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dered in cold blood, after quarter given by Colonel Berry, who made himself dear to Cromwell, by this and some other actions of cruelty. Another writer tells us, that his horse sticking in the mud, he died magnanimously refusing quarter, and throwing the blood that run from his wounds into their faces.
« However these accounts vary in their circumstances, it seems most probable that some base treachery was used in taking away to valuable a life, as may be easily gathered from a letter, written on this occasion by Cromwell, July 31, 1643, to the Committee of Association sitting at Cambridge, wherein the Ufurper says, in the canting stile of that age, That it pleased the Lord to give their servant and soldiers a notable victory, and that General Cavendish, after a vigorous defence, was flain with a thrust under the short ribs. Be this as it wilí, all writers agree with Lord Clarendon, that no man could behave more courageously, nor die in a nobler manner.
We come now to the life of William the first Duke of Devonfhire, which opens into a wider field, and gives our Author more frequent opportunities of indulging his fondness for expatiating and digressing. In short the life of this and the Lives of fucceeding Dukes, contain little more than an epitome of Grey's Debates, with occafional extracts from the memoirs and histories of the times wherein they lived, in which there is very little materially relative to that noble family. Wherever Mr. Grove has found a paffage affording but the most diftant mention of the name of Cavendish, in it comes, no matter in how abrupt and unconnected a manner. The following anecdote, however, concerning the first Duke of Devonshire, at the time he was Lord Cavendish, may not be thought unentertaining.
* 1669. This year my Lord accompanied Mr. Montagu (afterwards Duke of Montagu) in his embassy to France, where an affair happened, which might have had very dangerous consequences; but our young Lord behaved in lo noble a manner, that every circumstance of it sets his personal character in the most amiable light. He had received an affront at the Opera in Paris, by fome officers of the guard, who, as it is said, were in liquor, and one of them having particularly insulted him, his Lordship in return struck him on the face; upon which four or five of them all drew their swords, and fell on him at once. Unterrified at fo unequal a combat, he made a very gallant defence, yet he received several wounds, and must have been overpowered by his cowardly adversaries, had not a brave Swiss, a domestic belonging to Mr. Montagu, caught him up in his arms, and thrown him into the Pit; the flesh of his arm, however, by the fall, was torn by one of the iron spikes of the Orchestra, which left a scar, that was visible to the day of his death. This brave action was reported all over Europe, as much to the honour of my Lord, as to the disgrace of the aggreffors. That great and able minister, Sir William Temple, was at this time the English ambassador in Holland, who did, by an elegant letter, compliment his Lordship upon it, by which it fufficiently appeared, that Sir William thought that his spirit and behaviour on that occasion were even of national importance, as it gave the French the highest ideas of the English courage. Still it must be observed, that the French King, when he was informed of this matter, ordered the offenders to be imprisoned.'
This is followed by an account of the proceedings and debates in parliament, in which his Lordship figured as a patriot, and sometimes made a speech. But in the reign of James the second, with whom, as may be imagined, he was no favourite, he gave a specimen of his spirit which was attended with inconvenient circumstances. But this we need not quote from our Author, as it is fully related in our Review for Sept. 1763. p. 215. Where the Reader will find an account of the Devonfhire family, to which the present article may serve as a fupplement.
In 1694, he was raised to the dignity of a Duke, and as a farther mark of the great confidence the King put in him, he was seven times, after the Queen's death, appointed one of the Lords Justices for the adminiftration of public affairs during his Majesty's absence. His Grace, in short, had the signal honour of being the only temporal Peer that was in every one of these commissions.
Our limits will not allow us to enter into farther particulars relative to this noble Duke, whose life takes up above two thirds of this bulky volume; of which the greatest part is filled with the characters of his cotemporaries, with panegyrics upon them in verse and prose, with a tedious detail of the progress and fate of the exclusion bill, with the thread-bare relations of the several plots of which those days were so fruitful, with the proceedings against Lord Russel, Algernon Sydney, Sir John Fenwick; with the squabble between Marlborough and Harley ; with other digressions upon digressions : for it must be observed, that Mr. Grove seldom mentions any distinguished personage, without acquainting the Reader what other great men said of them, and then what other great men said of those great men: so that they sometimes run three or four deep.
Of William the second Duke of Devonshire, we learn, that - he was one of those who opposed the occasional conformist bill, and also that of committing the five Aylesbury men for a breach of privilege.' This is a lucky breathing place for our D 3
Biographer, for here he introduces an account of the proceedings of the House of Commons in the great and well known cause of Ashby and White: we must not omit to observe that he had already related what passed concerning this famous contest in the House of Lords, in the preceding life.
In 1706, his Grace was appointed one of the commissioners to treat about the union, which gives our Author an occasion to expatiate on the blessings of union; then follows the proceedings of the House on that important affair, and we lose fight of the Duke of Devonshire for threescore pages, till at last we find him in the capacity of Lord Steward of the Houshold, to which he was promoted by King George the first. Then we lose him again, and instead of his Grace's life and transactions, we have the life and transactions of Oxford, Bolingbroke, Prior, &c. with an account of the disagreement between his Majesty and the Prince: In all which concerns, his Grace does not appear to have borne any, at least any conspicuous part; unless it be, that on the 24th April (no matter what year) he was admitted to kiss the King's hand, after which he carried the sword of state before the King to the Chapel Royal.' All that we find farther concerning his Grace, is, that he was appointed one of the Lords Justices for the government of the kingdom during the King's absence, and that he was one of the Peers who found Lord Macclesfield guilty on the impeachment against him, which is very extraordinary to be sure. The mention of Lord Macclesfield leads our Author into what he calls a short account of the Rise and Progrefs of the High Court of Chancery.
Under the life of William the third Duke of Devonshire, we have an account of the dreadful fire which consumed his Grace's house in Piccadilly, and likewife a very copious description of his Grace's fine feat at Chatsworth. So much for the history of the Duke's eltate: as for the history of his life, it is recent in every body's memory. We all know that he was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and that he gained great honour by his prudent and popular administration. But our Author takes up above threescore pages to tell us this; for he acquaints us by the way what great man died, what great man was promoted, and then he tolles their histories into the bargain.
This volume concludes with some memoirs of William the fourth Duke of Devonshire, (his present Grace). These memoirs confift of ter pages, of which there are not ten lines which in the least degree concern the noble Duke, and they only acquaint us with his being invested with the noble order of the Garter, and with his promotions to the several honourable offices his Grace bath held. The rest is a panegyrick on the late Lord Hardwick, followed by a character of our late Sovereign.
Upon Upon the whole, Mr. Grove was * an indefatigable well meaning compiler, but we can by no means, recommend him as a writer; neither can we applaud his choice of so barren a subject. Let not our opinion, in this particular however, be construed as any mark of disrespect to the noble family whose lives are here attempted. It should be remembered, that the most amiable and respectable characters are, in general, those which afford feweft materials for biographical history.
R-d Since this article was drawn out, we have been informed, that Mr. Grove died within a few days before or after the publication of this history ; what will become of his Detached Pieces con: erning Cardinal Welliy, time will hew.
The Elements of Agriculture. By M. Duhamel du Monceau, of
the Royal Academy of Sciences in Franæ, and Fellow of the Royal Society in London, &c. &c. &c. Translated from the original French, and revised by Philip Miller, F. R. S. Gardiner to the worshipful Company of Apothecaries at Chelsea, and Member of the Botanic Academy at Florence. Illustrated with fourteen Copper-plates. 8vo. 2 vols. 105, Vaillant,
Duhamel is well known to the learned world, by his
• learned treatises on various fubjects, particularly those upon husbandry and the improvement of lands; in which he has fhewn an uncommon zeal for the good of his country.
In his preface to the present work, we are informed, that his resolution not to advance any unsupported opinions, obliged him, in the fix volumes he formerly published on the culture of lands, to make details of many different experiments; insomuch that the same fact is sometimes mentioned and supported by neru proofs in every one of those volumes. But though this was certainly the truest method of gaining credit at first; yet, after having once firmly established his principles, he thought it proper to connect them, in a more compact work; to lay aside several pieces he had begun, and to write this Elementary Treatise, or true Rudiments of Agriculture, in which he has attended only to what is absolutely necessary and useful.-But though he has thought proper thus to abridge the former details, yet does the present work still affords us
· General observations on the mechanism of vegetation ;the best methods of breaking up lands ;-wherein consists the best tillage, and what is to be expected from it.-Of different manures, the means of procuring them, and the best method
of using them ;-the choice and preparation of seeds, and the several ways of lowing them ;-the care that is required during the growth of the grain ;-the manner of getting it in, threshing, cleaning, and preserving it; -which are the most proper inftruments of husbandry ;- of the use of natural and artificial pastures ;-the methods of procuring thein ;-the particular culture of some useful plants ;-laftly, a detection of some abuses that are an obstacle to the progress of agriculture, are in general the subjects treated of in these two volumes.'
M. Duhamel very justly obferves, that We are in no want of theorists, who, without having any real knowledge in hurbandry, from their desks pretend to trace systems, and lay down rules to husbandmen, which, being merely ideal, too often lead those astray, who put any confidence in them.?
In order to obviate there, and the like inconveniencies, the Author very judiciously remarks, in his introductory obfervations, that If we would attend methodically to the progress of agriculture, qualify ourselves to judge with precision of the culture of lands, and be fully sensible of the advantages one method poflefles above another, we must first make a general examination into the nature of plants, the assistance they derive from their roots and leaves, the use of their fowers, and nature of the substance that nourishes them, and that of the land which furnishes this nutritive juice.' The above particulars are all treated of in the first book ; which contains a short, but sufficient theory of agriculture, comprehending the chief fundamental principles of that art. A theory of this fort is certainly useful to such as love to give a reason for what they do.; or to know what ought to be the consequences of the methods they use ; whether to rectify them when bad, or put them into execution, when demonstrably good and useful. But as the worthy Author's intention was to write for the many husbandmen that content themselves with the practice of their art, he has compriled his theory in a short compass, to have more room to enlarge on the praclical part.-- In the second book, therefore, he treats of the preparations that are to be made, in order to obtain good crops. - These consist in breaking up the land, if it is not [already] in culture ;- in giving it the necessary plowings, if it has long been in bearing ; --in supplying it with manures; in laying it out, or parcelling it in a proper manner; in making a due choice of seeds ;-in giving them the prepa-, rations necessary to make them fucceed ; and in depositing them properly in the earth ;-and, finally, in extirpating the weeds,
vhich either rob the corn of its nourishment, or choak it."These several heads are the subject of as many chapters.---An abftract of chap. iii. which treats of manures, may, perhaps, be