers of the truth ; for the only method of deciding any controversy, is to bring it to a certain Z 2

point

point, beyond which we cannot pass; and that point, with all true believers, is the authority of the word of God, upon which alone we rely for establishing the articles of our faith ; and therefore, in all controversial disputes with the enemies of it, our duty requires that we should appeal to that authority by taking the word of God, as it is written in his book, and offer it only in our defence, without any addition of our own reasoning along with it, but leave it to the consciences of our adversaries to make the application.

“We are not to suppose, that the enemies of our religion will be silenced by this method of our address ; for this fupposition would imply their acquiescence in the authority of the word of God, which is the point they mean to evade by their discourse, howsoever they may, by good words and fair speeches, pretend to respect it.

< But if our adversaries are not Glenced, they can never gain any advantage over us, until we strive for victory, by our own reasonings, in which we are sure to be entangled by the policies of the enemy, and bring advantage to his cause by unwary conceffion.

“This observation will explain the advice given by St Paul to Titus, jii. 10. A man that is an heretic, after the firft and second admonition reject : knowing that he that is such, is fubverted, and finneth, being condemned of himself. And therefore the confcience of such a person is to be awakened by admonition of his guilt : for as a man cannot be an HERETIC, without being informed and instructed in the truth, from which he wilfully departs, to follow an opinion contrary to it; so there is no need of arguments to convince him of the truth, which by supposition he is well enough acquainted with, as was the case of those converts of whom St. Paul was then speaking, who had learned the gospel by his preaching among them.

< And the like is the case of all other Heretics, in the fucceeding ages of the church, who are taught by the written word of God; and therefore if they do not acquiesce in its die vine authority, when it is proposed to them as it is written, we have no need of arguments to enforce it by our authority, in reasoning any farther upon it; but a man that is an heretic after the first and second admonition, given him to forbear, speaking perverse things, reject : turn away from him, and refufe to hold any more conversation with him.'

This direction, we are told, is clearly confirmed by the example of our blessed Lord in his conflict with the great adverfary of the truth, who acknowledged its divine Authority in

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